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Expert Commentary

White papers, working papers, preprints, journal articles: What’s the difference?

In this updated piece, we explain the most common types of research papers journalists will encounter, noting their strengths and weaknesses.

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by Denise-Marie Ordway, The Journalist's Resource February 25, 2022

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This tip sheet, originally published in May 2018, has been updated to include preprint research, a type of research featured often in news coverage of the coronavirus pandemic.

Journalists rely most often on four types of research in their work. White papers, working papers, preprints and peer-reviewed journal articles.

How are they different? And which is best?

Below, we explain each, pointing out its strengths and weaknesses. As always, we urge journalists to use care in selecting any research to ground their coverage and fact-check claims.

Peer-reviewed article

Peer-reviewed research — the kind that appears in academic journals and that we highlight here at The Journalist’s Resource — has undergone a detailed critique by scholars with expertise in the field. While peer-reviewed research is generally the most reliable, journalists should keep in mind that publication in a prestigious journal is no guarantee of quality and that no single university or research organization always does the best research on a given topic.

It is safe to assume, however, that articles published in top-tier journals have been reviewed and given a stamp of approval by a number of accomplished scholars. For journalists who are uncertain, we’ve put together a list of 13 questions  to ask to gauge the quality of a research article.

Keep in mind that not everything that appears in a scholarly journal has been peer reviewed. Journals publish various types of content, including book reviews, editorials, letters to the editor and, sometimes, even poetry.

Working paper

This broad category describes research papers that have not been peer reviewed or published in a journal. Working papers can be in various stages of completion. One might be ready for publication in a prestigious journal while another requires significant editing and other changes that could actually alter its main findings. Sometimes, working paper findings are so preliminary, authors will advise against citing their work .

Even so, working papers are a great way for journalists to gain access to new research quickly. The peer-review and publication process can take months to a year or longer, which means that by the time studies get published, their findings are sometimes not as useful or the data are old.

In choosing working papers, journalists should communicate with scholars about the progress of their research and how confident they are in their findings. It’s a good idea to seek corroboration from peer-reviewed research and to ask other researchers for help assessing a study.

A preprint is similar to a working paper in that it has not been vetted through a formal peer-review process. However, preprints tend to be more complete . Also, preprints submitted to public servers such as the Social Science Research Network and the health sciences server medRxiv get a cursory screening before they’re published online for public view.

Preprints, like academic journal articles, are assigned a Digital Object Identifier , or DOI, and become a permanent part of the scientific record.

White paper

A white paper is a report, often compiled by government agencies, businesses and nonprofit organizations, that outlines an issue and often explores possible solutions to a problem. For example, in November 2021, the federal Office of Community Oriented Policing Services released a white paper looking at factors that help or hinder law enforcement recruitment of Black Americans. Earlier in the year, the Advanced Technology Academic Research Center published a white paper on the American Rescue Plan ‘s widespread implications for government agencies.

In the business world, white papers also are used for marketing purposes — to describe a new product or approach, for instance, or diagnose a problem.

While a white paper can help journalists get up to speed quickly on an issue, it’s important to note some white papers advocate a specific position or policy change. Some rely on incomplete research or research that has not been peer reviewed.

Looking for more guidance on writing about research? Check out our tip sheets on covering biomedical research preprints amid the coronavirus and what journalists should know about peer review .

The Journalist’s Resource would like to thank Matthew Baum , the Marvin Kalb professor of global communications and professor of public policy at Harvard Kennedy School, for his help preparing this tip sheet.

About The Author

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Denise-Marie Ordway

Research paper vs white paper: how are they different?

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Research paper vs white paper is a conundrum white paper writers frequently encounter. Most people had to write research papers when they were in high school and college, and many people work in industries where researchers and scientists publish research papers to inform colleagues and industries of what they’ve learned. So when they hear someone mentioning white papers, they can’t be faulted for assuming they’re the same thing. (Originally, a white paper was an official government report.)

What are research papers?

Research papers are formal documents or scientific articles exploring a particular subject in detail, and supporting the writer’s contention or arguments by including evidence from outside experts and other sources. Most research papers follow standardized structures, often beginning with some type of a thesis statement, presenting a series of arguments or sources in support of that statement, and ending in a statement about whether the thesis was successfully proven.

For students, academic papers are usually assigned to determine their mastery of a topic or their ability to write in traditional academic style. Professionals use peer reviewed research papers for a different reason. They want to share an idea they had and whether it proved to be possible, useful, or even valuable.

Scientific papers

Peer reviewed research papers are particularly important in the sciences. For example, many medical advances are first documented by the doctors or other scientists who discovered and tested them. An oncologist may stumble upon a combination of treatments that’s particular effective on a difficult-to-treat cancer. The doctor tests his idea following standard procedures and protocols and discovers it’s effective 86 percent of the time, so they write a research paper explaining the treatment and recommending the next steps for researchers.

The scientific research paper process is designed to explore all existing knowledge to create new ideas and discoveries, then document everything to help the scientist who pushes the frontiers of knowledge even further.

Publishing research papers

Recognition of the value of what a particular research paper analyzes often comes in the form of being published in an peer reviewed academic journal. Generally, an academic journal uses a peer review process in which several professionals read papers that have been submitted before publishing research papers. They ensure a logical framework is used and also make sure any statistics and other information used reflect peer reviewed research standards.

What is a white paper?

White papers are documents that explore complex issues to educate audiences. When used in a marketing or policymaking context, a white paper provides enough facts and arguments to convince people that your product, service, or strategy offers the best solution for the situation, educating them about the issue and making a case for your position or advice. Potential customers search for the information found in white papers.

White papers offer an excellent way to explain what makes your solution better than competing alternatives. You can use them to provide a technical discussion or summarize key information about a particular issue or problem to help the reader develop a stronger understanding. You describe common problems current and prospective customers face and provide detailed explanations as to how your approach provides the best solution.

Unlike ads and brochures, white papers are generally not promotional, without a strong sales pitch. Because the audiences that white papers target — such as engineers, CFOs, and CEOs — tend to distrust materials that appear to be more “salesy” than informative, most white papers are simply set up to look like trade magazine articles with fewer pictures.

So research paper vs white paper?

As in how they are different? First, they have two very different purposes. The purpose of a research paper is, for students, to prove mastery of a subject. For professionals, it’s to advance knowledge by sharing discoveries. A white paper, on the other sheet, is a tool to share information and influence decision-making.

Research papers explore all existing knowledge and can never have enough of it. White papers focus on a handful of points. Just enough knowledge to help someone make the right decision and nothing more. Research papers expand the mind, white papers attempt to narrow it.

Typically, research papers are written in the stiff, formal style that’s used in the academic world. You’ll have no trouble recognizing it from your memories of 8th grade English or your college composition class (or whatever fancy term your college came up with because they didn’t think you were smart enough to realize it was a composition class). Remember that long list of rules Mrs. Handsdown recited and all the red ink on your graded papers? Now when you write an email, you sometimes worry that she’s somehow going to see it, and you’ll feel her hovering over your shoulder.

The most effective white papers are written in a friendly, conversational way . Mrs. Handsdown would be very disappointed in you, but your boss will think you’ve become a genius. How so? It starts with the voice and tone of the written word. So you’re already a little confused. How could the written word make sound? Well, I didn’t say that. I said the voice and tone and not sound.

Literacy — the ability to read — is a relatively recent development in the evolution of our species. From the time we were magically created, hatched, or (whatever your image of life celebrates), until mere centuries ago, we had no way to communicate in writing. So we spoke. More important, we listened. Listening could keep us alive. Gradually, we learned the value of sharing what the old had learned from life so the young could take their places.

That was a long time ago, but you know what’s funny? Much of our mental wiring is from that era. Our brains do a great job of collecting and managing information. Was that the doorbell? Did a bird hit the window? Is that noise coming from beast of sharpest teeth? Your brain reacts to all three events the same way. It triggers hormones to kick up your energy and sharpen your senses so you don’t miss a thing. Thanks to some mutual ancestor who managed to stay a step ahead of a sabertoothed tiger, sound gets our immediate interest.

So we’re conditioned to listen for and pay attention to voices. Think of how many of the best times you can remember were spent in conversation with friends or family. Think of the number of interactions you have with other people on a given day, and what percentage include at least some conversation, even if it’s just “mornin’.”

As children, we grasp reading by connecting words with their associated sounds. And because the spoken word is so comfortable for us, we begin to recognize it in what we read. As we read a paragraph, we “hear” a voice in our heads. The voice is how we think the author or the character sounds. Not sure what I’m saying? Have you ever read a book and then seen a movie made from the book? A character speaks and you think, “Hey! He doesn’t sound like that!” You heard his “voice” when you read the book.

Based on the voices they hear, people draw very important conclusions about you. They decide whether you can be trusted. How you will treat them. Whether you’re genuinely friendly or just acting nice. You can control that impression, because you can control that voice.

Sometimes, presenting the right voice means ignoring some of those grammar rules Mrs. Handsdown drummed into your head. Why? Effective copy talks to people, and people don’t speak with textbook grammar. We start sentences with conjunctions, we end them with prepositions. We even use fragments. (That doesn’t mean grammar is unimportant. Forgetting basic agreement or structure can make you sound uneducated. Don’t be afraid to break rules – but do it selectively and with reason.)

By writing a white paper in a friendly, conversational way, you’ll tap into our desire to listen to voices and do a better job of capturing the reader’s full attention.

Is grammar for research and white papers different?

As I mentioned, research papers are usually written in that formal, stuffy academic style taught in high school English and college Composition classes and often used by technical writers.

But writing white papers isn’t about trying to please strict English teachers or jaded Composition instructors. Writing white papers is about selling. Telling. Convincing. Entertaining. Emphasizing. Doing that effectively demands copy that’s individual and personal. In fact, the more copy sounds like conversation, the more effective it tends to be.

That doesn’t mean you should ignore basic rules of grammar and syntax. The degree of grammatical correctness should reflect the situation and the audience. If the primary audience for your white paper is a group of university professors, you’ll want to make it more formal. But if you’re writing to industrial purchasing agents, your white paper should use the kind of language they use every day.

How should white papers be written?

Again, the most effective kind of language to use in a white paper is conversational. It really is okay to use contractions (like “can’t” or “won’t”) because they keep copy talky and friendly. It’s also okay to start sentences with conjunctions like “and” or “but,” and to end them with prepositions. And while you learned not to use “you” when writing for school, using it in a white paper will make it seem more like a conversation you’re having with the reader.

Some companies believe in hiring technical writers for white papers, but technical writers are usually more geared to projects like documentation or manuals, not white papers.

As for format, white papers usually begin with a general summary of the issue or the problem, and then go into depth about that issue or problem. Once it has been explored at length, the paper explains the solutions or approaches that have been developed to address the issue or problem, with a focus on the solution or approach that you want to advance. White papers often end with a brief message about your company and what it offers to prospective customers.

Some white papers include a short abstract at the beginning of the paper to summarize the key messages and conclusion. You can also place a list of other references and sources that the reader may find informative at the end of the paper.

Are there different types of white papers?

Companies may use several types of white papers companies as part of their marketing communications efforts. Most white papers fall into one of the following four categories.

1. White papers for background information

Some white papers are designed to provide background information about an issue or a challenge. Their goal is educating the reader about the matter so they can make more informed and/or confident decisions. An example might be comparing the advantages of shipping by truck with those of shipping by train, so a decision-maker is better able to evaluate which is the right choice for their company.

2. White papers for problems and solutions

Many white papers begin by describing a common problem the audience faces — whether that’s machinery that’s breaking down too often because of contamination issues or erosion tearing the topsoil from newly built slopes. Then the white papers examine the solutions available for that problem. With the machinery, it might involve a different type of lubrication or changes to the maintenance schedule. With the erosion issue, it might involve woven mats of organic materials that help plantings become rooted more quickly so they’re better able to withstand water.

3. White papers about processes

White papers can be an excellent way to explain and explore processes, from the many steps in bringing fresh produce from a farmer’s field to a restauranteur’s table, to the insight professionals like architects bring to design and construction of buildings. A well-written white paper can bring these processes alive for people who need to know about how these things work, such as lawmakers who are considering legislation about affecting those processes.

4. White papers presenting collections of information

This strategy is best when you have many bits of information or advice that would be helpful to readers, but none of them warrants a full-length white paper of their own. They’re often presented as numbered documents with titles such as “20 simple ways to improve your fleet maintenance program.” Readers are often attracted to this type of white paper because it’s easy to read and normally simplifies otherwise complex topics.

Could our business benefit from white papers?

If you can answer “yes” to any of the following five questions, it’s likely white papers can help you. In fact, more “yes” answers you provide, the more likely white papers should be part of your organization’s toolkit.

1. Is what you offer complicated, innovative, or different than your competitors?

If your company’s product or service is complicated, innovative, or significantly different from what your competitors provide, creating a white paper may be one of the most effective ways to convince people it’s the best choice for them.

That’s because selling something complex or innovative demands helping the prospect see why it represents a better choice. It’s hard to do that convincingly in an ad or email, but a well-written white paper provides enough facts and arguments to educate them while helping them reach the decision you want.

2. Is advertising not sufficient to explain the advantages of what you offer?

While advertising or other traditional marketing methods can be effective channels, they rarely allow you to get into detail about what makes your product or service better.  Plus, many people are wary of channels such as advertising because they know it’s a blatant sales effort.

A well-crafted white paper is an informational tool that seeks to educate the reader. Because the white paper doesn’t appear to be as promotional, people will give it more credence. Plus, people tend to hang onto white papers longer than they retain ads, giving your message a longer life.

3. Do prospects and customers find it hard to grasp your value proposition?

Like you, your customers and prospects are hungry for good information, but they’re also busy. Because their time is limited, they appreciate practical guidance that’s focused on their specific needs, and they trust white papers more than other channels.

They’re willing to take the time to read white papers because they need to know something. Maybe they want to better understand a new technology. Perhaps they’re desperately seeking a solution for a problem that’s hurting their business. Or it could be that they want support for a recommendation they’re making to their bosses. Whatever the reason, white papers provide trustworthy information and improve their perception of your organization and what you offer.

4. Is your sales process lengthy?

If your product or service is a commodity, is easily understood, or typically is purchased on impulse, a white paper probably won’t do much for you. But if you’re selling a high-value product or service that takes many weeks or months to move from initial interest to finished deal, a white paper can help you speed the process along.

5. Does your customers’ decision-making process involve many people?

Often — particularly with items that involve a significant investment of capital, such as plant equipment — purchase decisions are not made by just one or two people at your prospect. They may have the status and authority to recommend what you offer, but getting final approval may require the blessing of everyone from production engineers, to the operations team, to the CFO and CEO. Unfortunately, you and your team can’t speak with everyone who will play a role in the decision.

That’s when a white paper can stand in for you. A white paper that discusses the advantages of what you offer, contrasts it with other options, and explains how users can get the greatest value from it will help you communicate with decision-makers you can’t reach directly. When your contact attaches your white paper to their recommendation, it not only provides evidence that it’s the right choice, but it may help to answer questions and overcome objections other people in the process may have.

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Blog Marketing

20+ Page-Turning White Paper Examples [Design Guide + White Paper Templates]

By Sara McGuire , Aug 16, 2022

white paper examples Venngage

There’s a reason why white papers are a marketing staple. When created right, white papers boost your authority, solve problems for your clients and stakeholders and act as powerful lead magnets .

But how to you create a white paper that will drive results? Even if you fill your white paper with compelling content , a lackluster design may still hold you back.

In this guide, you’ll learn how to write and design white papers that engage readers, impress clients and generate sales leads. No expensive agencies, complicated software or design experience needed.

[Watch] How to Create a White Paper with Venngage:

White paper examples we’ll cover (click to jump ahead):

Business white paper examples, marketing white paper examples, government white paper examples.

Research white paper examples

Hr white paper examples.

Without further ado, let’s dive right in.

Businesses write white papers for a number of reasons. It’s a great document to showcase a company’s expertise in the field and to win over investors. A white paper can also be used for marketing purposes and brand awareness (which I’ll discuss in the next section ).

Here’s an example of a business white paper:

business white paper example employee engagement guide

This business white paper example by Google aims to persuade the reader into adopting AI by leveraging Google’s authority. It also contains a technical deep dive for more advanced readers.

This is a perfect case of a business using white papers to demonstrate their expertise and establish themselves as the thought leader in the industry.

To create a business white paper like this one, you can use a white paper template . Here’s an example of one:

business white paper example employee engagement guide

Just so you know, some of our templates are free to use and some require a small monthly fee. Sign up is always free, as is access to Venngage’s online drag-and-drop editor.

This business white paper template discusses the importance of employee engagement and different strategies to optimize engagement in a company. A staffing consultancy firm could create a business white paper like this one to demonstrate their expertise.

Now, if you already have a draft of your white paper content, you can just copy and paste it to a template you like. (If you haven’t written it yet, here’s a white paper writing guide you should definitely check out!)

But how do you make the most out of a business white paper template like the one above? Let’s take a look at some design tips you can apply:

1. Create an eye-catching white paper cover page

Don’t underestimate the effectiveness of an eye-catching cover page. Like the cover of a book, a captivating cover page will entice people to open it and read further.

At first glance, your readers should have an idea of what the white paper will contain. Use a photo that reflects the theme of your white paper, or create a visual using diverse icons .

Let’s revisit the B2B white paper example on employee engagement. The two men on the cover could easily be a manager speaking with one of his team members. 

Employment Engagement White Paper Template

Both look energized and engaged, indicating that this business white paper will offer valuable insight to companies looking to invigorate their employees.

2. Highlight key takeaways to summarize the information in your white paper

Blue Simple Social Media White Paper Examples

White papers tend to pack a ton of information within their pages. But in reality, many people aren’t going to take the time to read the whole paper cover to cover.

Try highlighting a few key takeaways that will get them excited about reading your white paper. Or outline exactly what they will trade their time to learn about.

As you can see in this white paper example, there’s a whole section that highlights the key takeaways in the report. Because it’s right on the front page, it’s hard to miss, which is a nice touch:

Modern Marketing White Paper Examples

Pro Tip:  Not sure which template is right for your use case? Venngage has a massive catalog of 500+ professional and engaging templates you can customize today. No more boring Word documents or endlessly struggling with expensive design tools.  Browse our white paper templates.

3. Incorporate photos which resemble your target users in your white paper layout

Photos help create a connection between the information in your white paper and your reader. Using a photo on the cover also tells the reader what they can expect to find within the pages.

In this healthcare white paper template, the image of a child with a sugary dessert connects directly to the topic. The reader will instantly know what the paper is about.

Health White Paper Template

If your goal with white papers is to promote your services and generate leads, your message needs to be memorable. Incorporating visuals resembling your target audience is one way to do so.

This content marketing white paper template depicts someone hard at work while downing a cup of coffee. The image would resonate most with professional marketers you’re trying to reach in a B2B capacity:

marketing white paper example on content marketing

Return to Table of Contents

Businesses can use white papers as part of a content (and sales) marketing strategy such as lead generation . Most of the time, the white paper is gated — you need to insert your contact information before downloading/accessing the document. Here’s an example:

white paper vs research paper

This white paper example by Frost & Sullivan (commissioned by Samsung Electronics America) explores the trends in the insurance industry. Specifically, it discusses the impact of digital transformation on this industry and how companies can deal with the change.

In order to access the white paper, you need to put in your contact information:

example of white paper being gated content to generate leads

Now, let’s take a look at some more white paper design tips you can apply to make the best out of your marketing white paper:

4. Use high-quality photos with a consistent style

Photos, icons, and illustrations can play an important role in how effectively your white paper communicates information. It’s almost as important as knowing how to write a white paper that conveys information succinctly.

Don’t just use images for decoration. Instead, use photos to illustrate important concepts, to make information easier to understand, and to convey a mood. Marketing white paper examples, like this one, use bright, colorful photos to engage and excite readers.

Modern Poster Marketing White Paper Examples

Venngage’s integration with Pexels and Pixabay makes it easy to find thousands of high-quality stock photos. Check out our  guide to incorporating stock photos  seamlessly into your design. 

Pro Tip:  Use Venngage’s image swap button to change the images in a template in just 1-click. Your images and icons will be replaced with a new image that is already formatted to the template.

5. Use a neutral color scheme for a modern technology white paper design

Say you want to create a white paper to introduce new technology or explain tech-based solutions to problems. A white paper design with a sleek, modern and minimalistic design will likely appeal to techie people.

Pick a neutral background color like white or light grey. Then, pick visuals with similarly sleek color schemes. Tech white paper examples like this use a cool and muted grey palette:

Minimal Modern Tech White Paper Examples

But a great way to add some visual appeal to your white paper layout is to pick an accent color that you can use to make parts of your page pop. For example, this content marketing white paper template contrasts two cool corporate blue accents:

B2B Content Marketing White Paper Template

Pro Tip:  With Venngage, you can scale your white paper creation without sacrificing quality. How? Once you’ve created a white paper you like, save it as a template to reuse it again. Or hand the design reins to a team member. Want to create a white paper with your team? Our  real-time collaboration  feature (Business plan only) can help.

Learning how to write a white paper that speaks to your readers is important. For example, when selecting images for your white paper, keep an eye out for people who resemble your target audience .

This will help communicate that your white paper is actually relevant to the group you’re trying to reach.

Guide to Email Marketing White Paper Template

That said, in some cases, including photos resembling your target audience might not make sense. If this happens, I’d recommend including non-generic stock photos or authentic product images. 

This modern business white paper template uses real product images as well as authentic stock photos to give it that visual flair:

Modern White Paper Template

Pro Tip: Need help with creating personas for your target audience? Our in-depth user persona guide  will help you quickly get upto speed.

6. Use creative backgrounds for a trendy white paper design

A simple design trick to make your white paper more engaging is to use the right background. You can opt for a simple background pattern design to add some visual impact to your white paper layout, or even try a trendy color gradient.

For example, take a look at how a color gradient background gives this content marketing white paper template some wow factor:

Gradient Content Marketing White Paper Examples

Here’s a simpler marketing white paper template that opts for a vibrant color gradient background but with simpler font choices to give it a sleek professional look:

Vibrant Information Technology White Paper Template

Alternatively, you can use a different color gradient on your white paper template to make it stand out. Remember to keep your branding in mind when choosing the color combination so readers recognize the white paper as belonging to your brand.

Gradient Email Marketing White Paper Template

It’s so easy to experiment with white paper backgrounds, so don’t be shy about trying out different options. With Venngage, you can change your white paper background with 1-click:

20+ White Paper Examples & Examples

Pro Tip: Even if you don’t have any design experience (I don’t), the right background image can instantly make your white paper look more polished and professional. Keep this simple yet effective trick in mind, so you can create white papers that captivate readers.

7. Include calls to action throughout your white paper

If you’ve been wondering what makes a great white paper, it’s the strategic use of calls to action (CTAs).  It’s an important part of understanding how to write a white paper that readers will engage with.

In a white paper, there are plenty of opportunities to position your product or service as a solution to your target audience’s pain points. This means that there will be ample opportunities to include CTAs throughout your white paper.

For example, if you mention a feature of your product, you can place a clickable CTA button beside it:

Social Media Marketing White Paper Examples

CTAs are a great way to move people through the  sales pipeline , from your white paper to a  landing page  or blog post. 


Governmental organizations write white papers to outline policies before proposing new bills and legislations. A white paper is a good tool for gathering feedback from the public before implementing wide-reaching policy changes.

This is an example of a government white paper:

government white paper example aha

There’s a lot of ways you can make your government white papers more engaging. Here are some design tips:

8. Make your page numbers stand out so your white paper is easy to scan

Technical Business White Paper Examples

When designing your white paper, it’s important to keep your readers in mind. Don’t just think about what they want to read, but how they want to read it.

Your white paper isn’t the latest installment of Stranger Thing s , so it’s unlikely that every reader is going to sit down and read it cover to cover. In fact, there’s a good chance they’re going to want to skip ahead to specific sections that interest them. 

Making your page numbers easy to read will be appreciated by your readers who are trying to locate a particular topic in your white paper.

Take a look at the page numbers in this policy white paper template:

Simple Business Policy White Paper Examples

The above government white paper template can be used by a government to communicate complex social, political, and economic issues to an audience.

Healthcare white paper templates, for example, can be useful in proposing healthcare policies to the general public.

Governments can distribute healthcare white papers to communicate crucial healthcare policy changes to residents in an easy-to-read and accessible format (just like the one above by the American Heart Association).

The white paper example below has a format that’s easy to customize for any industry. Its straightforward table of contents and simple design elements keep the focus on the text.

Go ahead and customize this template with our intuitive drag-and-drop editor:

Electric Blue Cyber Security White Paper Template

You can create a functional table of contents by adding hyperlinks to individual chapters and sections. This will help your readers navigate the white paper’s contents.

Select the text you’d like to turn into a link, then click the link icon in the top bar. Along with the option to add a URL, you can select pages within the eBook. When you download your design, download it as an  Interactive PDF .

Whitepaper ToC Example

9. Highlight themes in your white paper template using icons

This white paper template, from the cover page onwards highlights the cybersecurity topic it is focused on — phishing scams — by using a hook icon. The cover also introduces a circle motif that is used throughout this technical white paper, to give it a cohesive design and summarize information.

Modern Tech White Paper Examples

Pro Tip:  Do you work in a boring industry? Whether you’re in finance, law or health care, you can set yourself apart from the competition by creating engaging, yet informative white papers. A well-designed white paper can give you an unfair advantage when it comes to making technical information easy to understand and positioning the value of your business.

Policy white paper examples

Good policy white paper examples include a brief description of the scope of a problem or issue to be discussed, alongside recommendations.

This policy white paper from the Australian government is a good example:

policy white paper example from Australia

Policy papers also include data to give context to issues. The Australian policy white paper above includes a bar graph describing the percentage of Australians born overseas to illustrate the country’s multicultural societies:

policy white paper data visualization example

On that note, here’s some ways to best incorporate data visualizations to your white papers:

10. Visualize your white paper data using charts and pictograms

A common problem that marketers and consultants face when creating white papers is finding a way to make the data engaging and easy to understand. 

The solution? Visualize your data using charts and pictograms.

While everyone on your team is busy creating boring Word documents, you can be the creative genius that uses charts and pictograms to create visually engaging white papers.  

The type of charts you use will depend on the type of data you’re visualizing. We have a guide to picking what types of charts to use that can help you there. 

You could use a line graph to show revenue growth over time . Or you could use pie charts to show parts of a whole, like in policy white paper examples such as this.

Modern Economic White Paper Example

Pro Tip: With our online graph maker, you can create charts and graphs that are more creative and engaging than standard Excel charts. A plain old bar graph won’t do much to inspire anyone, but a creative chart that tells a story can. 

Pictograms are also a creative and effective way to visualize statistical data. Take a look at how pictograms are used in technology white paper examples like the below. They act as visual aids to showcase key statistics and changes as it relates to the IT sector.

Simple Information Technology White Paper Template

Don’t be afraid to mix it up. They say variety is the spice of life — the same can be said of white papers! This business white paper design, for example, combines both bar graphs and pie charts.

Tech Startup Marketing White Paper Examples

For more ways to add data visualizations to your white papers, check out this post: How to Visualize Data In Your White Papers

Just like other white papers, research white paper examples include reported facts and data aimed at educating readers around a particular topic. Research white papers are also written to help readers understand and address specific problems.

If you’re writing a research white paper for your business, here’s some ways to make it more engaging:

11. Highlight featured quotes using a big font

Creative HR White Paper Examples

This is a design trick you’ve probably seen used in magazines and news publications. Well, guess what — it works great for white paper design as well! Pull particularly impactful and persuasive quotes and make them stand out from the rest of the text using big, bold fonts.

Not only will this draw readers’ eyes to the quotes, but it also gives your page design more visual variation. Company white paper examples like this one use a bright orange font to help their featured quotes stand out.

Simple HR White Paper Examples

Human resources white papers tackle issues around employment, management, employee retention and churn. HR white papers can also be used to attract potential employees by showcasing the company culture and ethos.

12. Incorporate your branding into your white paper design

Blue Modern Health White Paper Examples

To improve brand recognition, you need to have consistent branding across all marketing collateral. This not only helps your marketing efforts  but also helps you maintain consistency in your internal and external comms.

Be sure to incorporate your logo , brand color palettes, and fonts into your white paper design.

Venngage’s Brand Kit makes it easy to save your logos, brand color palettes, and brand fonts for later. Then, you can easily apply them to your designs with one click. No designer needed:

20+ White Paper Examples & Examples 3

Try thinking of creative opportunities to incorporate your branding . This white paper design, for instance, extends the use of its signature color beyond standard headers and icons.

It actually applies a transparent color overlay to the images, adding an additional punch of color and reinforcing its brand palette in an unexpected way.

Red Productivity White Paper Examples

Pro Tip: Need help with creating your own brand-style guide? Our guide on brand guidelines will help you create brand collateral that will dictate the look and feel of your brand and in the process, help you stand out from the herd.

13. Use icons to emphasize section headers in your white paper template

Healthy Eating White Paper Examples

One of the primary purposes of a white paper is to visually communicate information in an engaging way. But many businesses end up creating something that reads like a college textbook. No one wants to read that…just ask any college student.

TechSmith studied over 4,500 office workers and found that people absorb information 7% faster when they’re given text with accompanying images, versus just plain text. When designing your white paper, look for opportunities to make the text easier to scan with visuals. 

An easy way to bring attention to important points is to place an icon beside the text. Government white paper examples like the one below are text-heavy. But the icons help direct the eye to each section header and break up the text.

Orange Simple White Paper Examples

This marketing white paper layout uses icons to punctuate the headers and add a dash of personality to reinforce its fun and lively color palette.

Vibrant Startup Marketing White Paper Examples

Here’s another example of a white paper design where icons are used to visualize points and make information easier to find.

Business Information Technology White Paper Examples

More white paper design tips

14. use a visual motif that reflects your white paper topic.

A visual motif is a visual element that is repeated throughout your design. When you’re designing a multi-page document like a white paper or a report, your pages should have a cohesive look and flow.

To pick a motif for your white paper design, think of some themes reflected in your white paper. Is your white paper about social media engagement? Then a motif of birds (“tweeting”) or speech bubbles could work.

A white paper topic that is focused on establishing a sprint process could use a race track motif instead.

Hiring strategy white paper examples like the below use a leaf motif. Plants reflect the theme of growth associated with recruitment.

Modern Trendy Human Resources White Paper Examples1

Or you can also use a simple shape motif throughout your white paper design. This approach is more subtle but can still lend to a cohesive and well-thought-out white paper design.

For example, this simple white paper template uses a hexagon motif (it kind of makes you think of a beehive, doesn’t it?).

Simple White Tech White Paper Examples

15. Break up chunks of text with visuals when writing a white paper

When you’re laying out your white paper pages, put your storytelling cap on. Think: what kind of flow do I want my report to have? Where can I use visuals to emphasize certain points? Where can I illustrate an idea?

A common mistake novice designers make is to cram too much text into a page, rather than breaking up the text and giving it space to breathe.

Don’t hesitate to dedicate big chunks of your page–or the page in its entirety–to pictures. Images give the eyes a rest and help to reinforce information.

Visual headers are also a great way to break up expanses of text while still having the visuals serve a purpose (yay for purposeful design!). You can create your own illustrations using icons–they can make for some fun and quirky headers, like in workplace tech white paper examples.

Yellow New Technology White Paper Examples

16. Open your white paper with a boldly colored glossary

Simple Orange White Paper Examples

Like any design project, it’s important to start off on the right foot. You can do this by creating a glossary for your white paper. Think of it as a map that outlines exactly what your white paper will cover. 

In bright white paper examples like the one below, you can see how the designers used a bold color to bring attention to the glossary. This ensures that it will be seen by a reader, and actually used to navigate the content.

If you make your white paper design engaging, a lot more people are going to want to read it:

Modern Orange White Paper Examples

Try using a full-page color fill (like in this white paper example) for your glossary. Otherwise, readers may miss it when quickly flipping through the pages.

17. Include tables and boxes to emphasize key points and takeaways

Simple Health White Paper Examples

Visualizing information or data isn’t limited to just graphs. When writing a white paper, you can also section off important pieces of information using tables and boxes.

In the white paper examples below, the designers used a table to organize key points and takeaways from each main section:


Here’s another example of a white paper layout that uses a table to highlight some key statistics:

Environmental Awareness Workbook Course White Paper Template

Breaking up lengths of text with boxes will help make your white paper easier to read:

Environmental Awareness Workbook Course White Paper Template

18. Vary the color, fonts, and styles of your headers

Modern Business White Paper Examples

You can create a hierarchy by using a different font or color for your headers and sub-headers. This also helps give your page design more variety.

In this example, they use different fonts and colors for each level of header. This helps make the distinction between main and sub-headers more noticeable.


Your main design goal should be to create a white paper that’s engaging to readers and easy to navigate. When you are working with this much text, it’s important to make it easy to skim through.

19.  Dedicate pages to particularly important points

Modern Travel White Paper Examples

The primary goal of your white paper should be to educate readers. But you also want to strike a balance between being informative and entertaining.

If there is a central point that you want readers to remember, you may want to dedicate an entire page to that one point and an accompanying image to help drive the message home.

Pages like this should be used sparingly. That being said, they can deliver some real impact to readers.

Take this white paper example that dedicates a page to an evocative quote and photo:

Modern Travel White Paper Examples

20.  Allow for plenty of white space on your pages

Minimalist Business White Paper Examples

Unlike one-page reports where you have to fit a lot of information into a small space, white papers allow for more freedom to spread the information out. That will allow you to create page designs with plenty of white space.

In the design world, white space is the empty space around design elements on the page. Leaving some room for your text and images to breathe will help your design look less cluttered.


Check out how this example uses plenty of white space on nearly every page. The result is an organized and modern white paper design.

21. Break chapters or sections into separate columns

Simple Policy White Paper Examples

Dividing your page into columns is a good way to organize your information and save space on the page. For example, in the white paper above, the Overview and the beginning of Chapter 1 are organized neatly into their own columns.

This makes it easy to jump from one point to the next, without getting lost.


22. Include a question on the front page of your whitepaper


Speaking directly to your readers can really grab their attention. Asking a question can get them to want to actually read your white paper.

In this white paper example, a simple question to the reader introduces what the report will cover. The designers even bolded it so it was the first thing readers would see!

Purple HR White Paper Examples

Now they could have just said “We are going to cover Topic X” on the cover. But that doesn’t place their white paper in the perspective of the person it’s meant to help — the reader.

On the other hand, when you address a common problem people in your niche face, that will pique their interest.

23. Vary your page layouts to keep readers engaged


When people look at the same thing over and over again, it can cause visual fatigue. Their eyes glaze over and their attention drifts.

Varying your page layout will help keep readers engaged by going against their expectations. When the eyes have something new to look at, it’s easier to stay engaged.

Blue Email Marketing White Paper Template

This white paper template uses a few different page layouts. One page may have a featured image, another a large quote, and the next only including written content. This white paper layout is fresh and interesting.

Use these white paper examples to create a design that reflects your brand

Use these examples of white papers as springboards for your own unique and brand-appropriate designs. Knowing how to write a white paper that considers your audience every step of the way will help you develop the perfect response to their questions and make your designs accessible .

FAQs about white papers

What is a white paper.

In the business world, a white paper (or whitepaper) is an in-depth informational report that explains a complex or technical concept in addition to providing a persuasive solution to a problem. 

For example, here’s what a technical white paper looks like:

Green Marketing White Paper Examples

Unlike ebooks , which may address a broader scope of topics, white papers have a singular focus. They’re designed to solve a specific problem for readers and build brand trust in the process.

White papers are also research-based and widely considered to be a valuable resource. In fact, Equinet reports that a whopping 75% of B2B would share information about themselves and their company in exchange for a white paper.

For more information, check out our post: What is a White Paper? 15+ White Paper Examples to Get Started

What is the format of a white paper?

White papers can be formatted in any number of ways, but depending on your industry, you may want to consider formatting your white paper for printing on standard printers. In that case, it’s best to stick to a letter-sized page, whether in portrait (8.5×11) or landscape (11×8.5).

These documents also are best in the PDF file format; this is the easiest way both to share them online and to have them printed.

Why should you create a white paper?

White papers can be extremely valuable documents to educate your stakeholders, clients, and top-of-funnel traffic — when the white papers are actually interesting. According to the Demand Gen 2018 Survey Report , 71% of B2B buyers used white papers in the last 12 months to research purchasing decisions.

How long is a white paper?

Typically, white papers are around 3 to 20 pages long. But some whitepapers can be longer. A white paper should be long enough to cover the concept or problem at hand. Since this usually includes case studies or new research, plus explanations and analyses, a good rule of thumb is writing white papers to provide enough evidence to back up your claims.

How to write a white paper that people will actually read?

If it doesn’t have an appealing design, your white paper probably isn’t going to work as well as you want it to. As with any type of content — from writing blog posts to making presentations to crafting ebooks —a lot of your white paper’s success comes down to the design.

Take this eye-catching hiring strategy white paper example; it uses dramatic images, colors, layouts, and icons to elevate its content to another level.

Neon Digital Hiring Strategy White Paper Template

How to format a white paper with design in mind:

This article is also available in Spanish Más de 20 Ejemplos de White Paper Increíbles [Guía de Diseño + Plantillas] and Portuguese White paper: mais de 20 exemplos cativantes [guia de design + modelos]

You might also be interested in some of these helpful design guides:

What is a White Paper? 15+ White Paper Examples to Get Started

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How to Write a White Paper [Tips & Templates]

how to write a white paper blog header Venngage

How to Visualize Data In Your White Papers

how to visualize data in white papers Venngage blog header

How to Create a Marketing Plan For Success (+ Marketing Plan Templates)

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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts

white paper vs research paper

White Paper: Purpose and Audience

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A white paper is a certain type of report that is distinctive in terms of purpose, audience, and organization. This resource will explain these issues and provide some other tips to enhance white paper content.

What is a White Paper?

Originally, the term white paper was used as shorthand to refer to an official government report, indicating that the document is authoritative and informative in nature. Writers typically use this genre when they argue a specific position or propose a solution to a problem, addressing the audience outside of their organization. Today, white papers have become popular marketing tools for corporations especially on the Internet since many potential customers search for information on the Web. Corporations use white papers to sell information or new products as solutions that would serve their customers' needs.

The Purpose of a White Paper

Typically, the purpose of a white paper is to advocate that a certain position is the best way to go or that a certain solution is best for a particular problem. When it is used for commercial purposes, it could influence the decision-making processes of current and prospective customers.

What Kind of Problems Do Readers Want to Solve?

The audience for a white paper can be the general public or multiple companies that seek solutions to their problems or needs. Typically, you will not know your audience personally, unlike when you write a recommendation report for your client. And yet, in order to persuade your audience, you need to focus on their needs. If you can address the problems that your readers want to solve, they will read your white paper for a solution. Otherwise, your white paper may not be read. It is important to emphasize your readers' interests rather than your interests, as shown in the example below:

What Is a White Paper?

Purpose of a white paper, how to write a white paper.

The Bottom Line

What Is a White Paper? Types, Purpose, and How To Write One

Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master's in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

white paper vs research paper

Investopedia / Michela Buttignol

A white paper is an informational document issued by a company or not-for-profit organization to promote or highlight the features of a solution, product, or service that it offers or plans to offer.

White papers are also used as a method of presenting government policies and legislation and gauging public opinion.

Key Takeaways

White papers are sales and marketing documents used to entice or persuade potential customers to learn more about a particular product, service, technology, or methodology.

White papers are commonly designed for business-to-business (B2B) marketing purposes between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. It can provide an in-depth report or guide about a specific product or topic and is meant to educate its readers.

The facts presented in white papers are often backed by research and statistics from reliable sources and can include charts, graphs, tables, and other ways of visualizing data. A white paper can communicate an organization’s philosophy or present research findings related to an industry.

Types of White Papers

A startup , large corporation, or government agency will use white papers differently. There are three main types of white papers, including backgrounders, numbered lists, and problem/solution white papers.

Backgrounders detail the technical features of a new product or service. Designed to simplify complicated technical information, they are used to:

•Support a technical evaluation

•Launch a product

•Promote a product or industry leader

Numbered lists highlight the key takeaways of a new product or service, and are often formatted with headings and bullet points such as the following familiar format:

•3 Questions to Ask

•5 Things You Need to Know

Problem/solution papers identify specific problems faced by potential customers and suggest a data-driven argument about how a featured product or service provides a solution to:

•Generate new sales

•Educate salespeople on product characteristics

•Build industry interest.

White papers differ from other marketing materials, such as brochures. Brochures and traditional marketing materials might be flashy and obvious, but a white paper is intended to provide persuasive and factual evidence that solves a problem or challenge.

White papers are commonly at least 2,500 words in length and written in an academic style.

A white paper should provide well-researched information that is not found with a simple internet search and have a compelling narrative to keep the reader's attention. The author of a white paper should:

• Research and fully define the topic.

• Create an accurate outline of information.

• Write an attention-grabbing introduction.

• Format the paper for easy reading.

• Revise and proofread.

What Is an Example of a White Paper?

All of these documents, publicly available on Microsoft’s website, focus on aspects of the company's suite of cloud services. In contrast with brochures, these white papers don’t have a clear sales pitch. Instead, they dive into relevant topics, such as cloud security, hybrid clouds, and the economic benefits of adopting cloud computing.

How Have New Industries Used White Papers?

Cryptocurrencies have also been known to publish white papers during initial coin offerings (ICOs) and frequently issued white papers to entice users and "investors" to their projects.

Bitcoin famously launched a few months after the pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto issued its famous white paper online in October 2008.

Why Is It Called a White Paper?

White Papers may have developed from the use of “Blue Papers” in 19th century Britain, where a Parliamentary report cover was blue. When a topic for the government was less serious, the blue cover was discarded and published with white covers. These reports were called White Papers. In the United States, the use of government white papers often means a background report or guidance on a specific issue.

A white paper is an informational document issued by a company, government agency, or not-for-profit organization to promote the features of a solution, product, or service that it offers or plans to offer. The facts presented in white papers are often backed by research and statistics from reliable sources and commonly written in one of three formats that include backgrounders, numbered lists, and problem/solution papers.

Copy Engineer. " The 3 Types of White Papers and When to Use Each One ."

Master Class. " How To Write a White Paper ."

Microsoft. " White Papers on the Cloud and Azure ."

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3 key differences between white papers and scientific papers.

by Erica Mitchell | November 3 2021 | Research | 4 Comments

White papers-01.jpg

On the surface, commercial white papers and scientific papers published in journals appear similar. They are both presented with an emphasis on narrative rather than design, so neither will have flashy artwork or photographs and statistics are presented in black and white tables or graphs. They are similar in length - from 6 to 12 pages, give or take. Both will have citations, either as footnotes or end notes, using current research from respected journals and thought leaders. Even the formatting will look similar, with section headings including a brief summary, background, analysis, and presentation of data. Looking behind the surface, however, reveal 3 important differences.

Difference #1: The Author

Commercial white papers are written by a company's in-house staff or by a freelance writer under contract. The writer meets with the marketing staff to discuss the information to be presented, to determine an angle, and set parameters on facts and messaging. The author may have a background in the topic or product, but this is not required. The entire process can take anywhere from 25 - 50 hours to complete, from planning to publication. Final editing and approval is granted by the sponsoring company. Ultimately, the white paper reflects directly on the company that sponsors it, not directly to the author.

This anonymity could not be further from the authorship of scientific journal articles. For these documents, the authors are not only responsible for the narrative, they are also the lead investigators in the study, the experts analyzing data for their peers in the scientific world. Their published work is inexorably tied to their names, their careers, and their professional legacy. Important publications will continue to be cited in future work, each citation listing their name and article. Journal authors also take complete responsibility for the content of their articles, presenting their data at conferences, answering questions for interviews, and providing additional materials to those researchers wanting to know more. Final approval for these publications is granted by a panel of peer editors as well as the journal editor, often after several rounds of edits and clarifications that can take up to a year - in addition to the months or years required for the study itself.

Difference #2: The Goal

The goal of the white paper is to direct the reader towards making a specific decision . In one definition of a white paper, this type of document is "a persuasive essay that uses facts and logic to promote a certain product, service, or viewpoint." The author directs the reader to a specific conclusion using carefully-selected facts and logic, all with the desired result of portraying the product, service, or viewpoint in the best possible light.

In contrast, an academic paper will present the results of a study in order to contribute to the body of scientific knowledge , "warts and all." That is to say, the author's goal is to put forward data with analysis that add to the scientific conversation, to help clarify a bigger picture, and hopefully encourage further research. The author will build a logical framework with evidence from previous work, while acknowledging opposing viewpoints or possible contradictions. Every scientific paper will contain clear mention of the study's strengths and weaknesses, and any concluding statements will be carefully phrased in order to remain open-ended and neutral.

Difference #3: The Results

If the goal of the white paper produced by a for-profit company is persuading the reader to reach a specific conclusion, then the desired result of that document is a sale by the company that sponsored it . A white paper may not contain a sales pitch, but its carefully crafted message is intended to guide the reader to a specific decision: Investment in the product being described.

For a scientific journal article, the goal is to add to the body of knowledge in a meaningful way. Evidence of the relevance of this contribution can be the citation of that work in future presentation and/or articles published in the same field. Authors of significant work may also benefit from career advancement, requests for presentations at conferences and symposia, and availability of granting opportunities to continue their research. These results may seem amorphous to the layperson, but contributing to the vast body of academic knowledge is the pursuit of every research scientist. Just as the teacher aims to awaken a love of learning in a student, or a doctor works to heal a patient, the research scientist hopes to add a brick to the growing foundation of scientific knowledge, knowing that the brick may be the keystone to even greater discoveries.

This is not to say that all scientific papers add meaningfully to the body of knowledge, nor that all white papers are devoid of scientific value. Not all scientific papers are devoid of corporate influence, with some companies investing in research that then is published in an academic journal (with full disclosures in the publication). And not all white papers are a part of a corporate sales funnel. There are white papers produced by non-profit organizations, including professional associations, that are also persuasive rather than neutral. (An example would be a white paper about climate change produced by an environmental non-profit agency.) In these cases, the goal is to present and defend a specific viewpoint with no direct sales or commercial interest in mind. Some of these types of white papers will be published by trade magazines, appear in conference proceedings, and even be cited in other literature. While they are not neutral per se, they are not commercial in intent.

Commercial white papers can be helpful. For a potential customer considering a product, it can present a lot of information and statistics in a streamlined form, help the reader convince others about their support of a product, and identify practical ways to decide whether or not the product is a good match for one's needs. It's important for readers to always keep in the back of their minds, however, that it is a marketing tool that may not present a complete picture. In an academic hierarchy , the scientific paper will be considered superior, since they are unbiased and peer-reviewed. Ideally, a consumer will use both white papers and scientific research to make the best decision for their needs.

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  Editor's Note: This post was originally published in December 2016 and has been updated for freshness, accuracy and comprehensiveness.


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Thats Journal

Difference In White Papers, Working Papers, Research Articles

Elena Smith · Sep 6, 2018 · Leave a Comment

Difference In White Papers, Working Papers, Research Articles

The expression “white paper” comes to us from a 100-year-old routine with regards to government reporting in the UK. At the point when government offices gave information to Parliament to enable them to decide, they would offer three unique research paper writing options.

Very long, far reaching records with a blue cover, open-finished reports with a green cover, and short, centered reports around a single subject with white spreads. This last sort, the brief record with data to take care of an issue, came to be the recipe for what is presently referred to in numerous ventures as a “white paper.” Today, white papers are created for deals purposes by revenue driven organizations, making them an advertising instrument that can regularly be mistaken for an impartial, logical article. While the two productions have their motivation, it is vital for the purchaser to know how they vary. Today Academic Writing Pro will contrast these two archives all together with enabling our readers to see past the surface similitudes and end up mindful of the critical contrasts.

Writers depend on three kinds of research papers regularly in their work: White papers, working papers and research articles.

Distinction #1: The Author

Business white papers are written by an organization’s in-house staff or by an independent writer under contract by research paper writing services . The writer meets with the showcasing team to examine the data to be exhibited, to decide an edge, and set parameters on actualities and informing. The creator may have considerable experience with the theme or item. However, this isn’t required. The whole procedure can take somewhere in the range of 25 – 50 hours to finish, from intending to production. Last altering and endorsement are allowed by the supporting organization. At last, the white paper thinks about straightforwardly the organization that patrons it, not specifically to the creator.

Contrast #2: The Goal

The objective of the white paper is to coordinate the reader towards settling on a particular choice. In one meaning of a white paper, this sort of report is “a convincing exposition that utilization actualities and rationale to advance a specific item, service, or perspective.” The writer guides the reader to a particular end utilizing painstakingly chosen realities and rationale, all with the coveted consequence of depicting the item, service, or perspective in the ideal light.

How are they unique? Furthermore, which is ideal?

Underneath, we clarify each, bringing up its qualities and shortcomings. As usual, we encourage writers to utilize mind in choosing any examination to ground their scope and certainty check claims.

Research article

Associate looked into investigating – the kind that shows up in scholastic diaries and that we feature here at Academic Writing Pro– has commonly experienced a particular study by researchers with aptitude in the field. While peer-looked into investigating is by and large the most solid, writers should remember that production in a famous diary is no certification of value and that no single college or research association dependably does the best research on a given point.

It is sheltered to accept, be that as it may, that articles distributed in top-level diaries have been investigated and given a blessing by various achieved researchers. For writers who are unverifiable, we’ve assembled a rundown of 13 things to ask to check the nature of an exploration article.

Working paper

This general class depicts examine papers that have not been distributed in a diary or considered through an associate survey process. Working papers can be in different phases of fruition. One may be prepared for distribution in a lofty log while another requires noteworthy altering and various changes that could adjust its principle discoveries. Some working papers’ discoveries are so starter; creators will prompt against referring to their work.

Working papers are an excellent route for writers to access new research rapidly. The associate survey and distribution process can take a long time to a year or more, which implies that when considers getting distributed, their discoveries are once in a while not as helpful or pertinent and the information is old.

In picking working papers, writers ought to speak with researchers about the advancement of their examination and how sure they are in the cases they are making. It’s a smart thought to look for authentication from peer-checked on inquiring about and to approach different scientists for help surveying an investigation.

A white paper is by, and massive a report that blueprints a problematic issue and once in a while additionally investigates conceivable answers for a question. Government organizations issue a considerable measure of white papers. For instance, in May 2018, the U.S. Decision Assistance Commission created a white paper on race innovation. Before the year, the White House Council of Economic Advisers discharged a white paper talking about social insurance expenses and approach alternatives for improving medication evaluating.

In the business world, white papers additionally are utilized for showcasing purposes — to depict another item or approach, for example, or analyze an issue.

While a white paper can enable writers to get up to speed rapidly on an open arrangement issue, they ought to know that some white papers advocate a particular position or strategy change. Also, some may depend on deficient research or research that has not been peer checked on.

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white paper vs research paper

About Elena Smith

Elena Smith is a contributor at AcademicWritingPro , helping students to meet their deadlines regarding academic services. Besides this she loves to provide tips on writes for a wide variety of topics including essay writing help , dissertation writing and thesis writing.

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  1. 🎉 Difference between white paper and research paper. Essay vs Research Paper. 2019-02-20

    white paper vs research paper

  2. Write Engaging White Papers (Templates and 10 Examples)

    white paper vs research paper

  3. 3 Key Differences Between White Papers and Scientific Papers

    white paper vs research paper

  4. Why You Need White Papers & How To Write Them (With 5 Examples)

    white paper vs research paper

  5. Difference Between Research Paper and Term Paper

    white paper vs research paper

  6. Pin en Inbound Marketing

    white paper vs research paper


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  1. White papers, working papers, preprints: What's the difference?

    While a white paper can help journalists get up to speed quickly on an issue, it’s important to note some white papers advocate a specific position or policy change. Some rely on incomplete research or research that has not been peer reviewed. Looking for more guidance on writing about research?

  2. Research paper vs white paper: how are they different?

    A white paper, on the other sheet, is a tool to share information and influence decision-making. Research papers explore all existing knowledge and can never have enough of it. White papers focus on a handful of points. Just enough knowledge to help someone make the right decision and nothing more.

  3. 20+ White Paper Examples, Templates + Design Tips - Venngage

    White papers can be extremely valuable documents to educate your stakeholders, clients, and top-of-funnel traffic — when the white papers are actually interesting. According to the Demand Gen 2018 Survey Report , 71% of B2B buyers used white papers in the last 12 months to research purchasing decisions.

  4. What is a research paper vs. a white paper? - Quora

    A white paper is common in government and is not really important. Scientific papers deal more with grey papers such as reports and other publications. What is important in this case is a research paper which is research that is thoroughly done on a particular topic and presented in words.

  5. White Paper: Purpose and Audience - Purdue Writing Lab

    Originally, the term white paper was used as shorthand to refer to an official government report, indicating that the document is authoritative and informative in nature. Writers typically use this genre when they argue a specific position or propose a solution to a problem, addressing the audience outside of their organization.

  6. What Is a White Paper? Types, Purpose, and How To Write One

    A white paper should provide well-researched information that is not found with a simple internet search and have a compelling narrative to keep the reader's attention. The author of a white...

  7. 3 Key Differences Between White Papers and Scientific Papers

    Difference #1: The Author Commercial white papers are written by a company's in-house staff or by a freelance writer under contract. The writer meets with the marketing staff to discuss the information to be presented, to determine an angle, and set parameters on facts and messaging.

  8. Difference In White Papers, Working Papers, Research Articles

    The objective of the white paper is to coordinate the reader towards settling on a particular choice. In one meaning of a white paper, this sort of report is “a convincing exposition that utilization actualities and rationale to advance a specific item, service, or perspective.”