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Computer viruses: What they are, how they work, how they might get you, and how to control them in academic institutions

Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers volume  21 ,  pages 334–340 ( 1989 ) Cite this article

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A computer virus is a program that replicates itself and spreads to computers with the goal of disrupting or destroying normal computer use. In academic computing, viruses represent a serious problem that costs millions of dollars in losses annually and hinders the free exchange of information so critical to education. Viruses operate in incubation, infection, and destroy phases. The nature, mechanisms, and preventive measures for personal-computer viruses are reviewed. Different procedures are recommended to protect research laboratories, instructional laboratories, and software lending libraries. Tradeoffs between providing adequate protection and not having the security become too burdensome are considered.

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Computer Security Institute . (1988). A manager’s guide to computer viruses . Northborough, MA: Author.

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Duncan, R. (Ed.). (1988). The MS-DOS encyclopedia . Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.

Roberts, R. (1988). Computers computer viruses . Radnor, PA: Compute! Publishing.

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Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3939 O’Hara St., 15260, Pittsburgh, PA

Walter Schneider

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This work was supported in part by Office of Naval Research Contracts N00014-87-K-0397 and N00014-86-K-0678 and Army Research Institute Contract MDA903-86-C-0149.

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Schneider, W. Computer viruses: What they are, how they work, how they might get you, and how to control them in academic institutions. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 21 , 334–340 (1989).

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A Study on Hazards of Computer Viruses

Computer use is becoming part of our lives every other day however there have been considerable threats of computer viruses in the recent past. Viruses have had adverse effects on data and programs ranging from formatting hard disks, damaging information infrastructure, suddenly restarting machines, deleting or modifying data and in some cases mild effects such as slowing down machines or producing irritating sounds. Viruses have been a major cause for worry especially with the advances in data processing, storage and movement of information technologically. Many computer users and organizations especially the computer intensive organizations have had to invest heavily in dealing with viruses particularly those organizations running the windows platform. These computer viruses have been defined by their characteristics of entry and multiplication without the user’s notice as well as diverting the normal functioning of the computer. This paper seeks to define a virus and explain its related terms such as malicious software, worms, and Trojan horses. It explains vulnerabilities of operating systems in relation to viruses, it makes an observation on strengths of Linux versus Windows, outline the present state of affairs, apart from using anti-virus software, there are other procedures which can help protect against viruses which are also mentioned, the future of computer viruses and the conclusion that the Internet is serving its purpose of interconnecting computer and hence promoting distribution of viruses then makes some recommendations on viruses.

Comparison, Analysis and Analogy of Biological and Computer Viruses

Correlation of biological and computer viruses through evolutionary game theory, pemodelan matematika terhadap penyebaran virus komputer dengan probabilitas kekebalan.

The increase in the number of computer viruses can be modeled with a mathematical model of the spread of SEIR type of diseases with immunity probability. This study aims to model the pattern of the spread of computer viruses. The method used in this research is the analytical method with the probability of mathematical immunity. Based on the analysis of the model, two equilibrium points free from disease E1 and endemic equilibrium points E2 were obtained. The existence and local stability of the equilibrium point depends on the basic reproduction number R0. Equilibrium points E1 and E2 tend to be locally stable because R0<1 which means there is no spread of disease. While the numerical simulation results shown that the size of the probability of immunity will affect compartment R and the minimum size of a new computer and the spread of computer viruses will affect compartments S and E on the graph of the simulation results. The conclusion obtained by the immune model SEIR successfully shows that increasing the probability of immunity significantly affects the increase in the number of computer hygiene after being exposed to a virus.

Predicting Spread Probability of Learning-Effect Computer Virus

With the rapid development of network technology, computer viruses have developed at a fast pace. The threat of computer viruses persists because of the constant demand for computers and networks. When a computer virus infects a facility, the virus seeks to invade other facilities in the network by exploiting the convenience of the network protocol and the high connectivity of the network. Hence, there is an increasing need for accurate calculation of the probability of computer-virus-infected areas for developing corresponding strategies, for example, based on the possible virus-infected areas, to interrupt the relevant connections between the uninfected and infected computers in time. The spread of the computer virus forms a scale-free network whose node degree follows the power rule. A novel algorithm based on the binary-addition tree algorithm (BAT) is proposed to effectively predict the spread of computer viruses. The proposed BAT utilizes the probability derived from PageRank from the scale-free network together with the consideration of state vectors with both the temporal and learning effects. The performance of the proposed algorithm was verified via numerous experiments.


Целью исследований является повышение защищённости распределенных компьютерных сетей за счет формализации поливирусных эпидемических процессов в них на основе специально созданного методического поливирусного обеспечения оценки и регулирования рисков. В работе продемонстрированы поливирусные модели, позволяющие моделировать поливирусное воздействие на компьютерную сеть. При помощи представленных моделей было произведено моделирование поливирусного воздействия на сетевую структуру. Полученные результаты могут быть использованы исследователями в области моделирования эпидемических процессов, данные модели позволят более точно и качественно оценивать протекание поливирусных эпидемических процессов в распределённых компьютерных сетях, а также специалистами по защите информации при разработке мер противодействия распространения компьютерных вирусов и реализовать задел к рассмотрению скоростных и качественных особенностей протекания поливирусных эпидемических процессов в компьютерных сетях. The purpose of the research is to increase the security of distributed computer networks by formalizing the multivirus epidemic processes in them on the basis of a specially created methodological multivirus support for risk assessment and management. The work demonstrates polyviral models that allow simulating a polyviral effect on a computer network. The presented models were used to simulate the polyviral effect on the network structure. The results obtained can be used by researchers in the field of modeling epidemic processes, these models will allow for a more accurate and high-quality assessment of the course of polyviral epidemic processes in distributed computer networks, as well as information security specialists in the development of measures to counter the spread of computer viruses, and features of the course of polyviral epidemic processes in computer networks.


The dynamical analysis of computer viruses model with age structure and delay.

This paper deals with the dynamical behaviors for a computer viruses model with age structure, where the loss of the acquired immunity and delay are incorporated. Through some rigorous analyses, an explicit formula for the basic reproduction number of the model is calculated, and some results about stability and instability of equilibria for the model are established. These findings show that the age structure and delay can produce Hopf bifurcation for the computer viruses model. The numerical examples are executed to validate the theoretical results.

A Fractional SAIDR Model in the Frame of Atangana–Baleanu Derivative

It is possible to produce mobile phone worms, which are computer viruses with the ability to command the running of cell phones by taking advantage of their flaws, to be transmitted from one device to the other with increasing numbers. In our day, one of the services to gain currency for circulating these malignant worms is SMS. The distinctions of computers from mobile devices render the existing propagation models of computer worms unable to start operating instantaneously in the mobile network, and this is particularly valid for the SMS framework. The susceptible–affected–infectious–suspended–recovered model with a classical derivative (abbreviated as SAIDR) was coined by Xiao et al., (2017) in order to correctly estimate the spread of worms by means of SMS. This study is the first to implement an Atangana–Baleanu (AB) derivative in association with the fractional SAIDR model, depending upon the SAIDR model. The existence and uniqueness of the drinking model solutions together with the stability analysis are shown through the Banach fixed point theorem. The special solution of the model is investigated using the Laplace transformation and then we present a set of numeric graphics by varying the fractional-order θ with the intention of showing the effectiveness of the fractional derivative.

Information Technology Act 2000 and the Potential Use of Data Analytics in Reducing Cybercrime in India

Cybercrime is increasing rapidly in this digitized world. Be it business, education, shopping, or banking transactions, everything is on cyberspace. Cybercrime covers a wide range of different attacks such as financial cybercrime, spreading computer viruses or malware, internet fraud, pornography cybercrime, intellectual property rights violation, etc. Due to increased cyber-attacks these days, the online users must be aware of these kinds of attacks and need to be cautious with their data online. Each country has their own laws for dealing with cybercrime. The different measures taken by the government of India to combat cybercrime are explained in this chapter. How the potential use of data analytics can help in reducing cybercrime in India is also explained.

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Title: An introduction to computer viruses

You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) OSTI.GOV . This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology.

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in more » preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses. « less

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