109 Buddhism Essay Topics

🏆 best essay topics on buddhism, 👍 good buddhism research topics & essay examples, 🎓 most interesting buddhism research titles, 💡 simple buddhism essay ideas, ❓ research questions about buddhism.

  • Buddhism and the Life Teaching of Siddhartha Most scholars observe that the roots of Buddhism are very deep, and though Siddhartha contributed a lot to the development of the religion.
  • What Is Buddhism? History of the Religion, Beliefs, and Rituals This paper will set out to elaborate on what Buddhism is by providing a history of the religion and underscoring some of the beliefs and rituals practiced in this religion.
  • Buddhist Meditation Practices The paper looks at the differences between acalminga (samatha) and ainsighta (vipasana) Mahayana teachings of Buddhist meditation.
  • Buddhism and Classical Hinduism Each religion of the East teaches separate principles from one another. This paper compares and contrasts the fundamental concepts and values of Buddhism and Classical Hinduism.
  • Buddhism’ Religion: The Life and Teaching of Siddhartha The paper studies the teaching of Buddhism according to the Four Noble Truths and dependent origination and reveals spread of Buddhism and upheaval of democracy in India.
  • The Christian and Buddhist Perspectives in Healthcare This paper purposes to conduct a comparative analysis on the Christian and Buddhist perspectives regarding healthcare provision and its implications for healthcare practice.
  • Deities in Hinduism and Buddhism This paper dwells upon the differences in roles of Hindu and Buddhist deities from mythological and scientific perspectives.
  • Buddhist Spirituality: Contribution to Psychological Well-Being Buddhist Spirituality is based on the principles that can enhance one’s psychological well-being significantly. Buddhism teaches people how to avoid negative emotions and harmful mental states.
  • Self-Concept in Buddhist Reductionism This paper investigates the idea of self in its relation to the Buddhist perception of suffering and discusses the notion of objectual and intentional properties.
  • Death and Dying in Christianity and Buddhism Using Christianity and Buddhism as two diverse religious perspectives, this discussion explores how patient’s health demands can be met by healthcare practitioners.
  • Christianity and Buddhism for Terminally Ill Patient The patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has been thinking about euthanasia. Christianity and Buddhism offer different answers to death-related questions.
  • Euthanasia in Christianity and Buddhism This paper provides a discussion on a case study on euthanasia of a man, who finds out he has a severe disease that will disable him within several years.
  • Human Life and Death in Christianity and Buddhism Illness often leads to agony and prompts the search for the meaning of life as people try to understand the reasons behind their predicaments.
  • Medical Ethics: Christianity and Buddhism Perspectives Ethical concerns are present in any working conditions. However, ethics in medicine is particularly important, and it has many complicated issues.
  • Buddhism and Classical Hinduism Concept and Values Buddhism and classical Hinduism are the oldest religions in the world. It is worth to note that both religions originated from India.
  • Spiritual Philosophy: Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism as spiritual philosophies stress on the acceptance of things the way they are, overcoming desires and humility.
  • Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist Teachings Theravada and Mahayana are both schools of Buddhism. The primary differences that exist between the two came into existence after Buddha’s death.
  • Beliefs in Buddhism and Classical Hinduism This paper shows that Buddhism progressed from Hinduism, with the main difference being that they do not share similar beliefs.
  • Buddhist Religion and Western Psychologies Buddhists believe that any conception of “self” is an illusion; no separate “self” exists, only a collection of parts.
  • Buddhism and Life: Living the Principles of the Buddhist Religion Contrary to the popular thought that suggests that the Buddhist belief seeks to view the world from a negative perspective, the religion conceives life from its imperfect face.
  • Buddhism, Caring and Moral Obligations This paper argues that the Buddhist account of the personality and the self provides an applicable approach to caring as well as moral obligations.
  • Zen Buddhism in America Zen Buddhism is a separate school of Mahayana Buddhism that emphasizes mindfulness and meditation practices as the path to achieving enlightenment.
  • Death & Dying Ethics in Christianity and Buddhism The paper will discuss the attitude toward the deliberate ending of life from the viewpoint of Christianity and Buddhism.
  • Incurable Disease in Christianity and Buddhism This paper examines Christianity and Buddhism in regards to views on life and death and applies the concepts to the case study of a patient with an untreatable illness.
  • Death & Dying Ethics in Buddhism and Christianity The paper describes the ethical challenge the patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is facing and the best approaches to support him using religious values or ideas.
  • King Asoka Spreading Buddhism Along the Silk Road King Asoka’s commitment to Buddha’s Four Noble Truths and the encouragement of missionary work substantially facilitated the transmission of Buddhism to distant states.
  • Hinduism and Buddhism: Similarities and Differences Buddhism and Hinduism are two very similar religions. They both believe in reincarnation, they both believe in their religion focusing on more than one god.
  • The Religious Position of Women and Men in Buddhist Countries: Sri Lanka The position accorded to women in all spheres of activity has been a subject of considerable interest in recent decades.
  • Personality Psychology and Zen Buddhism Zen Buddhism is a movement that occurred in the 1960s and involves monks, their feats and their monasticism, and the study of doctrines.
  • Buddhist Culture in Thailand In Thailand, Buddhism is the official religion of the state based on century-old traditions and principles.
  • Zen Buddhism: Basic Teachings The principles and beliefs of Buddhism is what has given it popularity and a vast fellowship. These beliefs are founded on human experience.
  • Zen Buddhism: Brief Giude The major point of Zen Buddhism is single – every human being is a Buddha and he or she needs only to realize this by reaching enlightenment.
  • Christianity and Buddhism: Religion Comparison Christianity only became a religion, in full sense of this word, when materialistic spirit of Judaism was being transformed into something opposite to what it originally used to be by European mentality.
  • Zen Buddhism: Main Features Zen Buddhism can safely be considered as a philosophy due to its lack of a “god” aspect. It is a religion that is based on basically the act of meditation.
  • Cosmogony: Catholic and Buddhist Approaches This paper presents a dialogue between two believers- a Catholic and a Buddhist concerning creation of the world.
  • Tibetan Buddhism and Zen Buddhism Comparison The Five Tibetan rituals are considered to be life changing which helps the Tibetan’s in the spiritual and religious obligations they desire. It’s also actually great for your body
  • How Buddhism do not believe in Gods? Our research focuses and defends the basic concept of how and in what manner Buddhists do not stick to the existence of the Omnipotent.
  • Religion and Architecture: Christian Church, Buddhist, Islamic Mosques Religious architecture is mainly concerned with design and building of houses of reverence or holy deliberate places such as stupas, mosques, churches and temples.
  • Buddhism and Christianity: Understanding of Religions This essay is intended to help bring out the Buddhist’s understanding of Christianity and correct the wrong perceptions through pointing out relevant scriptures.
  • Judaism and Buddhism: Similarities and Differences The differences and similarities between Judaism and Buddhism in relation to their origination, foundation, beliefs, rituals and major prophets.
  • Environmental, Social or Political Conflict in Buddhism There is a simple fact which is known to every Buddhist: although Buddha was beyond routine, still, he gave guidelines concerning good government.
  • Non-christian World Religions: History, Concepts, and Beliefs of Buddhism Buddhism is one of the widespread non-Christian religions in the world today. This paper discusses the history, beliefs, ethics, people and subdivisions of Buddhism.
  • Foundations of Buddhism and Meditation Different religions illustrate the diversity of philosophies, customs, many different communities in the world are inspired by similar truths and purposes.
  • Gender Roles in Society: Hinduism and Buddhism Both Hindu and Buddhist beliefs have a strained relationship with the concept of gender, while in the two cases, men and women are supposed to be equal, it is not really true.
  • Buddhism in China and Japan Buddhism is one of the major religions in the world, and it is now practiced in various countries, including China and Japan.
  • Description of “Buddhism in America” by Seager This paper covers the first seven chapters of the book “Buddhism in America”. The author starts by giving background information concerning the American Buddhist landscape.
  • Karma and Rebirth in Hinduism and Buddhism Religions The principles of Karma and rebirth provide an emotional and intellectual account of suffering and evils in Hinduism and Buddhism religions.
  • Buddha as a Leader of a Buddhism Religion This essay will analyze the reasons behind Buddha’s teachings, events, and ideas that shaped the views during his time and the relevance of Buddhism presently.
  • Tea in the Prism of Zen Buddhism and Health The tea ceremony is connected with Zen Buddhism not only in its actual development but mainly in preserving the spirit with which it is imbued.
  • Healthcare Provider and Faith Diversity: Native American Spirituality, Buddhism, and Sikhism This paper outlines an explicit view on the following diverse faiths in regard to healthcare provision: Native American spirituality, Buddhism, and Sikhism.
  • Buddhism’s Resilience from Western Ideologies This paper addresses how believers of the Buddhism faith have been initiating and planning various methods to make the religion resilient from western ideologies and Christianity.
  • China Buddhism vs. Japan Buddhism and Shintoism Buddhism is a religion that uses Buddha’s perspective, such as the traditions and beliefs attributed to the religious faith.
  • Discussion of History of Buddhism The discussion describes the short history of Buddhism from the 19th century and how it overcame some of the challenges arising from Christianity.
  • Buddhism: New Religions and Human Balance The paper indicates that Buddhism, one of the fundamental world religions, has been introduced in a series of new forms over the past years.
  • Comparison Between Buddhism and Christianity This paper seeks to compare and contrast the two religions’ differences and similarities based on three key aspects such as Afterlife, Suffering, and Rituals.
  • The Dukkha Concept in Buddhism Dukkha is a traditional element of the religious philosophy of Buddhism, aimed at describing the prevailing situation in the surrounding material world.
  • Basic Beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism This paper gives an insight into how the concepts of Karma and Rebirth are practiced in the religious traditions of both Hinduism and Buddhism.
  • Christianity and Buddhism: Interreligious Relations There are many similar points between Christianity and Buddhism, but the differences are likely to outweigh them.
  • Religion Research: Hinduism and Buddhism The paper describes and compares two religion: Hinduism and Buddhism from aspects of history, popularity and areas of rerligion.
  • Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism: The Afterlife Concepts The purpose of this paper is to compare the afterlife, as presented in Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism, through an examination of both primary and secondary sources.
  • Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity in Society This paper analyses three of the most common religions: Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity, in order to identify their role in the life of society.
  • The Pragmatic Theory of Truth in Buddhism and Christianity Pragmatically, the Buddha belief and the Christians’ beliefs are true as believers tend to achieve their desired effects.
  • The History and Beliefs of the Theravadan Buddhism
  • Biblical Worldview and Buddhism Worldview
  • Parallels, Departures, and What Science Can Gain From Buddhism
  • Buddhism: The Role Desires Play in Our Everyday Lives
  • Doctrinal and Philosophical Sizing of Buddhism
  • Basic Philosophical Differences Between Zen, Buddhism, and Taoism
  • Buddhism as Religion That Offers Peace, Wisdom, and True Enlightenment
  • The History and Evolution of Buddhism Across the World
  • Bodhisattvas and the Evolution of Buddhism
  • The Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism
  • Buddhism and the Vietnamese Buddhist Association
  • Key Differences Between Christianity and Buddhism
  • Korean Development and the Influences of Shamanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism
  • Buddhism: The Four Noble Truths
  • The Dalai Lama and the Spiritual Leader of Buddhism
  • Comparing Buddhism and Shinto in Japan
  • Buddhism, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the Four Noble Truths
  • Ancient Greek Philosophy, Buddhism, and Vedanta Hinduism
  • Beliefs and Practices: Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism
  • Buddhism: Seeing the Familiar in the Strange
  • Hinduism and Buddhism’s Influence of Indian Culture in Southeast Asia
  • The Political and Religious Impact of Buddhism in Thailand
  • What Are the 4 Main Beliefs of Buddhism?
  • Is Buddhism a Belief System or Ideology?
  • How Has Buddhism Impacted the World?
  • What Are the Differences Between Mainstream Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism?
  • Does Anything Survive Death in Buddhism?
  • How Did Early Buddhism Impact Western Culture?
  • What Are the Two Main Branches of Buddhism?
  • Who Were the Founders of Buddhism in Japan?
  • Are Women Allowed to Practice Buddhism?
  • How Has Buddhism Interacted With Nature and Environment?
  • What Are the Gender Roles in Buddhism?
  • Does Neuroplasticity Relate to Buddhism?
  • How Does Buddhism Reflect the Human Understanding of God?
  • Are There Similarities Between Buddhism and Islamic Religion?
  • How Does Dalai Lama Exemplify the Ultimate Meaning of Buddhism in His Life and Works?
  • What Is the Link Between Mahayana Buddhism and Chinese Culture?
  • How Did Buddhism Spread Through China?
  • What Does Buddhism Teach About Human Life?
  • How Does Buddhism Treat Its Women?
  • Is There Social Conflict Between Buddhism and Catholicism?
  • How Does Geoffrey Samuels Portray Tibetan Buddhism?
  • What Are the Origins, History, and Beliefs About Evil in Buddhism?
  • How Does Samsara Work in Buddhism?
  • Does Buddhism Believe in Equality?
  • What Are the Similarities Between Buddhism and Other Eastern Religions?
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70 Buddhism Research Paper Topics & Essay Examples

Buddhism is one of the most ancient yes still popular religions in the world. It was born in India more than 2500 years ago. The followers of Buddhism believe that that good behavior, ascetic lifestyle, and spiritual practices are the means to achieve nirvana.

If you need to write a persuasive or argumentative essay on Buddhism, you’re in the right place! On this page, we’ve collected top Buddhism research paper topics, thesis statement ideas, and essay samples that focus on the historical aspects and current issues of the religion. Go on reading to find the perfect Buddhism essay topic for your assignment!

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241 Buddhism Essay Topics & Examples

Looking for Buddhism essay topics? Being one of the world’s largest and most ancient religions, buddhism is definitely worth exploring!

🔎 Buddhism Writing Prompts

In your Buddhism essay, you might want to focus on the history of the religion or Buddhist attitude to controversial social issues. Another option would be to write about Buddhist philosophy or practices. Whether you need to write a short Buddhism essay or a more substantive paper, this article will be helpful. Here you’ll find a collection of 185 Buddhism topics for essays and research papers together with Buddhism essay examples.

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Home — Essay Samples — Religion — Buddhism

buddhism research paper topics

Essays on Buddhism

Philosophy of the self: western science and eastern karma, the teaching of buddha: sayings and thoughts, the story of siddhartha gautama - the buddha, the great of buddha: the history of building, siddhartha gautama: the path of becoming buddha, history and early development of buddhism, buddhism - role of the gods, buddha's life as an example to become a better person, buddha: the story of creating 5 main morals, analysis of religious beliefs of buddhism, a brief history of the creation of the religion of buddhism, misogyny in buddhism and shinto religious practices, japanese religions: shinto and buddhism, to comprehend zen through willpower and faith, a comparative analysis of buddhism and islam, the comparison between chinese religions: taoism and buddhism, differences and similarities between judaism, buddhism and hinduism, hinduism, buddhism, and judaism: comparison of the influence, the ideology of reincarnation in buddhism, feeling stressed about your essay.

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buddhism research paper topics

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Buddhism: Themes & Issues

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Buddhism as Philosophy: Fundamental Themes

Geismar Impermanence cover art

Haidy Geismar et al (eds.), Impermanence: Exploring Continuous Change Across Cultures (2022)

Jackson Rebirth cover art

Roger R. Jackson, Rebirth: A Guide to Mind, Karma, and Cosmos in the Buddhist World (2022)

Siderits How Things Are cover art

Mark Siderits, How Things Are: An Introduction to Buddhist Metaphysics (2021)

Hershock & Ames cover art

Peter D. Hershock & Roger T. Ames (eds.), Human Beings or Human Becomings? A Conversation with Confucianism on the Concept of Person (2021)

Karunadasa Analysis Matter cover art

Y. Karunadasa, The Buddhist Analysis of Matter (2020)

Westerhoff Non-Existence cover art

Jan Westerhoff, The Non-Existence of the Real World (2020)

Priest Fifth Corner cover art

Graham Priest, The Fifth Corner of Four: An Essay on Buddhist Metaphysics and the Catuskoti (2019)

Staunton Free Time cover art

Vajragupta Staunton, Free Time! From Clock-Watching to Free-Flowing: A Buddhist Guide (2019)

Burton Contemporary Philosophical cover art

David Burton, Buddhism: A Contemporary Philosophical Investigation (2017)

Emmanuel Comparative Approach cover art

Steven M. Emmanuel (ed.), Buddhist Philosophy: A Comparative Approach (2017)

van Norden Taking Back cover art

Bryan W. Van Norden, Taking Back Philosophy: A Multicultural Manifesto (2017)

Siderits cover art

Mark Siderits, Studies in Buddhist Philosophy, ed. Jan Westerhoff (2016)

Boon et al Nothing Three Inquiries cover art

Marcus Boon, Eric M. Cazdyn, & Timothy Morton, Nothing: Three Inquiries in Buddhism (2015)

Garfield Engaging Buddhism cover art

Jay L. Garfield, Engaging Buddhism: Why It Matters to Philosophy (2015)

Liu and Berger Nothingness cover art

JeeLoo Liu & Douglas Berger (eds.), Nothingness in Asian Philosophy (2014)

Emmanuel Companion cover art

Steven M. Emmanuel (ed.), A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy (2013)

Panjvani cover art

Cyrus Panjvani, Buddhism: A Philosophical Approach (2013)

Siderits et al Self No Self cover art

Mark Siderits, Evan Thompson, & Dan Zahavi (eds.), Self, No Self? Perspectives from Analytical, Phenomenological, and Indian Traditions (2013)

Cooper Finding the Mind cover art

Robin Cooper (Ratnaprabha), Finding the Mind: A Buddhist View (2012)

Danvers Agents cover art

John Danvers, Agents of Uncertainty: Mysticism, Scepticism, Buddhism, Art and Poetry (2012)

Poussin Way to Nirvana cover art

Louis de La Vallée Poussin, The Way to Nirvana: Six Lectures on Ancient Buddhism as a Discipline of Salvation (2012)

Tachikawa Essays Theology cover art

Musashi Tachikawa, Essays in Buddhist Theology (2012)

Bronkhorst Karma cover art

Johannes Bronkhorst, Karma (2011)

Hiltebeitel Dharma cover art

Alf Hiltebeitel, Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative (2011)

Dhivan This Being cover art

Dhivan Thomas Jones, This Being, That Becomes: The Buddha's Teaching on Conditionality (2011)

Frauwallner Philosophy cover art

Erich Frauwallner, The Philosophy of Buddhism [Die Philosophie des Buddhismus], trans. Gelong Lodro Sangpo & Jigme Sheldron (2010)

Edelglass & Garfield Essential Readings cover art

William Edelglass & Jay Garfield (eds.), Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings (2009)

Arnold Brahmins cover art

Dan Arnold, Buddhists, Brahmins, and Belief: Epistemology in South Asian Philosophy of Religion (2008)

Grimm Wisdom cover art

George Grimm, Buddhist Wisdom: The Mystery of the Self (2008)

Laumakis Intro cover art

Stephen J. Laumakis, An Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy (2008)

Sangharakshita Meaning of Conversion cover art

Sangharakshita, The Meaning of Conversion in Buddhism (2008)

Subhuti Buddhism and Friendship cover art

Dharmachari Subhuti, Buddhism and Friendship (2008)

Sangharakshita Noble Eightfold cover art

Sangharakshita, The Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path (2007)

Siderits Buddhism as Philosophy cover art

Mark Siderits, Buddhism as Philosophy: An Introduction (2007)

Hookham More to Dying cover art

Lama Shenpen Hookham, There's More to Dying Than Death: A Buddhist Perspective (2006)

Matthews Craving cover art

Bruce Matthews, Craving and Salvation: A Study in Buddhist Soteriology (2006)

Sangharakshita Three Jewels cover art

Sangharakshita, The Three Jewels: The Central Ideals of Buddhism (2006)

Crawford Spiritually-Engaged cover art

Jennifer Crawford, Spiritually-Engaged Knowledge: The Attentive Heart (2005)

Taber Hindu Critique cover art

John Taber (ed. & trans.), A Hindu Critique of Buddhist Epistemology: Kumarila on Perception (2005)

Tola and Dragonetti On Voidness cover art

Fernando Tola & Carmen Dragonetti, On Voidness: A Study of Buddhist Nihilism (2005)

Burton Knowledge and Liberation cover art

David Burton, Buddhism, Knowledge and Liberation: A Philosophical Study (2004)

Jones Mysticism and Morality cover art

Richard H. Jones, Mysticism and Morality: A New Look at Old Questions (2004)

Maitreyabandhu Thicker Than Blood cover art

Maitreyabandhu, Thicker Than Blood: Friendship on the Buddhist Path (2004)

Nagapriya Exploring Karma cover art

Nagapriya, Exploring Karma and Rebirth (2004)

Sangharakshita Buddha Mind cover art

Sangharakshita, Buddha Mind (2004)

Sangharakshita Living with Kindness cover art

Sangharakshita, Living with Kindness: The Buddha's Teaching on Metta (2004)

Schroeder Skillful Means cover art

John W. Schroeder, Skillful Means: The Heart of Buddhist Compassion (2004)

Ziporyn Being and Ambiguity cover art

Brook Ziporyn, Being and Ambiguity: Philosophical Experiments with Tiantai Buddhism (2004)

Wimbush and Valantasis cover art

Vincent L. Wimbush & Richard Valantasis (eds.), Asceticism (2002)

Gethin Path cover art

Rupert Gethin, The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiya Dhamma (2001)

Kalupahana Thought Ritual cover art

David J. Kalupahana, Buddhist Thought and Ritual (2001)

Brannigan Pulse of Wisdom cover art

Michael C. Brannigan, The Pulse of Wisdom: The Philosophies of India, China, and Japan (1999)

Forbes Pilgrimage cover art

Duncan Forbes, The Buddhist Pilgrimage, ed. Alex Wayman (1999)

Jackson and Makransky cover art

Roger R. Jackson & John J. Makransky (eds.), Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars (1999)

Hubbard and Swanson cover art

Jamie Hubbard & Paul L. Swanson (eds.), Pruning the Bodhi Tree: The Storm over Critical Buddhism (1997)

Wayman Untying cover art

Alex Wayman, Untying the Knots in Buddhism: Selected Essays (1997)

Glass Working Emptiness cover art

Newman Robert Glass, Working Emptiness: Toward a Third Reading of Emptiness in Buddhism and Postmodern Thought (1995)

Puhakka Knowledge and Reality cover art

Kaisa Puhakka, Knowledge and Reality: A Comparative Study of Divine and Some Buddhist Logicians (1994)

Buswell and Gimello cover art

Robert E. Buswell & Robert M. Gimello (eds.), Paths to Liberation: The Marga and Its Transformations in Buddhist Thought (1992)

Nattier Once Upon cover art

Jan Nattier, Once upon a Future Time: Studies in a Buddhist Prophecy of Decline (1992)

Koller Sourcebook cover art

John M. Koller & Patricia Koller (eds.), Sourcebook in Asian Philosophy (1991)

Sutherland Disguises of Demon cover art

Gail Hinich Sutherland, The Disguises of the Demon: The Development of the Yaksa in Hinduism and Buddhism (1991)

Darling Vedantic Critique cover art

Gregory Darling, An Evaluation of the Vedantic Critique of Buddhism (1987)

Willson Rebirth cover art

Martin Willson, Rebirth and the Western Buddhist (1987)

Verdu Philosophy cover art

Alphonse Verdu, The Philosophy of Buddhism: A "Totalistic" Synthesis (1981)

John r. carter, dhamma: western academic and sinhalese buddhist interpretations: a study of a religious concept (1978).

Weeraratne cover art

W.H. Weeraratne, Individual and Society in Buddhism (1977)

Kalupahana Philosophy cover art

David J. Kalupahana, Buddhist Philosophy: A Historical Analysis (1976)

McGovern Manual cover art

William M. McGovern, A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy (1976)

Kalupahana Causality cover art

David J. Kalupahana, Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism (1975)

Story Rebirth cover art

Francis Story, Rebirth as Doctrine and Experience: Essays and Case Studies (1975)

Takakusu Essentials cover art

Junjiro Takakusu, Wing-Tsit Chan & Charles A. Moore (eds.), The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (1975)

Blofeld Beyond cover art

John E. Blofeld, Beyond the Gods: Taoist and Buddhist Mysticism (1974)

Guenther Buddhist Philosophy cover art

Herbert V. Guenther, Buddhist Philosophy in Theory and Practice (1972)

Matsunaga Concept cover art

Daigan L. Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga, The Buddhist Concept of Hell (1971)

Ven. nyanaponika & maurice walshe (eds.), pathways of buddhist thought: essays from the wheel (1971).

Stcherbatsky Central cover art

T. Stcherbatsky, The Central Conception of Buddhism and the Meaning of the Word "Dharma" (1961)

Siderits cover art

This book is a collection of essays by Mark Siderits on topics in Indian Buddhist philosophy. The essays are divided into six main systematic sections, dealing with realism and anti-realism, further problems in metaphysics and logic, philosophy of language, epistemology, ethics, and specific discussions of the interaction between Buddhist and classical Indian philosophy. Each of the essays is followed by a postscript Siderits has written specifically for this volume, which make it possible to connect essays of the volume with each other, showing thematic interrelations, or locating them relative to the development of Siderits’s thought. New works have been published, new translations have come out, and additional connections have been discovered. The postscripts make it possible to acquaint the reader with the most important of these developments.

Emmanuel Companion cover art

This book is the most comprehensive single volume on the subject available. It offers the very latest scholarship to create a wide-ranging survey of the most important ideas, problems, and debates in the history of Buddhist philosophy. Encompasses the broadest treatment of Buddhist philosophy available, covering social and political thought, meditation, ecology and contemporary issues and applications Each section contains overviews and cutting-edge scholarship that expands readers understanding of the breadth and diversity of Buddhist thought. Broad coverage of topics allows flexibility to instructors in creating a syllabus. Essays provide valuable alternative philosophical perspectives on topics to those available in Western traditions.

Arnold Brahmins cover art

This book examines how the Brahmanical tradition of Purva Mimamsa and the writings of the seventh-century Buddhist Madhyamika philosopher Candrakirti challenged dominant Indian Buddhist views of epistemology. Arnold retrieves these two very different but equally important voices of philosophical dissent, showing them to have developed highly sophisticated and cogent critiques of influential Buddhist epistemologists such as Dignaga and Dharmakirti. His analysis—developed in conversation with modern Western philosophers like William Alston and J.L. Austin—offers an innovative reinterpretation of the Indian philosophical tradition, while suggesting that pre-modern Indian thinkers have much to contribute to contemporary philosophical debates.

Burton Knowledge and Liberation cover art

Buddhism is essentially a teaching about liberation - from suffering, ignorance, selfishness and continued rebirth. Knowledge of 'the way things really are' is thought by many Buddhists to be vital in bringing about this emancipation. This book is a philosophical study of the notion of liberating knowledge as it occurs in a range of Buddhist sources. Burton assesses the common Buddhist idea that knowledge of the three characteristics of existence (impermanence, not-self and suffering) is the key to liberation. It argues that this claim must be seen in the context of the Buddhist path and training as a whole. Detailed attention is also given to anti-realist, sceptical and mystical strands within the Buddhist tradition, all of which make distinctive claims about liberating knowledge.

Ecology, Economics, Globalization, and the Environment

Canty Returning Self cover art

Jeanine M. Canty, Returning the Self to Nature: Undoing Our Collective Narcissism and Healing Our Planet (2022)

Capper Roaming cover art

Daniel Capper, Roaming Free Like a Deer: Buddhism and the Natural World (2022)

Hinton Wild Mind cover art

David Hinton, Wild Mind, Wild Earth: Our Place in the Sixth Extinction (2022)

Brumann Monks Money cover art

Christoph Brumann et al (eds.), Monks, Money, and Morality: The Balancing Act of Contemporary Buddhism (2021)

Shantigarbha Burning House cover art

Shantigarbha, The Burning House: A Buddhist Response to the Climate and Ecological Emergency (2021)

Brox & Williams-Oerberg cover art

Trine Brox & Elizabeth Williams-Oerberg, Buddhism and Business: Merit, Material Wealth, and Morality in the Global Market Economy (2020)

Catanese Marketplace cover art

Alex John Catanese, Buddha in the Marketplace: The Commodification of Buddhist Objects in Tibet (2020)

Ng Intro to Buddhist Economics cover art

Ernest C.H. Ng, Introduction to Buddhist Economics: The Relevance of Buddhist Values in Contemporary Economy and Society (2020)

Barstow Faults of Meat cover art

Geoffrey Barstow (ed.), The Faults of Meat: Tibetan Buddhist Writings on Vegetarianism (2019)

Barstow Food cover art

Geoffrey Barstow, Food of Sinful Demons: Meat, Vegetarianism, and the Limits of Buddhism in Tibet (2019)

Cann Dying to Eat cover art

Candi K. Cann (ed.), Dying to Eat: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Food, Death, and the Afterlife (2019)

Hidas Ritual Manual cover art

Gergely Hidas, A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture: A Critical Edition (2019)

Kaza Green Buddhism cover art

Stephanie Kaza, Green Buddhism: Practice and Compassionate Action in Uncertain Times (2019)

Lane Great Conversation cover art

Belden C. Lane, The Great Conversation: Nature and the Care of the Soul (2019)

Brown Economics cover art

Clair Brown, Buddhist Economics: An Enlightened Approach to the Dismal Science (2018)

Shravasti Nature Environment cover art

Shravasti Dhammika, Nature and the Environment in Early Buddhism (2018)

Gagné Caring for Glaciers cover art

Karine Gagné, Caring for Glaciers: Land, Animals, and Humanity in the Himalayas (2018)

Jenkins Tucker Grim cover art

Willis J. Jenkins, Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John Grim (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Religion and Ecology (2018)

Vajragupta Wild Awake cover art

Vajragupta, Wild Awake: Alone, Offline and Aware in Nature (2018)

Bauman Bohannon O'Brien Grounding cover art

Whitney Bauman, Richard Bohannon, and Kevin O'Brien (eds.), Grounding Religion: A Field Guide to the Study of Religion and Ecology, 2nd ed. (2017)

Brazier Ecotherapy cover art

Caroline Brazier, Ecotherapy in Practice: A Buddhist Model (2017)

Callicott and McRae cover art

J. Baird Callicott & James McRae (eds.), Japanese Environmental Philosophy (2017)

Cooper and James Virtue cover art

David E. Cooper & Simon P. James, Buddhism, Virtue and Environment (2017)

James Zen Environmental cover art

Simon P. James, Zen Buddhism and Environmental Ethics (2017)

Bodhipaksa Vegetarianism cover art

Bodhipaksa, Vegetarianism: A Buddhist View (2016)

De Silva Environmental cover art

Padmasiri De Silva, Environmental Philosophy and Ethics in Buddhism (2016)

LeVasseur Sustainable Agriculture cover art

Todd LeVasseur et al (eds.), Religion and Sustainable Agriculture: World Spiritual Traditions and Food Ethics (2016)

Scheid Cosmic Common Good cover art

Daniel P. Scheid, The Cosmic Common Good: Religious Grounds for Ecological Ethics (2016)

Callicott and McRae Asian Traditions cover art

J. Baird Callicott & James McRae (eds.), Environmental Philosophy in Asian Traditions of Thought (2015)

Dessi Globalization cover art

Ugo Dessì, Japanese Religions and Globalization (2015)

Vaddhaka Wall Street cover art

Vaddhaka Linn, The Buddha on Wall Street: What's Wrong with Capitalism and What We Can Do About It (2015)

Marques Business and Buddhism cover art

Joan Marques, Business and Buddhism (2015)

Stewart Vegetarianism cover art

James Stewart, Vegetarianism and Animal Ethics in Contemporary Buddhism (2015)

Bauman Religion and Ecology cover art

Whitney A. Bauman, Religion and Ecology: Developing a Planetary Ethic (2014)

Shields Globalization cover art

James Mark Shields (ed.), Buddhist Responses to Globalization (2014)

Darlington Ordination cover art

Susan M. Darlington, The Ordination of a Tree: The Thai Buddhist Environmental Movement (2013)

Jazeel Sacred Modernity cover art

Tariq Jazeel, Sacred Modernity: Nature, Environment and the Postcolonial Geographies of Sri Lankan Nationhood (2013)

Nyanasobhano Landscapes cover art

Bhikkhu Nyanasobhano, Landscapes of Wonder: Discovering Buddhist Dhamma in the World Around Us (2013)

Sponsel Spiritual Ecology cover art

Leslie E. Sponsel, Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution (2012)

Sahni Ethics cover art

Pragati Sahni, Environmental Ethics in Buddhism: A Virtues Approach (2011)

Engel Tort Custom cover art

David M. Engel & Jaruwan S. Engel, Tort, Custom, and Karma: Globalization and Legal Consciousness in Thailand (2010)

Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology cover art

Roger S. Gottlieb (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology (2010)

Jensen Deep Down cover art

Lin Jensen, Deep Down Things: The Earth in Celebration and Dismay (2010)

Payne How Much cover art

Richard Payne, How Much is Enough? Buddhism, Consumerism, and the Human Environment (2010)

Berry Sacred Universe cover art

Thomas Berry, The Sacred Universe: Earth, Spirituality, and Religion, ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker (2009)

Buddhism in the Public Sphere cover art

Peter D. Hershock, Buddhism in the Public Sphere: Reorienting Global Interdependence (2009)

Stanley et al Response cover art

John Stanley et al (eds.), A Buddhist Response to the Climate Emergency (2009)

Guruge Economics cover art

Ananda W. P. Guruge, Buddhism, Economics and Science: Further Studies in Socially Engaged Humanistic Buddhism (2008)

Kaza Mindfully Green cover art

Stephanie Kaza, Mindfully Green: A Personal and Spiritual Guide to Whole Earth Thinking (2008)

Rahula Prosperity cover art

Bhikkhu Basnagoda Rahula, The Buddha's Teachings on Prosperity: At Home, At Work, in the World (2008)

Field Business and Buddha cover art

Lloyd Field, Business and the Buddha: Doing Well by Doing Good (2007)

Nyanasobhano Available Truth cover art

Bhikkhu Nyanasobhano, Available Truth: Excursions into Buddhist Wisdom and the Natural World (2007)

Kemmerer Consistency cover art

Lisa Kemmerer, In Search of Consistency: Ethics and Animals (2006)

Sale After Eden cover art

Kirkpatrick Sale, After Eden: The Evolution of Human Domination (2006)

Waldau and Patton cover art

Paul Waldau & Kimberley Christine Patton (eds.), A Communion of Subjects: Animals in Religion, Science, and Ethics (2006)

Sivaraksa Conflict Culture cover art

Sulak Sivaraksa, Conflict, Culture, Change: Engaged Buddhism in a Globalizing World (2005)

Chandler Establishing cover art

Stuart Chandler, Establishing a Pure Land on Earth: The Foguang Buddhist Perspective on Modernization and Globalization (2004)

Learman Globalization cover art

Linda Learman, Buddhist Missionaries in the Era of Globalization (2004)

Gottlieb This Sacred Earth cover art

Roger S. Gottlieb, This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment, 2nd ed. (2003)

Macy World as Lover cover art

Joanna Macy, World As Lover, World As Self: Courage for Global Justice and Ecological Renewal (2003)

Waldau Specter cover art

Paul Waldau, The Specter of Speciesism: Buddhist and Christian Views of Animals (2001)

Kaza and Kraft cover art

Stephanie Kaza & Kenneth Kraft (eds.), Dharma Rain: Sources of Buddhist Environmentalism (2000)

Page Animals cover art

Tony Page, Buddhism and Animals: A Buddhist Vision of Humanity's Rightful Relationship with the Animal Kingdom (1999)

Kearns and Keller cover art

Laurel Kearns & Catherine Keller (eds.), Ecospirit: Religions and Philosophies for the Earth (2007)

Tucker and Williams cover art

Mary E. Tucker & Duncan R. Williams (eds.), Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds (1997)

Chapple Nonviolence cover art

Christopher Key Chapple, Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions (1993)

Batchelor and Brown cover art

Martine Batchelor & Kerry Brown (eds.), Buddhism and Ecology (1992)

Badiner Dharma Gaia cover art

Allan Hunt Badiner (ed.), Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology (1990)

Naess Ecology Community cover art

Arne Naess, Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy, trans. David Rothenberg (1989)

Barstow Food cover art

In this study of the place of vegetarianism within Tibetan religiosity, Geoffrey Barstow explores the tension between Buddhist ethics and Tibetan cultural norms to offer a novel perspective on the spiritual and social dimensions of meat eating. Barstow offers a detailed analysis of the debates over meat eating and vegetarianism, from the first references to such a diet in the tenth century through the Chinese invasion in the 1950s. He discusses elements of Tibetan Buddhist thought, but also looks beyond religious attitudes to examine the cultural, economic, and environmental factors that oppose the Buddhist critique of meat, including Tibetan concepts of medicine and health, food scarcity, the display of wealth, and idealized male gender roles. Barstow argues that the issue of meat eating was influenced by a complex interplay of factors, with religious perspectives largely supporting vegetarianism while practical concerns and secular ideals pulled in the other direction.

Brown Economics cover art

Clair Brown, professor of economics at UC Berkeley and a practicing Buddhist, has developed a holistic model, one based on the notion that quality of life should be measured by more than national income. Brown advocates an approach to organizing the economy that embraces rather than skirts questions of values, sustainability, and equity, and incorporates the Buddhist emphasis on interdependence, shared prosperity, and happiness into her vision for a sustainable and compassionate world. Buddhist economics leads us to think mindfully as we go about our daily activities, and offers a way to appreciate how our actions affect the well-being of those around us. By replacing the endless cycle of desire with more positive collective activities, we can make our lives more meaningful as well as happier. This book represents an enlightened approach to our modern world infused with ancient wisdom, with benefits both personal and global, for generations to come.

This book reflects the growing interest and research in this field. Drawing on a diversity of experience from the counselling and psychotherapy professions, but also from practitioners in community work, mental health and education, this book explores the exciting and innovative possibilities involved in practising outdoors. Brazier brings to bear her experience and knowledge as a psychotherapist, group worker and trainer over several decades to think about therapeutic work outdoors in all its forms. The book presents a model of ecotherapy based on principles drawn from Buddhist psychology and Western psychotherapy which focuses particularly on the relationship between person and environment at three levels, moving from the personal level of individual history to cultural influences, then finally to global circumstances, all of which condition mind-states and psychological well-being. This work will provide refreshing and valuable reading for psychotherapists and counsellors in the field, those interested in Buddhism, and other mental health and health professionals working outdoors.

This work explores alternative ways of leading in the aftermath of the Great Recession and the many stories of fraud and greed that emerged. The book explores shifts in business perspectives as more value is placed on soft skills like emotional intelligence and listening, and introduces the reader to the principles in Buddhist philosophy that can be applied in the workplace. Marques explores the value of applying the positive psychology of Buddhism to work settings. She outlines the ways in which it offers highly effective solutions to addressing important management and organizational behavior related issues, but also flags up critical areas for caution. For example, Buddhism is non-confrontational, and promotes detachment. How can business leaders negotiate these principles in light of the demands of modern day pressures? The book includes end of chapter questions to promote reflection and critical thinking, and examples of Buddhist leaders in action. It will prove a captivating read for students of organizational behavior, management, leadership, diversity and ethics.

Huntington Creating Universe cover art

Eric Huntington, Creating the Universe: Depictions of the Cosmos in Himalayan Buddhism (2019)

French Yoke cover art

Rebecca Redwood French, The Golden Yoke: The Legal Cosmology of Buddhist Tibet (2002)

Sadakata cover art

Akira Sadakata, Buddhist Cosmology: Philosophy and Origins (1997)

Taye Myriad cover art

Jamgon K.L. Taye, Myriad Worlds: Buddhist Cosmology in Abhidharma, Kalacakra, and Dzog-chen (1995)

Kloetzli Cosmology cover art

Randy Kloetzli, Buddhist Cosmology: From Single World System to Pure Land: Science and Theology in the Images of Motion and Light (1983)

Reynolds Three Worlds cover art

Frank E. Reynolds & Mani B. Reynolds (trans.), Three Worlds According to King Ruang: A Thai Buddhist Cosmology (1982)

Byodo-In Temple, Kaneohe

Jay L. Garfield, Buddhist Ethics: A Philosophical Exploration (2021)

Cozort and Shields cover art

Daniel Cozort & James Mark Shields (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Buddhist Ethics (2018)

Davis Mirror cover art

Jake H. Davis (ed.), A Mirror Is for Reflection: Understanding Buddhist Ethics (2017)

Cowherds Moonpaths cover art

The Cowherds, Moonpaths: Ethics and Emptiness (2015)

Subhuti Mind in Harmony cover art

Dharmachari Subhuti, Mind in Harmony: A Guide to the Psychology of Buddhist Ethics (2015)

Goodman Consequences of Compassion cover art

Charles Goodman, Consequences of Compassion: An Interpretation and Defense of Buddhist Ethics (2014)

Gowans Moral Philosophy cover art

Christopher W. Gowans, Buddhist Moral Philosophy: An Introduction (2014)

McLeod Understanding Asian Ethics cover art

Alexus McLeod, Understanding Asian Philosophy: Ethics in the Analects, Zhuangzi, Dhammapada, and the Bhagavad Gita (2014)

Subhadramati Not About Being Good cover art

Subhadramati, Not About Being Good: A Practical Guide to Buddhist Ethics (2013)

Wright Six Perfections cover art

Dale Wright, The Six Perfections: Buddhism and the Cultivation of Character (2011)

Prebish Destroying cover art

Charles S. Prebish (ed.), Destroying Mara Forever: Buddhist Ethics Essays in Honor of Damien Keown (2010)

Mrozik Virtuous Bodies cover art

Susanne Mrozik, Virtuous Bodies: The Physical Dimensions of Morality in Buddhist Ethics (2007)

Prasad Centrality of Ethics cover art

Hari Shankar Prasad, The Centrality of Ethics in Buddhism: Exploratory Essays (2007)

Bloom Healing Power cover art

Pamela Bloom, The Healing Power of Compassion: The Essence of Buddhist Acts (2006)

Tsomo Jaws of Yama cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Into the Jaws of Yama, Lord of Death: Buddhism, Bioethics, and Death (2006)

Keown Buddhist Ethics cover art

Damien Keown, Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (2005)

Sangharakshita Know Your Mind cover art

Sangharakshita, Know Your Mind: The Psychological Dimension of Ethics in Buddhism (2004)

Hopkins Cultivating Compassion cover art

Jeffrey Hopkins, Cultivating Compassion: A Buddhist Perspective (2002)

Imagining Karma cover art

Gananath Obeyesekere, Imagining Karma: Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth (2002)

Harvey Introduction cover art

Peter Harvey, An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values, and Issues (2000)

Keown Contemporary cover art

Damien Keown (ed.), Contemporary Buddhist Ethics (2000)

Keown Abortion cover art

Damien Keown (ed.), Buddhism and Abortion (1998)

Saddhatissa Ethics cover art

Hammalawa Saddhatissa, Buddhist Ethics (1997)

Morgan and Lawton cover art

Peggy Morgan & Clive Lawton (eds.), Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions (1996)

Keown Bioethics cover art

Damien Keown, Buddhism and Bioethics (1995)

Olson Discipline of Freedom cover art

Phillip Olson, The Discipline of Freedom: A Kantian View of the Role of Moral Precepts in Zen Practice (1993)

Keown Nature of Ethics cover art

Damien Keown, The Nature of Buddhist Ethics (1992)

LaFleur Liquid cover art

William R. LaFleur, Liquid Life: Abortion and Buddhism in Japan (1992)

Fu and Wawrytko cover art

Charles W. Fu & Sandra A. Wawrytko (eds.), Buddhist Ethics and Modern Society (1991)

Reichenbach Law of Karma cover art

Bruce Reichenbach, The Law of Karma: A Philosophical Study (1990)

Sizemore and Swearer cover art

Russell F. Sizemore & Donald K. Swearer (eds.), Ethics, Wealth and Salvation: A Study in Buddhist Social Ethics (1989)

Endo Dana cover art

Toshiichi Endo, Dana: The Development of Its Concept and Practice (1987)

Misra Development cover art

G.S. Misra, The Development of Buddhist Ethics (1984)

Aitken Mind of Clover cover art

Robert Aitken, The Mind of Clover: Essays in Zen Buddhist Ethics (1982)

Hindery Comparative Ethics cover art

Roderick Hindery, Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions (1978)

Pye Skilful Means cover art

Michael Pye, Skilful Means: A Concept in Mahayana Buddhism (1978)

Tahtinen Ahimsa cover art

Unto Tahtinen, Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition (1976)

Tachibana Ethics cover art

Shundo Tachibana, The Ethics of Buddhism (1975)

King Hope of Nibbana cover art

Winston King, In the Hope of Nibbana: An Essay on Theravada Buddhist Ethics (1964)

Cozort and Shields cover art

All the varied forms of Buddhism embody an ethical core that is remarkably consistent. Articulated by the historical Buddha in his first sermon, this moral core is founded on the concept of karma--that intentions and actions have future consequences for an individual--and is summarized as Right Speech, Right Action, and Right Livelihood, three of the elements of the Eightfold Path. Although they were later elaborated and interpreted in a multitude of ways, none of these core principles were ever abandoned. This work provides a comprehensive overview of the field of Buddhist ethics in the twenty-first century. It discusses the foundations of Buddhist ethics, focusing on karma and the precepts for abstinence from harming others, stealing, and intoxication. It considers ethics in the different Buddhist traditions and the similarities they share, and compares Buddhist ethics to Western ethics and the psychology of moral judgments. The volume also investigates Buddhism and society, analysing economics, environmental ethics, and Just War ethics. The final section focuses on contemporary issues surrounding Buddhist ethics, including gender, sexuality, animal rights, and euthanasia.

Wright Six Perfections cover art

Here is a lucid, accessible, and inspiring guide to the six perfections--Buddhist teachings about six dimensions of human character that require "perfecting": generosity, morality, tolerance, energy, meditation, and wisdom. Drawing on the Diamond Sutra, the Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom, and other essential Mahayana texts, Dale Wright shows how these teachings were understood and practiced in classical Mahayana Buddhism and how they can be adapted to contemporary life in a global society. What would the perfection of generosity look like today, for example? What would it mean to give with neither ulterior motives nor naiveté? Devoting a separate chapter to each of the six perfections, Wright combines sophisticated analysis with real-life applications. Buddhists have always stressed self-cultivation and the freedom of human beings to shape their own lives. For those interested in ideals of human character and practices of self-cultivation, this work offers invaluable guidance.

Tsomo Jaws of Yama cover art

This book explores the Buddhist view of death and its implications for contemporary bioethics. Writing primarily from within the Tibetan tradition, Tsomo discusses Buddhist notions of human consciousness and personal identity and how these figure in the Buddhist view of death. Beliefs about death and enlightenment and states between life and death are also discussed. Tsomo goes on to examine such hot-button topics as cloning, abortion, assisted suicide, euthanasia, organ donation, genetic engineering, and stem-cell research within a Buddhist context, introducing new ways of thinking about these highly controversial issues.

Imagining Karma cover art

With this work, Obeyesekere embarks on the very first comparison of rebirth concepts across a wide range of cultures. Exploring in rich detail the beliefs of small-scale societies of West Africa, Melanesia, traditional Siberia, Canada, and the northwest coast of North America, Obeyesekere compares their ideas with those of the ancient and modern Indic civilizations and with the Greek rebirth theories of Pythagoras, Empedocles, Pindar, and Plato. His groundbreaking and authoritative discussion decenters the popular notion that India was the origin and locus of ideas of rebirth. As he compares responses to the most fundamental questions of human existence, the author challenges readers to reexamine accepted ideas about death, cosmology, morality, and eschatology. Obeyesekere's comprehensive inquiry shows that diverse societies have come through independent invention or borrowing to believe in reincarnation as an integral part of their larger cosmological systems. The author brings together into a coherent methodological framework the thought of such diverse thinkers as Weber, Wittgenstein, and Nietzsche. In a contemporary intellectual context that celebrates difference and cultural relativism, this book makes a case for disciplined comparison, a humane view of human nature, and a theoretical understanding of "family resemblances" and differences across great cultural divides.

Gender, Sexuality, Reproduction, and Children

Benard Sakya Jetsunmas cover art

Elisabeth A. Benard, The Sakya Jetsunmas: The Hidden World of Tibetan Female Lamas (2022)

Stevens Red Tara cover art

Rachael Stevens, Red Tara: The Female Buddha of Power and Magnetism (2022)

Guyer-Stevens & Pommaret cover art

Stephanie Guyer-Stevens & Françoise Pommaret, Divine Messengers: The Untold Story of Bhutan's Female Shamans (2021)

Collett Hear cover art

Alice Collett, I Hear Her Words: An Introduction to Women in Buddhism (2021)

Garling Woman Who Raised cover art

Wendy Garling, The Woman Who Raised the Buddha: The Extraordinary Life of Mahaprajapati (2021)

Roloff Nun's Ordination cover art

Carola Roloff, The Buddhist Nun´s Ordination in the Tibetan Canon: Possibilities of the Revival of the Mulasarvastivada Bhiksuni Lineage (2021)

Sasson Yasodhara cover art

Vanessa R. Sasson, Yasodhara and the Buddha (2021)

Sarasvati's Gift cover art

Mayumi Oda, Sarasvati's Gift: The Autobiography of Mayumi Oda - Artist, Activist, and Modern Buddhist Revolutionary (2020)

Tsomo Women Traditions cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Women in Buddhist Traditions (2020)

Weingast First Free Women cover art

Matty Weingast, The First Free Women: Poems of the Early Buddhist Nuns (2020)

Willis Dharma Matters cover art

Jan Willis, Dharma Matters: Women, Race, and Tantra (2020)

Yeng Buddhist Feminism cover art

Sokthan Yeng, Buddhist Feminism: Transforming Anger Against Patriarchy (2020)

Cushman Mama Sutra cover art

Anne Cushman, The Mama Sutra: A Story of Love, Loss, and the Pain of Motherhood (2019)

Seeger Gender Path cover art

Martin Seeger, Gender and the Path to Awakening: Hidden Histories of Nuns in Modern Thai Buddhism (2018)

Tsomo Feminisms cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo (ed.), Buddhist Feminisms and Femininities (2019)

Chopel Passion Book cover art

Gendun Chopel, The Passion Book: A Tibetan Guide to Love & Sex, trans. Donald S. Lopez, Jr. (2018)

Yetunde Object Relations cover art

Pamela Ayo Yetunde, Object Relations, Buddhism, and Relationality in Womanist Practical Theology (2018)

Langenberg Birth cover art

Amy Paris Langenberg, Birth in Buddhism: The Suffering Fetus and Female Freedom (2017)

Muldoon-Hules Brides of Buddha cover art

Karen Muldoon-Hules, Brides of the Buddha: Nuns' Stories from the Avadanasataka (2017)

Analayo Foundation History cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, The Foundation History of the Nuns' Order (2016)

Andreeva and Steavu cover art

Anna Andreeva & Dominic Steavu (eds.), Transforming the Void: Embryological Discourse and Reproductive Imagery in East Asian Religions (2016)

Garling Stars at Dawn cover art

Wendy Garling, Stars at Dawn: Forgotten Stories of Women in the Buddha's Life (2016)

Kamalamani Other Than Mother cover art

Kamalamani, Other Than Mother: Choosing Childlessness with Life in Mind (2016)

Thompson Engendering cover art

Ashley Thompson, Engendering the Buddhist State: Territory, Sovereignty and Sexual Difference in the Inventions of Angkor (2016)

Engelmajer Women Pali cover art

Pascale Engelmajer, Women in Pali Buddhism: Walking the Spiritual Paths in Mutual Dependence (2015)

Harding Remnants cover art

Rosemarie Freeney Harding & Rachel Elizabeth Harding, Remnants: A Memoir of Spirit, Activism, and Mothering (2015)

McWeeny and Butnor cover art

Jennifer McWeeny & Ashby Butnor (eds.), Asian and Feminist Philosophies in Dialogue: Liberating Traditions (2014)

Miller Buddha's Daughters cover art

Andrea Miller (ed.), Buddha's Daughters: Teachings from Women Who Are Shaping Buddhism in the West (2014)

Tsomo Eminent Buddhist Women cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo (ed.), Eminent Buddhist Women (2014)

Blackstone Women cover art

Kathryn R. Blackstone, Women in the Footsteps of the Buddha: Struggle for Liberation in the Therigatha (2013)

Caplow and Moon cover art

Florence Caplow & Susan Moon (eds.), The Hidden Lamp: Stories from Twenty-Five Centuries of Awakened Women (2013)

Salgado Buddhist Nuns cover art

Nirmala S. Salgado, Buddhist Nuns and Gendered Practice: In Search of the Female Renunciant (2013)

Smith Narratives cover art

Bardwell L. Smith, Narratives of Sorrow and Dignity: Japanese Women, Pregnancy Loss, and Modern Rituals of Grieving (2013)

Ohnuma Ties cover art

Reiko Ohnuma, Ties That Bind: Maternal Imagery and Discourse in Indian Buddhism (2012)

Sasson Little Buddhas cover art

Vanessa R. Sasson (ed.), Little Buddhas: Children and Childhoods in Buddhist Texts and Traditions (2012)

Arai Bringing Zen Home cover art

Paula Arai, Bringing Zen Home: The Healing Heart of Japanese Women's Rituals (2011)

Hu This-Worldly cover art

Hsiao-Lan Hu, This-Worldly Nibbana: A Buddhist-Feminist Social Ethic for Peacemaking in the Global Community (2011)

Meeks Hokkeji cover art

Lori Rachelle Meeks, Hokkeji and the Reemergence of Female Monastic Orders in Premodern Japan (2010)

Mohr and Tsedroen cover art

Thea Mohr & Jampa Tsedroen (eds.), Dignity and Discipline: Reviewing Full Ordination for Buddhist Nuns (2010)

Wijayaratna Buddhist Nuns cover art

Mohan Wijayaratna, Buddhist Nuns: The Birth and Development of a Women's Monastic Order (2010)

Feldman Woman Awake cover art

Christina Feldman, Woman Awake: Women Practicing Buddhism (2009)

Gross Garland cover art

Rita M. Gross, A Garland of Feminist Reflections: Forty Years of Religious Exploration (2009)

Schireson Zen Women cover art

Grace Schireson, Zen Women: Beyond Tea Ladies, Iron Maidens, and Macho Masters (2009)

Whittaker Abortion cover art

Andrea Whittaker, Abortion, Sin and the State in Thailand (2009)

Garrett Embryo cover art

Frances Mary Garrett, Religion, Medicine and the Human Embryo in Tibet (2008)

Burns Path for Parents cover art

Sara Burns, A Path for Parents: What Buddhism Can Offer (2007)

Gregory and Mrozik cover art

Peter N. Gregory & Susanne Mrozik (eds.), Women Practicing Buddhism: American Experiences (2007)

O'Halloran Pure Heart cover art

Maura O'Halloran, Pure Heart, Enlightened Mind: The Life and Letters of an Irish Zen Saint (2007)

Tisdale Women of the Way cover art

Sallie Tisdale, Women of the Way: Discovering 2,500 Years of Buddhist Wisdom (2007)

Batchelor and Sunim cover art

Martine Batchelor & Son'gyong Sunim, Women in Korean Zen: Lives and Practices (2006)

Boucher Dancing Dharma cover art

Sandy Boucher, Dancing in the Dharma: The Life and Teachings of Ruth Denison (2006)

Cheng Buddhist Nuns cover art

Wei-Yi Cheng, Buddhist Nuns in Taiwan and Sri Lanka: A Critique of the Feminist Perspective (2006)

David-Néel Journey to Lhasa cover art

Alexandra David-Néel, My Journey to Lhasa: The Classic Story of the Only Western Woman Who Succeeded in Entering the Forbidden City (2005)

Gutschow Being cover art

Kim Gutschow, Being a Buddhist Nun: The Struggle for Enlightenment in the Himalayas (2004)

Tsomo Buddhist Women cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Buddhist Women and Social Justice: Ideals, Challenges, and Achievements (2004)

Faure Power of Denial cover art

Bernard Faure, The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity and Gender (2003)

Grant Daughters cover art

Beata Grant, Daughters of Emptiness: Poems of Chinese Buddhist Nuns (2003)

Urban Tantra cover art

Hugh B. Urban, Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics, and Power in the Study of Religion (2003)

Batchelor Women on Path cover art

Martine Batchelor, Women on the Buddhist Path (2002)

Murcott First Buddhist Women cover art

Susan Murcott, First Buddhist Women: Poems and Stories of Awakening (2002)

Brown Journey cover art

Sid Brown, The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even Against the Wind (2001)

Religious Feminism and the Future of the Planet cover art

Rita M. Gross & Rosemary Radford Ruether, Religious Feminism and the Future of the Planet: A Christian-Buddhist Conversation (2001)

Obeyesekere Portraits cover art

Ranjini Obeyesekere (trans.), Portraits of Buddhist Women: Stories from the Saddharmaratnaavaliya (2001)

Allione Women cover art

Tsültrim Allione, Women of Wisdom (2000)

Boucher Discovering Kwan Yin cover art

Sandy Boucher, Discovering Kwan Yin, Buddhist Goddess of Compassion: A Path Towards Clarity and Peace (2000)

Bose Faces of Feminine cover art

Mandakranta Bose (ed.), Faces of the Feminine in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern India (2000)

Tsomo Innovative cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Innovative Buddhist Women: Swimming Against the Stream (2000)

Tsomo Women cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Buddhist Women Across Cultures: Realizations (1999)

Boucher Opening the Lotus cover art

Sandy Boucher, Opening the Lotus: A Woman's Guide to Buddhism (1998)

Cole Mothers and Sons cover art

Alan Cole, Mothers and Sons in Chinese Buddhism (1998)

Faure Red Thread cover art

Bernard Faure, The Red Thread: Buddhist Approaches to Sexuality (1998)

Chamindaji gamage, buddhism and sensuality: as recorded in the theravada canon (1998).

Gross Soaring and Settling cover art

Rita M. Gross, Soaring and Settling: Buddhist Perspectives on Contemporary Social and Religious Issues (1998)

Friedman and Moon cover art

Lenore Friedman & Susan Moon (eds.), Being Bodies: Buddhist Women on the Paradox of Embodiment (1997)

Hardacre Marketing cover art

Helen Hardacre, Marketing the Menacing Fetus in Japan (1997)

Tsomo Sisters cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Sisters in Solitude: Two Traditions of Buddhist Monastic Ethics for Women (1997)

Batchelor Walking on Lotus cover art

Martine Batchelor, Walking on Lotus Flowers: Buddhist Women Living, Loving and Meditating (1996)

Buddhist Women on the Edge cover art

Marianne Dresser (ed.), Buddhist Women on the Edge: Contemporary Perspectives from the Western Frontier (1996)

Wilson Cadavers cover art

Liz Wilson, Charming Cadavers: Horrific Figurations of the Feminine in Indian Buddhist Hagiographic Literature (1996)

Klein Meeting cover art

Anne C. Klein, Meeting the Great Bliss Queen: Buddhists, Feminists, and the Art of the Self (1995)

Tsomo Women's Eyes cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo (ed.), Buddhism Through American Women's Eyes (1995)

L.p.n. perera, sexuality in ancient india: a study based on the pali vinayapitaka (1993).

Gross Patriarchy cover art

Rita M. Gross, Buddhism after Patriarchy: A Feminist History, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Buddhism (1992)

Murcott First Women cover art

Susan Murcott, The First Buddhist Women (1992)

Cabezon Sexuality Gender cover art

José Ignacio Cabezón (ed.), Buddhism, Sexuality, and Gender (1991)

Horner Women cover art

I. B. Horner, Women under Primitive Buddhism: Laywomen and Almswomen (1990)

Stevens Lust cover art

John Stevens, Lust for Enlightenment: Buddhism and Sex (1990)

Willis Feminine Ground cover art

Janice Willis (ed.), Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet (1989)

Boucher Turning cover art

Sandy Boucher, Turning the Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism (1988)

Tsomo Sakyadhita cover art

Karma Lekshe Tsomo (ed.), Sakyadhita: Daughters of the Buddha (1988)

Friedman Meetings cover art

Lenore Friedman, Meetings with Remarkable Women: Buddhist Teachers in America (1987)

Hopkinson Not Mixing Up cover art

Deborah Hopkinson, Not Mixing Up Buddhism: Essays on Women and Buddhism (1987)

Diana m. paul, women in buddhism: images of the feminine in the mahayana tradition (1985), diana m. paul, the buddhist feminine ideal (1980).

Langenberg Birth cover art

Recent decades have seen a transnational agitation for better opportunities for Buddhist women. Many of the main players in this movement self-identify as feminists, but other participants in this movement may not know or use the language of feminism. In fact, many ordained Buddhist women say they seek higher ordination so that they might be better Buddhist practitioners, not for the sake of gender equality. Eschewing the backward projection of secular liberal feminist categories, this book describes the basic features of the Buddhist discourse of the female body, held more or less in common across sectarian lines, and still pertinent to ordained Buddhist women today. The textual focus of the study is an early-first-millennium Sanskrit Buddhist work, the "Descent into the Womb Scripture" or Garbhāvakrānti-sūtra. Drawing out the implications of this text, the author offers innovative arguments about the significance of childbirth and fertility in Buddhism, namely that birth is a master metaphor in Indian Buddhism; that Buddhist gender constructions are centrally shaped by Buddhist birth discourse; and that, by undermining the religious importance of female fertility, the Buddhist construction of an inauspicious, chronically impure, and disgusting femininity constituted a portal to a new, liberated, feminine life for Buddhist monastic women.

Salgado Buddhist Nuns cover art

Based on extensive research in Sri Lanka and interviews with Theravada and Tibetan nuns from around the world, Salgado's groundbreaking study urges a rethinking of female renunciation. How are scholarly accounts complicit in reinscribing imperialist stories about the subjectivity of Buddhist women? How do key Buddhist "concepts" such as dukkha, samsara, and sila ground female renunciant practice? Salgado's provocative analysis questions the secular notion of the higher ordination of nuns as a political movement for freedom against patriarchal norms. Arguing that the lives of nuns defy translation into a politics of global sisterhood equal before law, she calls for more-nuanced readings of nuns' everyday renunciant practices.

Consideration of children in the academic field of Religious Studies is taking root, but Buddhist Studies has yet to take notice. This book brings together a wide range of scholarship and expertise to address the question of what role children have played in Buddhist literature, in particular historical contexts, and what role they continue to play in specific Buddhist contexts today. The volume is divided into two parts, one addressing the representation of children in Buddhist texts, the other children and childhoods in Buddhist cultures around the world. The ground-breaking contributions in this volume challenge the perception of irreconcilable differences between Buddhist idealism and family ties. This work will be an indispensable resource for students and scholars of Buddhism and Childhood Studies, and a catalyst for further research on the topic.

Gross Garland cover art

Rita M. Gross has long been acknowledged as a founder in the field of feminist theology. One of the earliest scholars in religious studies to discover how feminism affects that discipline, she is recognized as preeminent in Buddhist feminist theology. The essays in this book represent the major aspects of her work and provide an overview of her methodology in women's studies in religion and feminism. The introductory article, written specifically for this volume, summarizes the conclusions Gross has reached about gender and feminism after forty years of searching and exploring, and the autobiography, also written for this volume, narrates how those conclusions were reached. These articles reveal the range of scholarship and reflection found in Gross's work and demonstrate how feminist scholars in the 1970s shifted the paradigm away from an androcentric model of humanity and forever changed the way we study religion.

Enlightenment & Enlightened Beings

Wright Enlightenment cover art

Dale S. Wright, What Is Buddhist Enlightenment? (2016)

Hwang Metaphor cover art

Soon-il Hwang, Metaphor and Literalism in Buddhism: The Doctrinal History of Nirvana (2012)

Sponberg Maitreya cover art

Alan Sponberg & Helen Hardacre (eds.), Maitreya: The Future Buddha (2011)

Analayo Genesis Bodhisattva Ideal cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, The Genesis of the Bodhisattva Ideal (2010)

Collins Nirvana cover art

Steven Collins, Nirvana: Concept, Imagery, Narrative (2010)

Xing Concept of Buddha cover art

Guang Xing, The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early Buddhism to the Trikaya Theory (2010)

Nattier Few Good cover art

Jan Nattier, A Few Good Men: The Bodhisattva Path According to the Inquiry of Ugra (2005)

Sangharakshita Wisdom Beyond Words cover art

Sangharakshita, Wisdom Beyond Words: The Buddhist Vision of Ultimate Reality (2004)

Collins Felicities cover art

Steven Collins, Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities: Utopias of the Pali Imaginaire (1998)

Pagel Bodhisattvapitaka cover art

Ulrich Pagel, The Bodhisattvapitaka: Its Doctrines, Practices and Their Position in Mahayana Literature (1995)

Chien Manifestation cover art

Cheng Chien, Manifestation of the Tathagata: Buddhahood According to the Avatamsaka Sutra (1993)

King Buddha Nature cover art

Sallie B. King, Buddha Nature (1991)

Ruegg Buddha-Nature cover art

David Seyfort Ruegg, Buddha-Nature, Mind and the Problem of Gradualism in a Comparative Perspective (1989)

Park Buddhist Faith cover art

Sung Bae Park, Buddhist Faith and Sudden Enlightenment (1983)

Katz Images Perfection cover art

Nathan Katz, Buddhist Images of Human Perfection: The Arahant of the Sutta Pitaka compared with the Bodhisattva and the Mahasiddha (1982)

Kawamura cover art

Leslie Kawamura (ed.), The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhism (1981)

Stcherbatsky Conception cover art

Theodor Stcherbatsky, The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. With Sanskrit Text of the Madhyamaka-karika, 2nd rev. ed. (1977)

Dayal Bodhisattva cover art

Har Dayal, The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit Literature (1970)

Johansson Psychology cover art

Rune E. A. Johansson, The Psychology of Nirvana: A Comparative Study (1970)

Welbon Nirvana cover art

G.R. Welbon, The Buddhist Nirvana and Its Western Interpreters (1968)

Slater Paradox cover art

Robert L. Slater, Paradox and Nirvana: A Study of Religious Ultimates with Special Reference to Burmese Buddhism (1951)

Evola Doctrine cover art

Julius Evola, The Doctrine of Awakening: The Attainment of Self-Mastery According to the Earliest Buddhist Texts (1943)

Young nuns meditating

Law, Politics, War, and Violence

Balkwill & Benn cover art

Stephanie Balkwill & James A. Benn (eds.), Buddhist Statecraft in East Asia (2022)

Long Approach IR cover art

William J. Long, A Buddhist Approach to International Relations: Radical Interdependence (2021)

Yancy and McRae cover art

George Yancy & Emily McRae (eds.), Buddhism and Whiteness: Critical Reflections (2019)

Jerryson Meet the Buddha cover art

Michael Jerryson, If You Meet the Buddha on the Road: Essays on Buddhism, Politics, and Violence (2018)

Lammerts Buddhist Law cover art

D. Christian Lammerts, Buddhist Law in Burma: A History of Dhammasattha Texts and Jurisprudence (2018)

de Silva Conflict Studies cover art

Padmasiri de Silva, The Psychology of Buddhism in Conflict Studies (2017)

Kawanami Political Process cover art

Hiroko Kawanami (ed.), Buddhism and the Political Process (2016)

Moore Political Theory cover art

Matthew J. Moore, Buddhism and Political Theory (2016)

Husted and Keown Human Rights cover art

Wayne R. Husted & Damien Keown (eds.), Buddhism and Human Rights (2015)

French and Nathan cover art

Rebecca Redwood French & Mark A. Nathan (eds.), Buddhism and Law: An Introduction (2014)

Kawanami and Samuel cover art

Hiroko Kawanami & Geoffrey Samuel (eds.), Buddhism, International Relief Work, and Civil Society (2013)

Eltschinger Caste cover art

Vincent Eltschinger, Caste and Buddhist Philosophy: Continuity of Some Buddhist Arguments against the Realist Interpretation of Social Denominations (2012)

McLeod Mindful Politics cover art

Melvin McLeod (ed.), Mindful Politics: A Buddhist Guide to Making the World a Better Place (2012)

Tikhonov and Brekke cover art

Vladimir Tikhonov & Torkel Brekke (eds.), Buddhism and Violence: Militarism and Buddhism in Modern Asia (2012)

Engel Tort cover art

Michael K. Jerryson & Mark Juergensmeyer (eds.), Buddhist Warfare (2010)

Meinert and Zollner cover art

Carmen Meinert, Hans-Bernd Zöllner (eds.), Buddhist Approaches to Human Rights: Dissonances and Resonances (2010)

Victoria Zen at War cover art

Brian D. Victoria, Zen at War (2006)

Moon Not Turning cover art

Susan Moon, Not Turning Away: The Practice of Engaged Buddhism (2004)

Victoria War Stories cover art

Brian D. Victoria, Zen War Stories (2003)

Bartholomeusz In Defense cover art

Tessa J. Bartholomeusz, In Defense of Dharma: Just-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka (2002)

Huxley Religion Law cover art

Andrew Huxley, Religion, Law and Tradition: Comparative Studies in Religious Law (2002)

Ikeda for the Sake cover art

Daisaku Ikeda, For the Sake of Peace: Seven Paths to Global Harmony: A Buddhist Perspective (2002)

Harris Buddhism and Politics cover art

Ian Harris (ed.), Buddhism and Politics in Twentieth Century Asia (2001)

Houben and Kooj cover art

Jan E.M. Houben & Karel R. Van Kooj (eds.), Violence Denied: Violence, Non-Violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History (1999)

Loy Great Awakening cover art

David R. Loy, The Great Awakening: A Buddhist Social Theory (1997)

Kraft Inner Peace cover art

Kenneth Kraft (ed.), Inner Peace, World Peace: Essays on Buddhism and Nonviolence (1992)

Paige and Gilliatt cover art

Glenn D. Paige & Sarah Gilliatt, Buddhism and Non-Violent Global Problem-Solving: Ulan Bator Explorations (1991)

Unto tahtinen, non-violent theories of punishment: indian and western (1983).

Burma and neighboring areas of Southeast Asia comprise the only region of the world to have developed a written corpus of Buddhist law claiming jurisdiction over all members of society. Yet in contrast with the extensive scholarship on Islamic and Hindu law, this tradition of Buddhist law has been largely overlooked. In fact, it is commonplace to read that Buddhism gave rise to no law aside from the vinaya, or monastic law. In this book, Lammerts upends this misperception and provides an intellectual and literary history of the dynamic jurisprudence of the dhammasattha legal genre between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries. Based on a critical study of hundreds of little-known surviving dhammasattha and related manuscripts, the work demonstrates the centrality of law as a crucial discipline of Buddhist knowledge in precolonial Southeast Asia. Lammerts argues that there were multiple, sometimes contentious, modes of reckoning Buddhist jurisprudence and legal authority in the region and assesses these in the context of local cultural, textual, and ritual practices. Over time, the foundational jurisprudence of the genre underwent considerable reformulation in light of arguments raised by its critics, bibliographers, and historians, resulting in a reorientation from a cosmological to a more positivist conception of Buddhist law and legislation that had far-reaching implications for innovative forms of dhammasattha -related discourse on the eve of British colonialism. Lammerts' book shows how, despite such textual and theoretical transformations, late precolonial Burmese jurists continued to promote and justify the dhammasattha genre, and the role of law generally in Buddhism, as a vital aspect of the ongoing effort to protect and preserve the sāsana of Gotama Buddha.

French and Nathan cover art

As the first comprehensive study of Buddhism and law in Asia, this interdisciplinary volume challenges the concept of Buddhism as an apolitical religion without implications for law. This collection draws on the expertise of the foremost scholars in Buddhist studies and in law to trace the legal aspects of the religion from the time of the Buddha to the present. In some cases, Buddhism provided the crucial architecture for legal ideologies and secular law codes, while in other cases it had to contend with a preexisting legal system, to which it added a new layer of complexity. The wide-ranging studies in this book reveal a diversity of relationships between Buddhist monastic codes and secular legal systems in terms of substantive rules, factoring, and ritual practices. This volume will be an essential resource for all students and teachers in Buddhist studies, law and religion, and comparative law.

Jerryson and Juergensmeyer cover art

Though traditionally regarded as a peaceful religion, Buddhism has a dark side. On multiple occasions over the past fifteen centuries, Buddhist leaders have sanctioned violence, and even war. The eight essays in this book focus on a variety of Buddhist traditions, from antiquity to the present, and show that Buddhist organizations have used religious images and rhetoric to support military conquest throughout history. Buddhist soldiers in sixth century China were given the illustrious status of Bodhisattva after killing their adversaries. In seventeenth century Tibet, the Fifth Dalai Lama endorsed a Mongol ruler's killing of his rivals. And in modern-day Thailand, Buddhist soldiers carry out their duties undercover, as fully ordained monks armed with guns. This work demonstrates that the discourse on religion and violence, usually applied to Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, can no longer exclude Buddhist traditions. The book examines Buddhist military action in Tibet, China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and shows that even the most unlikely and allegedly pacifist religious traditions are susceptible to the violent tendencies of man.

French Yoke cover art

The "golden yoke" of Buddhist Tibet was the last medieval legal system still in existence in the middle of the twentieth century. This book reconstructs that system as a series of layered narratives from the memories of people who participated in the daily operation of law in the houses and courtyards the offices and courts of Tibet prior to 1959. The practice of law in this unique legal world, which lacked most of our familiar sign posts, ranged from the fantastic use of oracles in the search for evidence to the more mundane presentation of cases in court. Buddhism and law, two topics rarely intertwined in Western consciousness, are at the center of this work. The Tibetan legal system was based on Buddhist philosophy and reflected Buddhist thought in legal practice and decision making. For Tibetans, law is a cosmology, a kaleidoscopic patterning of relations which is constantly changing, recycling, and re-forming even as it integrates the universe and the individual into a timeless mandalic whole. This work causes us to rethink American legal culture. It argues that in the United States, legal matters are segregated into a separate space with rigidly defined categories. The legal cosmology of Buddhist Tibet brings into question both this autonomous framework and most of the presumptions we have about the very nature of law from precedent and res judicata to rule formation and closure.

The Literature of Buddhism

Ama Awakening Modern Japanese Fiction cover art

Michihiro Ama, The Awakening of Modern Japanese Fiction: Path Literature and the Interpretation of Buddhism (2021)

Brehm Dharma cover art

John Brehm, The Dharma of Poetry: How Poems Can Deepen Your Spiritual Practice and Open You to Joy (2021)

Derris Storied cover art

Karen Derris, Storied Companions: Cancer, Trauma, and Discovering Guides for Living in Buddhist Narratives (2021)

Dhammajoti Reading Buddhist cover art

Ven. K.L. Dhammajoti, Reading Buddhist Sanskrit Texts: An Elementary Grammatical Guide, 4th ed. (2021)

Gummer Language cover art

Natalie Gummer (ed.), The Language of the Sutras: Essays in Honor of Luis Gómez (2021)

Larsson & af Edholm cover art

Stefan Larsson & Kristoffer af Edholm, Songs on the Road: Wandering Religious Poets in India, Tibet, and Japan (2021)

Shulman Visions cover art

Eviatar Shulman, Visions of the Buddha: Creative Dimensions of Early Buddhist Scripture (2021)

Hao Dunhuang cover art

Chunwen Hao, Dunhuang Manuscripts: An Introduction to Texts from the Silk Road (2020)

Stepien Literature Philosophy cover art

Rafal K. Stepien (ed.), Buddhist Literature as Philosophy, Buddhist Philosophy as Literature (2020)

Julien Borges Buddhism cover art

Dominique Julien, Borges, Buddhism, and World Literature: A Morphology of Renunciation Tales (2019)

Appleton Shared Characters cover art

Naomi Appleton, Shared Characters in Jain, Buddhist and Hindu Narrative: Gods, Kings and Other Heroes (2016)

Diemberger Tibetan Printing cover art

Hildegard Diemberger et al (eds.), Tibetan Printing: Comparison, Continuities, and Change (2016)

Appleton Narrating Karma cover art

Naomi Appleton, Narrating Karma and Rebirth: Buddhist and Jain Multi-Life Stories (2015)

Lee Postmodern Ethics cover art

Jae-Seong Lee, Postmodern Ethics, Emptiness, and Literature (2015)

Normand and Winch cover art

Lawrence Normand & Alison Winch (eds.), Encountering Buddhism in Twentieth-Century British and American Literature (2015)

Helman-Wazny Archaeology of Tibetan Books cover art

Agnieszka Helman-Wazny, The Archaeology of Tibetan Books (2014)

Schaeffer Culture of Book cover art

Kurtis R. Schaeffer, The Culture of the Book in Tibet (2014)

Kim Receptacle of Sacred cover art

Jinah Kim, Receptacle of the Sacred: Illustrated Manuscripts and the Buddhist Book Cult in South Asia (2013)

Cohen Splendid Vision cover art

Richard S. Cohen, The Splendid Vision: Reading a Buddhist Sutra (2012)

Berkwitz Manuscript Cultures cover art

Stephen C. Berkwitz et al (eds.), Buddhist Manuscript Cultures: Knowledge, Ritual, and Art (2011)

Whalen-Bridge and Storhoff cover art

John Whalen-Bridge & Gary Storhoff (eds.), Writing as Enlightenment: Buddhist American Literature into the Twenty-First Century (2011)

Whalen-Bridge and Storhoff cover art

John Whalen-Bridge & Gary Storhoff (eds.), The Emergence of Buddhist American Literature (2009)

Flores Scriptures cover art

Ralph Flores, Buddhist Scriptures as Literature: Sacred Rhetoric and the Uses of Theory (2008)

Gombrich and Scherrer-Schaub cover art

Richard F. Gombrich & Cristina Scherrer-Schaub (eds.), Buddhist Studies: Papers of the 12th World Sanskrit Conference, Vol. 8 (2008)

Klimburg-Salter Text Image Song cover art

Deborah Klimburg-Salter et al (eds.), Text, Image and Song in Transdisciplinary Dialogue (2007)

Humphries Reading Emptiness cover art

Jeff Humphries, Reading Emptiness: Buddhism and Literature (1999)

Winternitz History of Indian Literature cover art

Milton C. Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, Volume II: Buddhist and Jaina Literature (1999)

Mizuno cover art

Kogen Mizuno, Buddhist Sutras: Origin, Development, Transmission (1989)

Lopez Hermeneutics cover art

Donald S. Lopez (ed.), Buddhist Hermeneutics (1988)

Amore and Shinn cover art

Roy C. Amore & Larry D. Shinn (ed. & trans.), Lustful Maidens and Ascetic Kings: Buddhist and Hindu Stories of Life (1981)

Hanayama Bibliography cover art

Shinsho Hanayama, Bibliography on Buddhism (1961)

Buddhism and Jainism share the concepts of karma, rebirth, and the desirability of escaping from rebirth. The literature of both traditions contains many stories about past, and sometimes future, lives which reveal much about these foundational doctrines. Naomi Appleton carefully explores how multi-life stories served to construct, communicate, and challenge ideas about karma and rebirth within early South Asia, examining portrayals of the different realms of rebirth, the potential paths and goals of human beings, and the biographies of ideal religious figures. Appleton also deftly surveys the ability of karma to bind individuals together over multiple lives, and the nature of the supernormal memory that makes multi-life stories available in the first place. This original study not only sheds light on the individual preoccupations of Buddhist and Jain tradition, but contributes to a more complete history of religious thought in South Asia.

Kim Receptacle of Sacred cover art

In considering medieval illustrated Buddhist manuscripts as sacred objects of cultic innovation, this book explores how and why the South Asian Buddhist book-cult has survived for almost two millennia to the present. A book "manuscript" should be understood as a form of sacred space: a temple in microcosm, not only imbued with divine presence but also layered with the memories of many generations of users. Kim argues that illustrating a manuscript with Buddhist imagery not only empowered it as a three-dimensional sacred object, but also made it a suitable tool for the spiritual transformation of medieval Indian practitioners. Through a detailed historical analysis, she suggests that while Buddhism’s disappearance in eastern India was a slow and gradual process, the Buddhist book-cult played an important role in sustaining its identity. In addition, by examining the physical traces left by later Nepalese users and the contemporary ritual use of the book in Nepal, Kim shows how human agency was critical in perpetuating and intensifying the potency of a manuscript as a sacred object throughout time.

Berkwitz Manuscript Cultures cover art

This work explores how religious and cultural practices in premodern Asia were shaped by literary and artistic traditions as well as by Buddhist material culture. This study of Buddhist texts focuses on the significance of their material forms rather than their doctrinal contents, and examines how and why they were made. Collectively, the book offers cross-cultural and comparative insights into the transmission of Buddhist knowledge and the use of texts and images as ritual objects in the artistic and aesthetic traditions of Buddhist cultures. Drawing on case studies from India, Gandhara, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Mongolia, China and Nepal, the chapters included investigate the range of interests and values associated with producing and using written texts, and the roles manuscripts and images play in the transmission of Buddhist texts and in fostering devotion among Buddhist communities. Contributions are by reputed scholars in Buddhist Studies and represent diverse disciplinary approaches from religious studies, art history, anthropology, and history.

Humphries Reading Emptiness cover art

This work connects ancient Buddhist attitudes and ideas with postmodern theory and aesthetics, concluding that the closest thing in Western culture to the Middle Way of Buddhism is not any sort of theory or philosophy, but the practice of literature. The book draws on scholarship and criticism in literary theory, philosophy, and science to speculate about the possible common ground between literary and Buddhist practices, aiming not so much to elucidate the ancient traditions of Buddhism as to seek ways in which literature might be integrated into a truly Western practice of Buddhism that would remain philosophically true to its Eastern roots.

Language, Logic, and Semiotics

Cho Buddha's Word cover art

Eun-Su Cho, Language and Meaning: Buddhist Interpretations of the "Buddha's Word" in Indian and East Asian Perspectives (2020)

Herat Linguistics cover art

Manel Herat (ed.), Buddhism and Linguistics: Theory and Philosophy (2017)

Sangharakshita Metaphors, Magic, and Mystery cover art

Sangharakshita, Metaphors, Magic, and Mystery: An Anthology of Writings and Teachings on Words and Their Relation to the Truth (2015)

Tanaka Moon cover art

Koji Tanaka et al (eds.), The Moon Points Back (2015)

Wang Deconstruction cover art

Youxuan Wang, Buddhism and Deconstruction: Towards a Comparative Semiotics (2015)

Burde Logic Dilemma cover art

Jayant Burde, Buddhist Logic and Quantum Dilemma (2012)

Cowherds Moonshadows cover art

The Cowherds, Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy (2010)

Garfield et al Pointing at the Moon cover art

Jay L. Garfield et al (eds.), Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy (2009)

Park Deconstructions cover art

Jin Y. Park (ed.), Buddhisms and Deconstructions (2006)

Wayman Millennium cover art

Alex Wayman, A Millennium of Buddhist Logic (1999)

Asanga tilakaratne, nirvana and ineffability: a study of the buddhist theory of reality and language (1993).

Chi Formal Logic cover art

R.S.Y. Chi, Buddhist Formal Logic: A Study of Dignaga's Hetucakra and K'uei-chi's Great Commentary on the Nyayapravesa (1990)

Stambaugh Real Is Not Rational cover art

Joan Stambaugh, The Real Is Not the Rational (1986)

Sprung Problems cover art

G.M. Sprung (ed.), The Problem of Two Truths in Buddhism and Vedanta (1973)

Stcherbatsky Logic cover art

T. Stcherbatsky, Buddhist Logic, 2 vols. (1962)

Image from Burmese Life of the Buddha

Meditation, Mindfulness, and Insight

Analayo Developments cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Developments in Buddhist Meditation Traditions: The Interplay Between Theory and Practice (2022)

Cousins Meditations cover art

L.S. Cousins, Meditations of the Pali Tradition: Illuminating Buddhist Doctrine, History, and Practice, ed. Sarah Shaw (2022)

Dennison Jhana cover art

Paul Dennison, Jhana Consciousness: Buddhist Meditation in the Age of Neuroscience (2022)

Wallace Art of Transforming cover art

B. Alan Wallace, The Art of Transforming the Mind: A Meditator’s Guide to the Tibetan Practice of Lojong (2022)

O'Brien-Kop cover art

Karen O'Brien-Kop, Rethinking 'Classical Yoga' and Buddhism: Meditation, Metaphors and Materiality (2021)

Vajradevi Uncontrived cover art

Vajradevi, Uncontrived Mindfulness: Ending Suffering Through Attention, Curiosity, and Wisdom (2021)

Wallace Minding cover art

B. Alan Wallace, Minding Closely: The Four Applications of Mindfulness (2021)

Analayo Introducing Mindfulness cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Introducing Mindfulness: The Buddhist Background and Practical Exercises (2020)

Analayo Mindfulness in Early Buddhism cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: Characteristics and Functions (2020)

Johnson Posture of Meditation cover art

Will Johnson, The Posture of Meditation: A Practical Manual for Meditators of All Traditions (2020)

Shaw Mindfulness cover art

Sarah Shaw, Mindfulness: Where It Comes From and What It Means (2020)

Analayo Mindfulness of Breathing Practice Guide cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Mindfulness of Breathing: A Practice Guide and Translations (2019)

Giraldi Psychotherapy cover art

Tullio Giraldi, Psychotherapy, Mindfulness and Buddhist Meditation (2019)

Pagis Inward cover art

Michal Pagis, Inward: Vipassana Meditation and the Embodiment of the Self (2019)

Paramananda Myth of Meditation cover art

Paramananda, The Myth of Meditation: Restoring Imaginal Ground through Embodied Buddhist Practice (2019)

Purser McMindfulness cover art

Ronald Purser, McMindfulness: How Mindfulness Became the New Capitalist Spirituality (2019)

Analayo Satipatthana Practice Guide cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Satipatthana Meditation: A Practice Guide (2018)

Blofeld Gateway cover art

John Blofeld, Gateway to Wisdom: Taoist and Buddhist Contemplative and Healing Yogas (2018)

Hennessey Art of Reflection cover art

Ratnaguna Hennessey, The Art of Reflection: A Guide to Thinking, Contemplation and Insight on the Buddhist Path (2018)

Jeon Samatha Jhana cover art

Hyun-soo Jeon, Samatha, Jhana, and Vipassana. Practice at the Pa-Auk Monastery: A Meditator's Experience, trans. HaNul Jun (2018)

Kornfield and Goldstein Path of Insight cover art

Jack Kornfield & Joseph Goldstein, The Path of Insight Meditation (2018)

Kucinskas Mindful Elite cover art

Jaime Kucinskas, The Mindful Elite: Mobilizing from the Inside Out (2018)

Skof and Berndtson Atmospheres cover art

Lenart Skof & Petri Berndtson (eds.), Atmospheres of Breathing (2018)

Vyner Healthy Mind cover art

Henry Vyner, The Healthy Mind: Mindfulness, True Self, and the Stream of Consciousness (2018)

Analayo Mindfully Facing cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Mindfully Facing Disease and Death: Compassionate Advice from Early Buddhist Texts (2017)

Arbel Early Jhanas cover art

Keren Arbel, Early Buddhist Meditation: The Four Jhanas as the Actualization of Insight (2017)

Armstrong Emptiness cover art

Guy Armstrong, Emptiness: A Practical Introduction for Meditators (2017)

Doran Political Economy cover art

Peter Doran, A Political Economy of Attention, Mindfulness and Consumption: Reclaiming the Mindful Commons (2017)

Eifring Meditation and Culture cover art

Halvor Eifring (ed.), Meditation and Culture: The Interplay of Practice and Context (2017)

Groves and Shamel Mindful Emotion cover art

Paramabandhu Groves & Jed Shamel, Mindful Emotion: A Short Course in Kindness (2017)

Khantipalo Calm and Insight cover art

Bhikkhu Phra Khantipalo, Calm and Insight: A Buddhist Manual for Meditators (2017)

Braun Birth of Insight cover art

Erik Braun, The Birth of Insight: Meditation, Modern Buddhism, and the Burmese Monk Ledi Sayadaw (2016)

Chisholm and Harrison cover art

Bob Chisholm & Jeff Harrison (eds.), The Wisdom of Not-Knowing: Essays on Psychotherapy, Buddhism, and Life Experience (2016)

Sayadaw Manual of Insight cover art

Mahasi Sayadaw, Manual of Insight, trans. Steve Armstrong (2016)

Analayo Compassion and Emptiness cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Compassion and Emptiness in Early Buddhist Meditation (2015)

Boyle Realizing Awakened Consciousness cover art

Richard P. Boyle, Realizing Awakened Consciousness: Interviews with Buddhist Teachers and a New Perspective on the Mind (2015)

Brasington Right Concentration cover art

Leigh Brasington, Right Concentration: A Practical Guide to the Jhanas (2015)

Analayo Satipatthana cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Perspectives on Satipatthana (2014)

Bazzano After Mindfulness cover art

Manu Bazzano (ed.), After Mindfulness: New Perspectives on Psychology and Meditation (2014)

Ie Wiley Blackwell Handbook Mindfulness cover art

Amanda Ie et al (eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness, 2 vols. (2014)

Shaw Spirit of Meditation cover art

Sarah Shaw, The Spirit of Buddhist Meditation (2014)

Dorjee Stillness Insight cover art

Lama Dudjom Dorjee, Stillness, Insight, and Emptiness: Buddhist Meditation from the Ground Up (2013)

Williams and Kabat-Zinn cover art

J. Mark G. Williams & Jon Kabat-Zinn (eds.), Mindfulness: Diverse Perspectives on Its Meaning, Origins and Applications (2013)

Jinananda Meditating Buddhist View cover art

Jinananda, Meditating: A Buddhist View (2012)

Kamalashila Buddhist Meditation cover art

Kamalashila, Buddhist Meditation: Tranquillity, Imagination and Insight (2012)

Loizzo Sustainable Happiness cover art

Joe Loizzo, Sustainable Happiness: The Mind Science of Well-Being, Altruism, and Inspiration (2012)

Sangharakshita Purpose and Practice cover art

Sangharakshita, The Purpose and Practice of Buddhist Meditation: A Sourcebook of Teachings (2012)

Shaila Catherine Wisdom Wide cover art

Shaila Catherine, Wisdom Wide and Deep: A Practical Handbook for Mastering Jhana and Vipassana (2011)

Simmer-Brown and Grace cover art

Judith Simmer-Brown & Fran Grace (eds.), Meditation and the Classroom: Contemplative Pedagogy for Religious Studies (2011)

Thatcher Just Seeing cover art

Cynthia Thatcher, Just Seeing: Insight Meditation and Sense-Perception (2011)

Bodhipaksa Wildmind cover art

Bodhipaksa, Wildmind: A Step-by-Step Guide to Meditation (2010)

Weisman and Smith Insight cover art

Arinna Weisman & Jean Smith, The Beginner's Guide to Insight Meditation (2010)

Cleary Minding Mind cover art

Thomas Cleary, Minding Mind: A Course in Basic Meditation (2009)

Gunaratana Beyond Mindfulness cover art

Bhante Henepola Gunaratana, Beyond Mindfulness in Plain English: An Introductory Guide to the Jhanas, ed. John Peddicord (2009)

Maitreyabandhu Life with Full Attention cover art

Maitreyabandhu, Life with Full Attention: A Practical Course in Mindfulness (2009)

Snyder and Rasmussen cover art

Stephen Snyder & Tina Rasmussen, Practicing the Jhanas: Traditional Concentration Meditation As Presented by the Ven. Pa Auk Sayadaw (2009)

Wynne Origin cover art

Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation (2009)

Shankman Samadhi cover art

Richard Shankman, The Experience of Samadhi: An In-Depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation (2008)

Shaw Introduction cover art

Sarah Shaw, Introduction to Buddhist Meditation (2008)

Brahmavamso et al Walking Meditation cover art

Ajahn Brahmavamso, Ajahn Nyanadhammo, & Dharma Dorje, Walking Meditation: Three Expositions (2007)

Kramer Insight Dialogue cover art

Gregory Kramer, Insight Dialogue: The Interpersonal Path to Freedom (2007)

Packer Silent Question cover art

Toni Packer, The Silent Question: Meditating in the Stillness of Not-Knowing (2007)

Paramananda Body cover art

Paramananda, The Body: The Art of Meditation (2007)

Brahm Mindfulness cover art

Ajahn Brahm, Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond: A Meditator's Handbook (2006)

Paramananda Change Your Mind cover art

Paramananda, Change Your Mind: A Practical Guide to Buddhist Meditation (2006)

Shaw Meditation cover art

Sarah Shaw, Buddhist Meditation: An Anthology of Texts from the Pali Canon (2006)

Vessantara Heart cover art

Vessantara, The Heart: The Art of Meditation (2006)

McDonald How to Meditate cover art

Kathleen McDonald, How to Meditate: A Practical Guide (2005)

Vessantara Breath cover art

Vessantara, The Breath: The Art of Meditation (2005)

Analayo Satipatthana cover art

Bhikkhu Analayo, Satipatthana: The Direct Path to Realization (2004)

Koster Liberating cover art

Frits Koster, Liberating Insight: Introduction to Buddhist Psychology and Insight Meditation (2004)

Nagabodhi Metta cover art

Nagabodhi, Metta: The Practice of Loving Kindness (2004)

Rosenberg Breath by Breath cover art

Larry Rosenberg, Breath by Breath: The Liberating Practice of Insight Meditation (2004)

Sangharakshita Living with Awareness cover art

Sangharakshita, Living with Awareness: A Guide to the Satipatthana Sutta (2004)

Odier Meditation Techniques cover art

Daniel Odier, Meditation Techniques of the Buddhist and Taoist Masters (2003)

Buksbazen Zen Plain cover art

John Daishin Buksbazen, Zen Meditation in Plain English (2002)

Gunaratana Mindful Steps cover art

Bhante Gunaratana, Eight Mindful Steps to Happiness: Walking the Path of the Buddha (2001)

Richmond Work Spiritual cover art

Lewis Richmond, Work as a Spiritual Practice: A Practical Buddhist Approach to Inner Growth and Satisfaction on the Job (2000)

Ginsberg Far Shore cover art

Mitchell Ginsberg, The Far Shore: Vipassana, the Practice of Insight (1999)

Muller Perfect Enlightenment cover art

A. Charles Muller (trans.), The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment: Korean Buddhism's Guide to Meditation (1999)

Chih-i Stopping cover art

Chih-i, Stopping and Seeing: A Comprehensive Course in Buddhist Meditation trans. Thomas Cleary (1997)

Swearer Secrets cover art

Donald K. Swearer, Secrets of the Lotus: Studies in Buddhist Meditation (1997)

Gunaratana Mindfulness cover art

Bhante Henepola Gunaratana, Mindfulness in Plain English (1996)

Silananda Four Foundations cover art

Sayadaw U. Silananda, The Four Foundations of Mindfulness, ed. Ruth-Inge Heinze (1995)

Whitmyer Mindfulness cover art

Claude F. Whitmyer (ed.), Mindfulness and Meaningful Work: Explorations in Right Livelihood (1994)

Bronkhorst Two Traditions cover art

Johannes Bronkhorst, The Two Traditions of Meditation in Ancient India (1993)

Goldstein Insight cover art

Joseph Goldstein, Insight Meditation: The Practice of Freedom (1993)

Sole-Leris Tranquillity cover art

Amadeo Sole-Leris, Tranquillity and Insight: An Introduction to the Oldest Form of Buddhist Meditation (1992)

Luk Secrets of Chinese Meditation cover art

Charles Luk, Secrets of Chinese Meditation: Self-Cultivation by Mind Control As Taught in the Ch'an, Mahayana and Taoist Schools in China (1991)

Trungpa Meditation cover art

Chögyam Trungpa, Meditation in Action (1991)

Lodro Walking Through Walls cover art

Geshe G. Lodro, Walking Through Walls: A Presentation of Tibetan Meditation (1990)

Trungpa Myth of Freedom cover art

Chögyam Trungpa, The Myth of Freedom and the Way of Meditation (1988)

Goldstein Experience cover art

Joseph Goldstein, The Experience of Insight: A Simple and Direct Guide to Buddhist Meditation (1987)

Gregory Traditions of Meditation cover art

Peter N. Gregory (ed.), Traditions of Meditation in Chinese Buddhism (1986)

Griffiths Being Mindless cover art

Paul Griffiths, On Being Mindless: Buddhist Meditation and the Mind-Body Problem (1986)

Gunaratana Path Serenity cover art

Henepola Gunaratana, The Path of Serenity and Insight: An Explanation of the Buddhist Jhanas (1984)

Nanamoli Mindfulness of Breathing cover art

Bhikkhu Nanamoli, Mindfulness of Breathing: Buddhist Texts from the Pāli Canon and Extracts from the Pali Commentaries (1982)

Nyanaponika Heart cover art

Nyanaponika Thera (ed. & trans.), The Heart of Buddhist Meditation (1973)

Soma Way of Mindfulness cover art

Bhikkhu Soma (ed. & trans.), The Way of Mindfulness: English Translation of the Satipatthana Sutta and Its Commentary (1967)

Conze Meditation cover art

Edward Conze, Buddhist Meditation (1956)

Western society has never been more interested in interiority. Indeed, it seems more and more people are deliberately looking inward—toward the mind, the body, or both. Pagis’s book focuses on one increasingly popular channel for the introverted gaze: vipassana meditation, which has spread from Burma to more than forty countries and counting. Lacing her account with vivid anecdotes and personal stories, Pagis turns our attention not only to the practice of vipassana but to the communities that have sprung up around it. This work is also a social history of the westward diffusion of Eastern religious practices spurred on by the lingering effects of the British colonial presence in India. At the same time Pagis asks knotty questions about what happens when we continually turn inward, as she investigates the complex relations between physical selves, emotional selves, and our larger social worlds. Her book sheds new light on evergreen topics such as globalization, social psychology, and the place of the human body in the enduring process of self-awareness.

Kucinskas Mindful Elite cover art

Mindful meditation is now embraced in virtually all corners of society today, from K-12 schools to Fortune 100 companies, and its virtues extolled by national and international media almost daily. It is thought to benefit our health and overall well-being, to counter stress, to help children pay attention, and to foster creativity, productivity and emotional intelligence. Yet in the 1960s and 1970s meditation was viewed as a marginal, counter-cultural practice, or a religious ritual for Asian immigrants. How did mindfulness become mainstream? Kucinskas reveals who is behind the mindfulness movement, and the engine they built to propel mindfulness into public consciousness. Drawing on over a hundred first-hand accounts with top scientists, religious leaders, educators, business people and investors, Kucinskas shows how this highly accomplished, affluent group in America transformed meditation into an appealing set of contemplative practices. Rather than relying on confrontation and protest to make their mark and improve society, the contemplatives sought a cultural revolution by building elite networks and advocating the benefits of meditation across professions. But this idealistic myopia came to reinforce some of the problems it originally aspired to solve. A critical look at this Buddhist-inspired movement, this book explores how elite movements can spread and draws larger lessons for other social, cultural, and religious movements across institutions and organizations.

Arbel Early Jhanas cover art

This book offers a new interpretation of the relationship between 'insight practice' (satipatthana) and the attainment of the four jhanas (i.e., right samadhi ), a key problem in the study of Buddhist meditation. The author challenges the traditional Buddhist understanding of the four jhanas as states of absorption, and shows how these states are the actualization and embodiment of insight (vipassana). It proposes that the four jhanas and what we call 'vipassana' are integral dimensions of a single process that leads to awakening. This book demonstrates that the distinction between the 'practice of serenity' (samatha-bhavana) and the 'practice of insight' (vipassana-bhavana) – a fundamental distinction in Buddhist meditation theory – is not applicable to early Buddhist understanding of the meditative path. It seeks to show that the common interpretation of the jhanas as 'altered states of consciousness', absorptions that do not reveal anything about the nature of phenomena, is incompatible with the teachings of the Pali Nikayas. By carefully analyzing the descriptions of the four jhanas in the early Buddhist texts in Pali, their contexts, associations and meanings within the conceptual framework of early Buddhism, the relationship between this central element in the Buddhist path and 'insight meditation' becomes revealed in all its power. This book will be of interest to scholars of Buddhist studies, Asian philosophies and religions, as well as serious practitioners of insight meditation.

Shankman Samadhi cover art

Dharma practice comprises a wide range of wise instructions and skillful means. As a result, meditators may be exposed to a diversity of approaches to the core teachings and the meditative path--and that can be confusing at times. In this clear and accessible exploration, Dharma teacher and longtime meditator Richard Shankman unravels the mix of differing, sometimes conflicting, views and traditional teachings on how samadhi (concentration) is understood and taught. In part one, Richard Shankman explores the range of teachings and views about samadhi in the Theravada Pali tradition, examines different approaches, and considers how they can inform and enrich our meditation practice. Part two consists of a series of interviews with prominent contemporary Theravada and vipassana (insight) Buddhist teachers. These discussions focus on the practical experience of samadhi, bringing the theoretical to life and offering a range of applications.


Davis Very Short cover art

Stephen J. Davis, Monasticism: A Very Short Introduction (2018)

Andrews Rules cover art

Susan Andrews et al (eds.), Rules of Engagement: Medieval Traditions of Buddhist Monastic Regulation (2017)

Khantipalo Banner cover art

Bhikkhu Khantipalo, Banner of the Arahants: Buddhist Monks and Nuns from the Buddha's Time Till Now (2016)

Samuels Attracting cover art

Jeffrey Samuels, Attracting the Heart: Social Relations and the Aesthetics of Emotion in Sri Lankan Monastic Culture (2016)

Voyce Foucault cover art

Malcolm Voyce, Foucault, Buddhism and Disciplinary Rules (2016)

Nyanatusita Analysis cover art

Bhikkhu Nyanatusita, Analysis of the Bhikkhu Patimokkha (2014)

Nyanatusita Patimokkha cover art

Bhikkhu Nyanatusita (ed. & trans.), The Bhikkhu Patimokkha: A Word by Word Translation (2014)

Ward Never Taught cover art

Tim Ward, What the Buddha Never Taught (2013)

Silk Managing Monks cover art

Jonathan A. Silk, Managing Monks: Administrators and Administrative Roles in Indian Buddhist Monasticism (2008)

Dhirasekera Discipline cover art

Jotiya Dhirasekera, Buddhist Monastic Discipline: A Study of Its Origin and Development in Relation to the Sutta and Vinaya Pitakas (2007)

Lives of Great Monks and Nuns cover art

Li Rongxi & Albert A. Dalia (trans.), Lives of Great Monks and Nuns (2006)

Shinohara and Granoff cover art

Koichi Shinohara & Phyllis Granoff, Speaking of Monks: From Benares to Beijing (2006)

Bodiford Going Forth cover art

William Bodiford (ed.), Going Forth: Visions of Buddhist Vinaya (2005)

Gutschow Being Nun cover art

Pierre Pichard & Francois Lagirarde, The Buddhist Monastery: A Cross-Cultural Survey (2003)

Heirman Rules for Nuns cover art

Ann Heirman, Rules for Nuns According to the Dharmaguptakavinaya: "The Discipline in Four Parts" (2002)

Wu Yin Choosing Simplicity cover art

Venerable Bhikshuni Wu Yin, Choosing Simplicity: A Commentary on the Bhikshuni Pratimoksha, ed. Bhikshuni Thubten Chodron, trans. Bhikshuni Jendy Shih (2001)

Pachow Comparative Study cover art

W. Pachow, A Comparative Study of the Pratimoksa: On the Basis of its Chinese, Tibetan, Sanskrit, and Pali Versions (2000)

Prebish Buddhist Monastic Discipline cover art

Charles S. Prebish, Buddhist Monastic Discipline: The Sanskrit Pratimoksa Sutras of the Mahasamghikas and Mulasarvastivadins (1996)

Prebish Survey of Vinaya cover art

Charles S. Prebish, A Survey of Vinaya Literature, Volume One (1996)

Thanissaro Code cover art

Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Buddhist Monastic Code, 2 vols. (1994)

Fu & Wawrytko Codes cover art

Charles Wei-hsun Fu & Sandra A. Wawrytko (eds.), Buddhist Behavioral Codes and the Modern World (1994)

Panabokke History of Sangha cover art

Gunaratne Panabokke, History of the Buddhist Sangha in India and Sri Lanka (1993)

Putuwar Sangha cover art

Sunanda Putuwar, The Buddhist Sangha: Paradigm of the Ideal Human Society (1991)

Wijayaratna Monastic cover art

Mohan Wijayaratna, Buddhist Monastic Life, according to the Texts of the Theravada Tradition (1990)

Rahula Heritage cover art

Walpola Rahula, The Heritage of the Bhikkhu (1987)

Bechert and Gombrich cover art

Heinz Bechert & Richard Gombrich (eds.), The World of Buddhism: Buddhist Monks and Nuns in Society and Culture (1984)

Holt Discipline cover art

John C. Holt, Discipline: The Canonical Buddhism of the Vinayapitaka (1983)

Nandasena ratnapala (ed. & trans.), the katikavatas: laws of the buddhist order of ceylon from the 12th century to the 18th century (1971).

Dutt Early Monastic cover art

Nalinaksha Dutt, Early Monastic Buddhism, 2 vols. (1960)

Dutt Early Monachism cover art

Sukumar Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism (1960)

Frauwallner Earliest Vinaya cover art

Erich Frauwallner, The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature (1956)

Recent years have seen heightened interest in the ritual, juridical, and generally practical aspects of the Buddhist tradition. The contributions to this edited volume build on this trend while venturing beyond the established boundaries of discourse in specialized academic disciplines, presenting state-of-the-art research on the vinaya in all of its breadth and depth. They do so not only by tracing Buddhist textual traditions but also by showcasing the vast variety of practices that are the object of such regulations and throw a new light on the social implications such protocols have had in South, Central, and East Asia.

Bodiford Going Forth cover art

Vinaya, one of the three main categories of Buddhist scripture, functions not only as a type of canon law, but also as a founding charter for Buddhist institutional practice in East Asia. In its role as a scriptural charter, vinaya has justified widely dissimilar approaches to religious life as Buddhist orders in different times and places have interpreted it in contradictory ways. In the resulting tension between scripture and practice, certain kinds of ceremonial issues acquire profound social, psychological, doctrinal, and soteriological significance in Buddhism. This collection focuses on these issues over a wide sweep of history--from early fifth-century China to modern Japan--to provide readers with a rich overview of the intersection of doctrinal, ritual, and institutional concerns in the development of East Asian Buddhist practices. Despite the crucial importance of vinaya, especially for understanding Buddhism in East Asia, very little scholarship in Western languages exists on this fascinating topic. The essays presented here, written by senior scholars in the field, address how actual people responded to local social and cultural imperatives by reading scripture in innovative ways to give new life to tradition. They place real people, practices, and institutions at the center of each account, revealing both diversity and unity in Buddhist customs.

Wu Yin Choosing Simplicity cover art

This work discusses the precepts and lifestyle of fully ordained nuns within the Buddhist tradition. The ordination vows act as guidelines to promote harmony both within the individual and within the community by regulating and thereby simplifying one's relationships to other sangha members and laypeople, as well as to the needs of daily life. Observing these precepts and practicing the Buddhadharma brings incredible benefit to oneself and others. Since the nuns' precepts include those for monks and have additional rules for nuns, this book is useful for anyone interested in monastic life. As a record of women's struggle not only to achieve a life of self-discipline, but also to create harmonious independent religious communities of women, this volume is a pioneering work.

Wijayaratna Monastic cover art

This book provides a vivid and detailed picture of the daily life and religious practices of Buddhist monks and nuns in the classic period of Theravada Buddhism. The author describes the way in which the Buddha's disciples institutionalized and ritualized his teachings about food, dress, money, chastity, solitude, and discipleship. This tradition represents an ideal of religious life that has been followed in India and South Asia for more than two thousand years. The introduction by Steven Collins describes Theravada Buddhist literature, discusses the issue of the historical reliability of the texts, and offers extensive suggestions for further reading. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in Asian studies, religious studies, anthropology, and history.

Medicine & Health

Salguero Global History cover art

C. Pierce Salguero, A Global History of Buddhism and Medicine (2022)

Salguery & Macomber cover art

C. Pierce Salguero & Andrew Macomber (eds.), Buddhist Healing in Medieval China and Japan (2020)

Salguero Modern Contemporary cover art

C. Pierce Salguero (ed.), Buddhism and Medicine: An Anthology of Modern and Contemporary Sources (2019)

Triplett Buddhism Medicine Japan cover art

Katja Triplett, Buddhism and Medicine in Japan: A Topical Survey (500-1600 CE) of a Complex Relationship (2019)

Patton Wizards cover art

Thomas N. Patton, The Buddha's Wizards: Magic, Protection, and Healing in Burmese Buddhism (2018)

Salguero Buddhism and Medicine cover art

C. Pierce Salguero, Buddhism and Medicine: An Anthology of Premodern Sources (2017)

Salguero Traditional Thai cover art

C. Pierce Salguero, Traditional Thai Medicine: Buddhism, Animism, Yoga, Ayurveda (2016)

Bays Jizo cover art

Jan Chozen Bays, Jizo Bodhisattva: Modern Healing & Traditional Buddhist Practice (2015)

Gyatso Being Human cover art

Janet Gyatso, Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet (2015)

Salguero Translating cover art

C. Pierce Salguero, Translating Buddhist Medicine in Medieval China (2014)

Goble Confluences cover art

Andrew E. Goble, Confluences of Medicine in Medieval Japan: Buddhist Healing, Chinese Knowledge, Islamic Formulas, and Wounds of War (2011)

Brenner Waiting Room cover art

Paul Brenner, Buddha in the Waiting Room: Simple Truths about Health, Illness, and Healing (2007)

Strickmann Chinese Magical Medicine cover art

Michel Strickmann, Chinese Magical Medicine (2005)

Cameron Beautiful Work cover art

Sharon Cameron, Beautiful Work: A Meditation on Pain (2000)

Birnbaum Healing cover art

Raoul Birnbaum, The Healing Buddha (1980)

Monks gathering alms at Luang Prabang, Laos

Pluralism & Tolerance: Buddhism & Other Religions

Jones Others cover art

C.V. Jones (ed.), Buddhism and Its Religious Others: Historical Encounters and Representations (2022)

Lee Mysticism cover art

Yongho Francis Lee, Mysticism and Intellect in Medieval Christianity and Buddhism (2021)

Kalyanamitra cover art

Monica Sanford, Kalyanamitra: A Model for Buddhist Spiritual Care, Volume 1 (2021)

Duckworth et al Religious Diversity cover art

Douglas S. Duckworth, J. Abraham Vélez de Cea, & Elizabeth J. Harris (eds.), Buddhist Responses to Religious Diversity: Theravada and Tibetan Perspectives (2020)

Granqvist Attachment cover art

Pehr Granqvist, Attachment in Religion and Spirituality: A Wider View (2020)

Coward Word Chant cover art

Harold Coward, Word, Chant, and Song: Spiritual Transformation in Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Sikhism (2019)

Harvey Monotheism cover art

Peter Harvey, Buddhism and Monotheism (2019)

Heim Crucified Wisdom cover art

S. Mark Heim, Crucified Wisdom: Theological Reflection on Christ and the Bodhisattva (2018)

Velez de Cea cover art

J. Abraham Velez de Cea, The Buddha and Religious Diversity (2017)

Kiblinger Inclusivism cover art

Kristin Beise Kiblinger, Buddhist Inclusivism: Attitudes Towards Religious Others (2017)

Tran Gods Heroes cover art

Anh Q. Tran (ed. & trans.), Gods, Heroes, and Ancestors: An Interreligious Encounter in Eighteenth-Century Vietnam (2017)

D'Costa and Thompson cover art

Gavin D'Costa & Ross Thompson (eds.), Buddhist-Christian Dual Belonging: Affirmations, Objections, Explorations (2016)

Nicholson Contradiction cover art

Hugh Nicholson, The Spirit of Contradiction in Christianity and Buddhism (2016)

Nicolaou None's Story cover art

Corinna Nicolaou, A None's Story: Searching for Meaning Inside Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam (2016)

Raymaker Lonergan's Third Way cover art

John Raymaker, Bernard Lonergan's Third Way of the Heart and Mind: Bridging Some Buddhist-Christian-Muslim-Secularist Misunderstandings with a Global Secularity Ethics (2016)

Schmidt-Leukel Question of Creation cover art

Perry Schmidt-Leukel, Buddhism, Christianity and the Question of Creation: Karmic or Divine? (2016)

Cole Fetishizing cover art

Alan Cole, Fetishizing Tradition: Desire and Reinvention in Buddhist and Christian Narratives (2015)

Flood Truth Within cover art

Gavin Flood, The Truth Within: A History of Inwardness in Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism (2015)

van Bragt Affinities cover art

Jan van Bragt, Interreligious Affinities: Encounters with the Kyoto School and the Religions of Japan, ed. James W. Heisig et al (2014)

Lopez and McCracken cover art

Donald S. Lopez, Jr. & Peggy McCracken, In Search of the Christian Buddha: How an Asian Sage Became a Medieval Saint (2014)

Gwynne Buddha Jesus Muhammad cover art

Paul Gwynne, Buddha, Jesus and Muhammad: A Comparative Study (2013)

Pye and Morgan Cardinal Meaning cover art

Michael Pye & Robert Morgan (eds.), The Cardinal Meaning: Essays in Comparative Hermeneutics. Buddhism and Christianity (2013)

Carter Company of Friends cover art

John Ross Carter, In the Company of Friends: Exploring Faith with Buddhists and Christians (2012)

Haug Interpreting Thai Buddhist cover art

Kari Storstein Haug, Interpreting Proverbs 11:18-31, Psalm 73, and Ecclesiastes 9:1-12 in Light of, and As a Response to, Thai Buddhist Interpretations (2012)

Hershock Valuing Diversity cover art

Peter D. Hershock, Valuing Diversity: Buddhist Reflection on Realizing a More Equitable Global Future (2012)

Muto Christianity Notion of Nothingness cover art

Kazuo Muto, Christianity and the Notion of Nothingness: Contributions to Buddhist-Christian Dialogue from the Kyoto School, ed. Martin Repp, trans. Jan van Bragt (2012)

Schmidt-Leukel Diversity cover art

Perry Schmidt-Leukel (ed.), Buddhism and Religious Diversity: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies (2012)

Yong Cosmic Breath cover art

Amos Yong, Cosmic Breath: Spirit and Nature in the Christianity-Buddhism-Science Trialogue (2012)

Yong Pneumatology cover art

Amos Yong, Pneumatology and the Christian-Buddhist Dialogue (2012)

Drew Buddhist and Christian cover art

Rose Drew, Buddhist and Christian? An Exploration of Dual Belonging (2011)

Dubuisson Wisdoms of Humanity cover art

Daniel Dubuisson, Wisdoms of Humanity: Buddhism, Paganism, and Christianity (2011)

Rizo-Patron and Kearney cover art

Eileen Rizo-Patron & Richard Kearney (eds.), Traversing the Heart: Journeys of the Inter-religious Imagination (2010)

Baek Nothingness cover art

Jin Baek, Nothingness: Tadao Ando's Christian Sacred Space (2009)

Wallace Mind in Balance cover art

B. Alan Wallace, Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, & Christianity (2009)

King Buddhism and Christianity cover art

Winston L. King, Buddhism and Christianity: Some Bridges of Understanding (2008)

Ingram Buddhist-Christian Dialogue cover art

Paul O. Ingram, Buddhist-Christian Dialogue in an Age of Science (2007)

Gross and Muck Christians Talk cover art

Rita M. Gross & Terry C. Muck (eds.), Christians Talk about Buddhist Meditation, Buddhists Talk about Christian Prayer (2003)

Raymaker Empowering cover art

John Raymaker, Empowering the Lonely Crowd: Pope John Paul II, Lonergan, and Japanese Buddhism (2003)

Raymaker Logic of Heart cover art

John Raymaker, A Buddhist-Christian Logic of the Heart: Nishida's Kyoto School and Lonergan's "Spiritual Genome" as World Bridge (2002)

Williams Denying Divinity cover art

J.P. Williams, Denying Divinity: Apophasis in the Patristic Christian and Soto Zen Buddhist Traditions (2001)

Gross and Muck Buddhists Jesus cover art

Rita M. Gross & Terry C. Muck (eds.), Buddhists Talk about Jesus, Christians Talk about the Buddha (2000)

King and Ingram Dialogues cover art

Sallie B. King & Paul O. Ingram (eds.), The Sound of Liberating Truth: Buddhist-Christian Dialogues in Honor of Frederick J. Streng (1999)

Buri Buddha-Christ cover art

Fritz Buri, The Buddha-Christ As the Lord of the True Self: The Religious Philosophy of the Kyoto School and Christianity, trans. Harold H. Oliver (1997)

Magliola Deconstructing cover art

Robert R. Magliola, On Deconstructing Life-Worlds: Buddhism, Christianity, Culture (1997)

Mitchell and Wiseman cover art

Donald W. Mitchell & James Wiseman, O.S.B., eds., The Gethsemani Encounter: A Dialogue on the Spiritual Life by Buddhist and Christian Monastics (1997)

Carmody Path of Masters cover art

Denise Lardner Carmody & John Tully Carmody, In the Path of the Masters: Understanding the Spirituality of Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, and Muhammad (1996)

Carmody Serene Compassion cover art

John Tully Carmody & Denise Lardner Carmody, Serene Compassion: A Christian Appreciation of Buddhist Holiness (1996)

Loy Healing Deconstruction cover art

David Loy (ed.), Healing Deconstruction: Postmodern Thought in Buddhism and Christianity (1996)

Abe Interfaith cover art

Masao Abe, Buddhism and Interfaith Dialogue, ed. Steven Heine (1995)

Bowers Someone cover art

Russell H. Bowers, Someone or Nothing? Nishitani's "Religion and Nothingness" as a Foundation for Christian-Buddhist Dialogue (1995)

John b. cobb, jr., & christopher a. ives (eds.), the emptying god: a buddhist-jewish-christian conversation (1990).

Lopez and Rockefeller cover art

Donald S. Lopez & Steven C. Rockefeller (eds.), The Christ and the Bodhisattva (1987)

Nakamura Comparative cover art

Hajime Nakamura, Buddhism in Comparative Light (1986)

Hans waldenfels, absolute nothingness: foundations for a buddhist-christian dialogue, trans. james w. heisig (1980).

de Silva Problem of Self cover art

Lynn A. De Silva, The Problem of the Self in Buddhism and Christianity (1979)

Suzuki Mysticism cover art

D.T. Suzuki, Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist (1976)

Boyd Satan and Mara cover art

James W. Boyd, Satan and Māra: Christian and Buddhist Symbols of Evil (1975)

Carpenter Buddhism and Christianity cover art

J. Estlin Carpenter, Buddhism and Christianity: A Contrast and Parallel (1922)

Tran Gods Heroes cover art

Though a minority religion in Vietnam, Christianity has been a significant presence in the country since its arrival in the sixteenth century. In this volume, Tran offers the first English translation of the recently discovered 1752 manuscript Tam Giao Chu Vong (The Errors of the Three Religions). Structured as a dialogue between a Christian priest and a Confucian scholar, this anonymously authored manuscript paints a rich picture of the three traditional Vietnamese religions: Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. The work explains and evaluates several religious beliefs, customs, and rituals of eighteenth-century Vietnam, many of which are still in practice today. In addition, it contains a trove of information on the challenges and struggles that Vietnamese Christian converts had to face in following the new faith.

Nicholson Contradiction cover art

The cognitive science of religion has shown that abstract religious concepts within many established religious traditions often fail to correspond to what the majority of their adherents actually believe. Yet the cognitive approach to religion is largely silent on the question of how the doctrinal views developed in the first place. Nicholson aims to fill this gap by arguing that such doctrines can be understood as developing out of social identity processes. He focuses on the historical development of the Christian doctrine of consubstantiality, the claim that the Son is of the same substance as the Father, and the Buddhist doctrine of no-self, the claim that the personality is reducible to its impersonal physical and psychological constituents. Nicholson argues that that these doctrines were each the products of intra- and inter-religious rivalry, in which one faction tried to get the upper hand over its ingroup rivals by maximizing the contrast with the dominant outgroup. Thus the theologians of the fourth century developed the concept of consubstantiality in the context of an effort to maximize, against their rivals, the contrast with Christianity's archetypal "other," Judaism. Similarly, the no-self doctrine stemmed from an effort to maximize, against the so-called Personalist schools of Buddhism, the contrast with Brahmanical Hinduism with its doctrine of an unchanging and eternal self. In this way, Nicholson shows how religious traditions can back themselves into doctrinal positions that they must retrospectively justify.

Hershock Valuing Diversity cover art

Diversity matters. Whether in the context of ecosystems, education, the workplace, or politics, diversity is now recognized as a fact and as something to be positively affirmed. But what is the value of diversity? What explains its increasing significance? This book is a groundbreaking response to these questions and to the contemporary global dynamics that make them so salient. Peter D. Hershock examines the changes of the last century to show how the successes of Western-style modernity and industrially-powered markets have, ironically, coupled progressive integration and interdependence with the proliferation of political, economic, social, cultural, and environmental differences. Global predicaments like climate change and persistent wealth inequalities compel recognition that we are in the midst of an era-defining shift from the primacy of the technical to that of the ethical. Yet, neither modern liberalism nor its postmodern critiques have offered the resources needed to address such challenges. Making use of Buddhist and ecological insights, Hershock's book develops a qualitatively rich conception of diversity as an emerging value and global relational commons, forwarding an ethics of interdependence and responsive virtuosity that opens prospects for a paradigm shift in our pursuits of equity, freedom, and democratic justice.

Baek Nothingness cover art

Based around an interview with Tadao Ando, this book explores the influence of the Buddhist concept of nothingness on Ando’s Christian architecture, and sheds new light on the cultural significance of the buildings of one of the world’s leading contemporary architects. Specifically, this book situates Ando’s churches, particularly his world-renowned Church of the Light (1989), within the legacy of nothingness expounded by Kitaro Nishida (1870-1945), the father of the Kyoto Philosophical School. Linking Ando’s Christian architecture with a philosophy originating in Mahayana Buddhism illuminates the relationship between the two religious systems, as well as tying Ando’s architecture to the influence of Nishida on post-war Japanese art and culture.

Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy

Epstein Zen of Therapy cover art

Mark Epstein, The Zen of Therapy: Uncovering a Hidden Kindness in Life (2022)

Davis Diamond Approach cover art

John Davis, The Diamond Approach: An Introduction to the Teachings of A.H. Almaas (2021)

Jeon Psychotherapy cover art

Hyunsoo Jeon, Buddhist Psychotherapy: Wisdom from Early Buddhist Teaching (2021)

Kozak Rational cover art

Arnold Kozak, The Buddha Was a Psychologist: A Rational Approach to Buddhist Teachings (2021)

Bobnow cover art

Joseph Bobrow, Zen and Psychotherapy: Partners in Liberation (2020)

Barnea-Astrog Gentleness cover art

Michal Barnea-Astrog, Psychoanalytic and Buddhist Reflections on Gentleness: Sensitivity, Fear, and the Drive Towards Truth (2019)

Helderman Prescribing cover art

Ira Helderman, Prescribing the Dharma: Psychotherapists, Buddhist Traditions, and Defining Religion (2019)

Hickey Mind Cure cover art

Wakoh Shannon Hickey, Mind Cure: From Meditation to Medicine (2019)

Ivtzan Programmes cover art

Itai Ivtzan (ed.), Handbook of Mindfulness-Based Programmes: Mindfulness Interventions from Education to Health and Therapy (2019)

Krägeloh Research cover art

Christian U. Krägeloh et al, Mindfulness-Based Intervention Research: Characteristics, Approaches, and Developments (2019)

Cooper Zen Insight cover art

Paul C. Cooper, Zen Insight, Psychoanalytic Action (2018)

Sella Dualism Oneness cover art

Yorai Sella, From Dualism to Oneness in Psychoanalysis: A Zen Perspective on the Mind-Body Question (2018)

Bazzano Zen Therapy cover art

Manu Bazzano, Zen and Therapy: Heretical Perspectives (2017)

Jennings Heal Wounded cover art

Pilar Jennings, To Heal a Wounded Heart: The Transformative Power of Buddhism and Psychotherapy in Action (2017)

LeVine Classic Morita cover art

Peg LeVine, Classic Morita Therapy: Consciousness, Zen, Justice and Trauma (2017)

Loizzo Advances cover art

Joseph Loizzo et al (eds.), Advances in Contemplative Psychotherapy: Accelerating Healing and Transformation (2017)

de Silva Emotions and the Body cover art

Padmasiri de Silva, Emotions and the Body in Buddhist Contemplative Practice and Mindfulness-Based Therapy: Pathways of Somatic Intelligence (2017)

Ivtzan and Lomas cover art

Itai Ivtzan & Tim Lomas (eds.), Mindfulness in Positive Psychology: The Science of Meditation and Well-Being (2016)

Sears Sense of Self cover art

Richard W. Sears, The Sense of Self: Perspectives from Science and Zen Buddhism (2016)

Brink and Koster cover art

Erik van den Brink & Frits Koster, Mindfulness-Based Compassionate Living: A New Training Programme to Deepen Mindfulness with Heartfulness (2015)

Epstein Going to Pieces cover art

Mark Epstein, Going to Pieces Without Falling Apart: A Buddhist Perspective on Wholeness (2015)

de Silva Counselling cover art

Padmasiri De Silva, An Introduction to Buddhist Psychology and Counselling: Pathways of Mindfulness-Based Therapies (2014)

Molino Crossroads cover art

Anthony Molino (ed.), Crossroads in Psychoanalysis, Buddhism, and Mindfulness: The Word and the Breath (2013)

Rubin Psychotherapy cover art

Jeffrey B. Rubin, Psychotherapy and Buddhism: Toward an Integration (2013)

Magid Ordinary Mind cover art

Barry Magid, Ordinary Mind: Exploring the Common Ground of Zen and Psychoanalysis (2012)

Safran Psychoanalysis cover art

Jeremy D. Safran (ed.), Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: An Unfolding Dialogue (2012)

Wallace Taboo of Subjectivity cover art

B. Alan Wallace, The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of Consciousness (2011)

Kwee New Horizons cover art

Maurits G.T. Kwee (ed.), New Horizons in Buddhist Psychology: Relational Buddhism for Collaborative Practitioners (2010)

Olendzki Unlimiting Mind cover art

Andrew Olendzki, Unlimiting Mind: The Radically Experiential Psychology of Buddhism (2010)

Brown Tibetan Art cover art

Anne Maiden Brown et al, The Tibetan Art of Parenting: From Before Conception Through Early Childhood (2009)

Cooper Zen Impulse cover art

Paul C. Cooper, The Zen Impulse and the Psychoanalytic Encounter (2009)

Levine Positive Psychology cover art

Marvin Levine, The Positive Psychology of Buddhism and Yoga (2009)

Mathers Continuing Dialogue cover art

Dale Mathers et al (eds.), Self and No-Self: Continuing the Dialogue Between Buddhism and Psychotherapy (2009)

Epstein Psychotherapy Without Self cover art

Mark Epstein, Psychotherapy Without the Self: A Buddhist Perspective (2008)

Kwee Horizons cover art

Maurits Kwee et al (eds.), Horizons in Buddhist Psychology (2006)

Langan and Coles cover art

Robert Langan & Robert Coles, Minding What Matters: Psychotherapy and the Buddha Within (2006)

Nauriyal et al Applied cover art

Dinesh Kumar Nauriyal, Michael S. Drummond, & Y.B. Lal (eds.), Buddhist Thought and Applied Psychological Research: Transcending the Boundaries (2006)

de Silva Intro to Buddhist Psychology cover art

Padmasiri de Silva, An Introduction to Buddhist Psychology, 4th ed. (2005)

Aronson Western Ground cover art

Harvey B. Aronson, Buddhist Practice on Western Ground: Reconciling Eastern Ideals and Western Psychology (2004)

Segall Encountering cover art

Seth Robert Segall (ed.), Encountering Buddhism: Western Psychology and Buddhist Teachings (2003)

Brazier Feeling Buddha cover art

David Brazier, The Feeling Buddha: A Buddhist Psychology of Character, Adversity, and Passion (2002)

Moacanin Jung cover art

Radmila Moacanin, The Essence of Jung's Psychology and Tibetan Buddhism: Western and Eastern Paths to the Heart (2002)

Epstein Going on Being cover art

Mark Epstein, Going on Being: Buddhism and the Way of Change: A Positive Psychology for the West (2001)

Welwood Psychology Awakening cover art

John Welwood, Toward a Psychology of Awakening: Buddhism, Psychotherapy, and the Path of Personal and Spiritual Transformation (2000)

Watson Resonance of Emptiness cover art

Gay Watson, The Resonance of Emptiness: A Buddhist Inspiration for a Contemporary Psychotherapy (1998)

Brazier Zen Therapy cover art

David Brazier, Zen Therapy: Transcending the Sorrows of the Human Mind (1997)

deCharms Two Views cover art

Christopher deCharms, Two Views of Mind: Abhidharma and Brain Science (1997)

Epstein Without Thinker cover art

Mark Epstein, Thoughts Without a Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective (1995)

Suler Psychoanalysis and Eastern Thought cover art

John R. Suler, Contemporary Psychoanalysis and Eastern Thought (1993)

Katz Buddhist Western Psych cover art

Nathan Katz (ed.), Buddhist and Western Psychology (1983)

Hickey Mind Cure cover art

Mindfulness and yoga are widely said to improve mental and physical health, and booming industries have emerged to teach them as secular techniques. This movement is typically traced to the 1970s, but it actually began a century earlier. Hickey shows that most of those who first advocated meditation for healing were women: leaders of the "Mind Cure" movement, which emerged during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Instructed by Buddhist and Hindu missionaries, many of these women believed that by transforming consciousness, they could also transform oppressive conditions in which they lived. For women - and many African-American men - "Mind Cure" meant not just happiness, but liberation in concrete political, economic, and legal terms. In response to the perceived threat posed by this movement, white male doctors and clergy with elite academic credentials began to channel key Mind Cure methods into "scientific" psychology and medicine. As mental therapeutics became medicalized and commodified, the religious roots of meditation, like the social-justice agendas of early Mind Curers, fell by the wayside. Although characterized as "universal," mindfulness has very specific historical and cultural roots, and is now largely marketed by and accessible to affluent white people. Hickey examines religious dimensions of the Mindfulness movement and clinical research about its effectiveness. By treating stress-related illness individualistically, she argues, the contemporary movement obscures the roles religious communities can play in fostering civil society and personal well-being, and diverts attention from systemic factors fueling stress-related illness, including racism, sexism, and poverty.

Drawing from original source material, contemporary scholarship, and Wilfred Bion’s psychoanalytic writings, this book introduces the Zen notion of gūjin, or total exertion, and elaborates a realizational perspective that integrates Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis. Developed by the thirteenth-century Zen teacher and founder of the Japanese Soto Zen school, Eihei Dogen, gūjin finds expression and is referenced in various contemporary scholarly and religious commentaries. This book explains this pivotal Zen concept and addresses themes by drawing from translated source material, academic scholarship, traditional Zen kōans and teaching stories, extensive commentarial literature, interpretive writings by contemporary Soto Zen teachers, psychoanalytic theory, clinical material, and poetry, as well as the author’s thirty years of personal experience as a psychoanalyst, supervisor, psychoanalytic educator, ordained Soto Zen priest, and transmitted Soto Zen teacher. From a realizational perspective that integrates Zen and psychoanalytic concepts, the book extends the scope and increases the effectiveness of clinical work for the psychotherapist, and facilitates deepened experiences for the meditation practitioner.

This collection brings together the latest thinking in these two important disciplines. Positive psychology, the science of well-being and strengths, is the fastest growing branch of psychology, offering an optimal home for the research and application of mindfulness. As we contemplate mindfulness in the context of positive psychology, meaningful insights are being revealed in relation to our mental and physical health. The book features chapters from leading figures from mindfulness and positive psychology, offering an exciting combination of topics. Mindfulness is explored in relation to flow, meaning, parenthood, performance, sports, obesity, depression, pregnancy, spirituality, happiness, mortality, and many other ground-breaking topics. This is an invitation to rethink about mindfulness in ways that truly expands our understanding of well-being. The work will appeal to a readership of students and practitioners, as well as those interested in mindfulness, positive psychology, or other relevant areas such as education, healthcare, clinical psychology, counselling psychology, occupational psychology, and coaching. The contributors explore cutting edge theories, research, and practical exercises, which will be relevant to all people interested in this area, and particularly those who wish to enhance their well-being via mindfulness.

Immersed in Buddhist psychology prior to studying Western psychiatry, Dr. Mark Epstein first viewed Western therapeutic approaches through the lens of the East. This posed something of a challenge. Although both systems promise liberation through self-awareness, the central tenet of Buddha's wisdom is the notion of no-self, while the central focus of Western psychotherapy is the self. This book, which includes writings from the past twenty-five years, wrestles with the complex relationship between Buddhism and psychotherapy and offers nuanced reflections on therapy, meditation, and psychological and spiritual development. A best-selling author and popular speaker, Epstein has long been at the forefront of the effort to introduce Buddhist psychology to the West. His unique background enables him to serve as a bridge between the two traditions, which he has found to be more compatible than at first thought. Engaging with the teachings of the Buddha as well as those of Freud and Winnicott, he offers a compelling look at desire, anger, and insight and helps reinterpret the Buddha's Four Noble Truths and central concepts such as egolessness and emptiness in the psychoanalytic language of our time.

Philosophical Psychology & Philosophy of Mind

Peacock and Batchelor Vedana cover art

John Peacock & Martine Batchelor (eds.), The Definition, Practice and Psychology of Vedana: Knowing How It Feels (2019)

Ivanhoe Oneness Hypothesis cover art

Philip J. Ivanhoe et al (eds.), The Oneness Hypothesis: Beyond the Boundary of Self (2018)

Repetti Buddhism Meditation cover art

Rick Repetti, Buddhism, Meditation, and Free Will: A Theory of Mental Freedom (2018)

de Silva Emotions and Humour cover art

Padmasiri de Silva, The Psychology of Emotions and Humour in Buddhism (2018)

Hofmann and Zorić Presence cover art

Gert Hofmann & Snježana Zorić (eds.), Presence of the Body: Awareness in and beyond Experience (2016)

Kuznetsova Hindu Buddhist cover art

Irina Kuznetsova et al (eds.), Hindu and Buddhist Ideas in Dialogue: Self and No-Self (2016)

Repetti Buddhist Free Will cover art

Rick Repetti (ed.), Buddhist Perspectives on Free Will: Agentless Agency (2016)

Siderits Personal Identity cover art

Mark Siderits, Personal Identity and Buddhist Philosophy: Empty Persons, 2nd ed. (2016)

Coseru Perceiving cover art

Christian Coseru, Perceiving Reality: Consciousness, Intentionality, and Cognition in Buddhist Philosophy (2015)

Yao Self-Cognition cover art

Zhihua Yao, The Buddhist Theory of Self-Cognition (2014)

Pickering Authority Experience cover art

John Pickering, The Authority of Experience: Essays on Buddhism and Psychology (2013)

Albahari Analytical cover art

Miri Albahari, Analytical Buddhism: The Two-Tiered Illusion of Self (2006)

Kaza Hooked cover art

Stephanie Kaza (ed.), Hooked! Buddhist Writings on Greed, Desire, and the Urge to Consume (2005)

Stambaugh Formless Self cover art

Joan Stambaugh, The Formless Self (1999)

Khare Eternal Food cover art

R. S. Khare (ed.), The Eternal Food: Gastronomic Ideas and Experiences of Hindus and Buddhists (1992)

Kalupahana Principles of Buddhist Psychology cover art

David J. Kalupahana, Principles of Buddhist Psychology (1987)

Yasuo The Body cover art

Yasuo Yuasa, The Body: Toward an Eastern Mind-Body Theory, ed. & trans. Thomas P. Kasulis & Shigenori Nagatomo (1987)

Griffiths Mindless cover art

E.R. Sarachchandra, Buddhist Psychology of Perception (1958)

Ivanhoe Oneness Hypothesis cover art

The idea that the self is inextricably intertwined with the rest of the world―the “oneness hypothesis”―can be found in many of the world’s philosophical and religious traditions. Oneness provides ways to imagine and achieve a more expansive conception of the self as fundamentally connected with other people, creatures, and things. Such views present profound challenges to Western hyperindividualism and its excessive concern with self-interest and tendency toward self-centered behavior. This anthology presents a wide-ranging, interdisciplinary exploration of the nature and implications of the oneness hypothesis. While fundamentally inspired by East and South Asian traditions, in which such a view is often critical to their philosophical approach, this collection also draws upon religious studies, psychology, and Western philosophy, as well as sociology, evolutionary theory, and cognitive neuroscience. Contributors trace the oneness hypothesis through the works of East Asian and Western schools, including Confucianism, Mohism, Daoism, Buddhism, and Platonism and such thinkers as Zhuangzi, Kant, James, and Dewey. They intervene in debates over ethics, cultural difference, identity, group solidarity, and the positive and negative implications of metaphors of organic unity. Challenging dominant views that presume that the proper scope of the mind stops at the boundaries of skin and skull, this work shows that a more relational conception of the self is not only consistent with contemporary science but has the potential to lead to greater happiness and well-being for both individuals and the larger wholes of which they are parts.

Since the publication of Mark Siderits' important book in 2003, much has changed in the field of Buddhist philosophy. There has been unprecedented growth in analytic metaphysics, and a considerable amount of new work on Indian theories of the self and personal identity has emerged. Fully revised and updated, and drawing on these changes as well as on developments in the author's own thinking, the second edition explores the conversation between Buddhist and Western Philosophy showing how concepts and tools drawn from one philosophical tradition can help solve problems arising in another. Siderits discusses afresh areas involved in the philosophical investigation of persons, including vagueness and its implications for personal identity, recent attempts by scholars of Buddhist philosophy to defend the attribution of an emergentist account of personhood to at least some Buddhists, and whether a distinctively Buddhist antirealism can avoid problems that beset other forms of ontological anti-foundationalism.

Coseru Perceiving cover art

What turns the continuous flow of experience into perceptually distinct objects? Can our verbal descriptions unambiguously capture what it is like to see, hear, or feel? How might we reason about the testimony that perception alone discloses? Coseru proposes a rigorous and highly original way to answer these questions by developing a framework for understanding perception as a mode of apprehension that is intentionally constituted, pragmatically oriented, and causally effective. By engaging with recent discussions in phenomenology and analytic philosophy of mind, but also by drawing on the work of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty, Coseru offers a sustained argument that Buddhist philosophers, in particular those who follow the tradition of inquiry initiated by Dignaga and Dharmakirti, have much to offer when it comes to explaining why epistemological disputes about the evidential role of perceptual experience cannot satisfactorily be resolved without taking into account the structure of our cognitive awareness. This work examines the function of perception and its relation to attention, language, and discursive thought, and provides new ways of conceptualizing the Buddhist defense of the reflexivity thesis of consciousness--namely, that each cognitive event is to be understood as involving a pre-reflective implicit awareness of its own occurrence. Coseru advances an innovative approach to Buddhist philosophy of mind in the form of phenomenological naturalism, and moves beyond comparative approaches to philosophy by emphasizing the continuity of concerns between Buddhist and Western philosophical accounts of the nature of perceptual content and the character of perceptual consciousness.

Stambaugh Formless Self cover art

Gathering and interpreting material that is not readily available elsewhere, this book discusses the thought of the Japanese Buddhist philosophers Dogen, Hisamatsu, and Nishitani. Stambaugh develops ideas about the self culminating in the concept of the Formless Self as formulated by Hisamatsu in his book The Fullness of Nothingness and the essay "The Characteristics of Oriental Nothingness," and further explicated by Nishitani in his book Religion and Nothingness. These works show that Oriental nothingness has nothing to do with the 19th- and 20th-century Western concept of nihilism; rather, it is a positive phenomenon: enabling things to be.

Science: Mind & Universe

Jinpa Science and Philosophy Vol 2 cover art

Thupten Jinpa (ed.), Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics, Volume 2: The Mind, trans. Dechen Rochard & John D. Dunne (2020)

Presti et al Mind Beyond cover art

David Presti et al, Mind Beyond Brain: Buddhism, Science, and the Paranormal (2019)

Wright Why cover art

Robert Wright, Why Buddhism Is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment (2018)

Dorjee Everyday Life cover art

Dusana Dorjee, Neuroscience and Psychology of Meditation in Everyday Life: Searching for the Essence of Mind (2017)

Eisen and Konchok Enlightened Gene cover art

Arri Eisen & Yungdrung Konchok, The Enlightened Gene: Biology, Buddhism, and the Convergence that Explains the World (2017)

Hasenkamp White cover art

Wendy Hasenkamp & Janna R. White (eds.), The Monastery and the Microscope: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on Mind, Mindfulness, and the Nature of Reality (2017)

Jinpa Science and Philosophy Vol 1 cover art

Thupten Jinpa (ed.), Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics, Volume 1: The Physical World (2017)

McMahan and Braun Meditation cover art

David L. McMahan & Erik Braun, Meditation, Buddhism, and Science (2017)

Ricard and Singer Beyond cover art

Matthieu Ricard & Wolf Singer, Beyond the Self: Conversations Between Buddhism and Neuroscience (2017)

Cho & Squier cover art

Francisca Cho & Richard Squier, Religion and Science in the Mirror of Buddhism (2015)

Hammerstrom Science cover art

Erik J. Hammerstrom, The Science of Chinese Buddhism: Early Twentieth-Century Engagements (2015)

Thompson Waking Dreaming Being cover art

Evan Thompson, Waking, Dreaming, Being: Self and Consciousness in Neuroscience, Meditation, and Philosophy (2014)

Barash Biology cover art

David P. Barash, Buddhist Biology: Ancient Eastern Wisdom Meets Modern Western Science (2013)

Dorjee Mind Brain cover art

Dusana Dorjee, Mind, Brain and the Path to Happiness: A Guide to Buddhist Mind Training and the Neuroscience of Meditation (2013)

Flanagan Bodhisattva's Brain cover art

Owen Flanagan, The Bodhisattva's Brain: Buddhism Naturalized (2013)

Wallace Skeptic cover art

B. Alan Wallace, Meditations of a Buddhist Skeptic: A Manifesto for the Mind Sciences and Contemplative Practice (2013)

Lopez Scientific Buddha cover art

Donald S. Lopez, Jr., The Scientific Buddha: His Short and Happy Life (2012)

Lopez Buddhism and Science cover art

Donald S. Lopez, Jr., Buddhism and Science: A Guide for the Perplexed (2011)

Mansfield Physics cover art

Vic Mansfield, Tibetan Buddhism and Modern Physics: Toward a Union of Love and Knowledge (2008)

Wallace Hidden Dimensions cover art

B. Alan Wallace, Hidden Dimensions: The Unification of Physics and Consciousness (2007)

Wallace Contemplative cover art

B. Alan Wallace, Contemplative Science: Where Buddhism and Neuroscience Converge (2006)

HHDL New Physics and Cosmology cover art

His Holiness the Dalai Lama, The New Physics and Cosmology: Dialogues with the Dalai Lama, ed. Arthur Zajonc & Zara Houshmand (2004)

Wallace Choosing Reality cover art

B. Alan Wallace, Choosing Reality: A Buddhist View of Physics and the Mind (2003)

Wallace Buddhism and Science cover art

B. Alan Wallace (ed.), Buddhism and Science: Breaking New Ground (2003)

Davidson and Harrington cover art

Richard J. Davidson & Anne Harrington (eds.), Visions of Compassion: Western Scientists and Tibetan Buddhists Examine Human Nature (2001)

Ricard and Thuan Quantum cover art

Matthieu Ricard & Trinh Xuan Thuan, The Quantum and the Lotus: A Journey to the Frontiers Where Science and Buddhism Meet (2001)

Goleman Thurman MindScience cover art

Daniel Goleman & Robert A.F. Thurman (eds.), MindScience: An East-West Dialogue (1999)

Kirthisinghe Science cover art

Buddhadasa P. Kirthisinghe, Buddhism and Science (1999)

Cooper Evolving Mind cover art

Robin Cooper, The Evolving Mind: Buddhism, Biology, and Consciousness (1996)

Macy Causality cover art

Joanna Macy, Mutual Causality in Buddhism and General Systems Theory: The Dharma of Natural Systems (1995)

Luang suriyabongs, buddhism in the light of modern scientific ideas, rev. ed. (1960).

Images of the Buddha at Gal Vihara


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9 Fresh Topics For Creating A Great Essay On Buddhism

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Buddhism is world religion with as many as 530 million followers today. That’s about 8% of the world’s population. Though it is practiced throughout the world, China has the most followers. It has such a rich history with many sub-beliefs and sects that it makes for a great subject within religious, social, political, philosophical and historical studies. Here are 9 fresh topics you can use for creating a one of a kind essay or to get some inspiration to develop ideas of your own:

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Buddhism Research Paper

buddhism research paper topics

View sample Buddhism research paper. Browse other  research paper examples and check the list of religion research paper topics for more inspiration. If you need a religion research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A! Feel free to contact our custom writing service for professional assistance. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates.

More than two millennia ago in India, Siddhartha Gautama became “the Buddha” and began to teach that one can only escape suffering and sorrow by living along a righteous path that ends with the extinction of desire and ignorance. The Buddha’s teachings lie at the core of what has become one of the world’s largest religions.

Buddhism is the world’s fourth-largest religion after Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism. Buddhism is approximately twenty-five hundred years old and has influenced cultures, events, and thought for generations. It is devoted to the improvement and eventual enlightenment of people, primarily through their own efforts.

The Indian philosopher Siddhartha Gautama founded Buddhism. The traditional dates of his life are 566 to 486 BCE, although recent studies suggest that Gautama was born as much as a century later. Gautama became known as “the Buddha” (the Enlightened One) after achieving enlightenment. He was born a prince of the Sakya clan in a small Indian kingdom in what is now Nepal. He had every luxury of the day and on the surface an apparently satisfying life. He married, had a son, and was destined to inherit his father’s kingdom. However, at the age of twenty-nine he became dissatisfied with his life of ease after being exposed to the true lot of humankind: suffering, old age, disease, and death. His father had protected him from these things because of a prophecy that Siddhartha would become either a great king or a great spiritual leader. His father’s hopes for a powerful successor were dashed when Siddhartha walked away from this life of ease and became an ascetic, a wandering holy man.

For six years he studied and learned from various gurus and holy men while depriving himself of all but the most meager nourishment. Siddhartha discovered that the extremes of self-deprivation were no better than the extremes of luxury and self-indulgence, so he sought the “Middle Way,” another name for Buddhism. Gautama found enlightenment while meditating under a bodhi tree. The Buddha achieved nirvana—the extinction of all desire and ignorance—and proceeded to teach others how to achieve the same state for the next forty-five years. Through discussions, parables, teaching, and living, the Buddha taught the “path of truth or righteousness” (Dhammapada). The scripture (sutta), “The Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness,” contains a succinct exposition of the major points that the Buddha taught.

Basic Beliefs

The Buddha preached “the Four Noble Truths” that define the existence of humankind: (1) Life is sorrow or suffering, (2) this suffering is caused by our selfish craving and desires, (3) we can remove sorrow by removing our desires, and (4) the removal of our desires is achieved by following the Noble Eightfold Path. The Noble Eightfold Path defines the “correct” behavior as right conduct, right effort, right speech, right views, right purpose or aspiration, right livelihood, right mindfulness, and right contemplation or meditation. The Buddha had few prohibitions but listed “five precepts” that good Buddhists should generally adhere to: not to kill, not to steal, not to lie, not to imbibe intoxicants, and not to be unchaste or unfaithful.

The Buddha taught that skandas (experiential data) create our existence from moment to moment and that only karma (the law of cause and effect) operates through our experience and is never lost. However, everything is changeable and impermanent. The Buddha made few concrete statements about the afterlife or the nature of “god”—realizing that the Middle Way can be taught but that each person must experience dharma—the realization of nirvana. His final admonition to his followers was to “work out your salvation with diligence” (Buddhist suttas 2000, 114).

After the Buddha—Growth in India

The Buddha was a practical teacher who knew that people need instruction, and he established the sangha (community of Buddhist monks and nuns) to carry on his work and the work of their own salvation. The Buddha instructed the sangha that it could change or delete any of the lesser rules after his passing if the sangha saw fit. Ultimately, the Buddha urged his followers to be “a lamp unto themselves.” Buddhism provides a system that demonstrates where we err and how to correct our errors not by miracles but rather by hard work and contemplation.

One of the most noted people who helped to expand Buddhism was the Mauryan ruler Asoka, who ruled from 272 to 231 BCE. The Maurya Empire (c. 324–200 BCE) grew from the state of Magadha after the time of the Buddha and rapidly expanded after Alexander of Macedon invaded India in the 320s bce, creating the first really unified kingdom in India. Asoka became a convert to Buddhism and helped to expand it by providing for missionaries and monks, so that Buddhism became a world religion while Hinduism remained confined to India. He is often compared with Roman emperor Constantine in the West, whose conversion to Christianity in 312 CE helped that religion to grow. Inscriptions on pillars and rocks throughout Asoka’s realm encouraged the citizens of the empire to follow the dharma, limit the killing and cruelty to animals, and live a righteous life. Like Christianity, Buddhism may also have provided Asoka and the Mauryans with a code of conduct and a way to help manage, enlarge, and consolidate the empire. Buddhism also benefited from the patronage of a king who helped it to reach beyond the borders of India.

Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Sects

The Maha-Parinibbana Sutta (Book of the Great Decease) concerns the final days and death of the Buddha and is important because the Buddha did not consider himself to be a deity. It illustrates the relationship between the Buddha and Ananda, a cousin of the Buddha who was a disciple and his personal servant. A warm, trusting relationship between the two shines through the text. The first Council of Buddhism met to organize and retain the teachings of the Buddha several months after his death. The Buddhist Suttas, probably recorded by the first or second century BCE, is the canon of the Buddhist faith.

However, by the second and first centuries BCE Buddhism had already begun to diverge into schools of thought that evolved into the major sects of Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. The Theravada claimed to adhere closely to the original teachings of the Buddha and evolved along more monastic lines to spread through Southeast Asia to Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Cambodia. Theravada is also known as “Hinayana,” which means “lesser vehicle.” Mahayana (greater vehicle) Buddhism became the more adaptive Buddhism. With an emphasis on compassion and flexibility, it meshed with the cultures it encountered to spread to China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Mahayanists also developed the idea of the bodhisattva (a being who compassionately refrains from entering nirvana in order to save others and is worshipped as a deity). Vajrayana (diamond vehicle) Buddhism is also known as “tantric Buddhism” and spread to Central Asia, primarily Tibet.

The Silk Roads and the Spread of Buddhism in Asia

A network of trade routes called the Silk Roads made travel possible from China to the Mediterranean and to India from about the second century CE to approximately the fifteenth century, connecting the world in ways it had not been before. Religions in particular found their way to new lands and different cultures via the Silk Roads. Buddhism originated in India and spread to the Kushan areas, part of what is today Pakistan and Afghanistan, by the first century CE. Buddhism developed a number of sects, built many monasteries, and became a consumer of many of the luxuries of the day, especially silk. Buddhist monasteries often provided solace for weary travelers, and Buddhist monks, nuns, and their devotees acquired massive quantities of silk for ceremonial functions. A symbiotic relationship existed whereby the growth of Buddhist monasteries increased demand for silk while also supporting its trade and movement.

The earliest schools of Buddhism to spread along the Silk Roads were the Mahasanghikas, Dharmaguptakas, and Sarvastivadins, eventually to be subsumed by the Mahayana sect. As Buddhism spread to Central Asia and China, pilgrims began to seek the origins of Buddhism, visiting its holy sites and bringing home its sacred texts. The travels of fifty-four Buddhists, starting as early as 260 CE, are documented in Chinese sources.

Xuanzang, also known as Hsuan-tsang, was a Chinese Buddhist monk; like many others he sought a more in-depth understanding of his faith by seeking out original documents and visiting places where the faith began in India. Xuanzang began his 16,000- kilometer journey in 629 CE and returned in 645. As Xuanzang began his journey, the Tang dynasty (618–907 CE) emperor, Taizong, was beginning to restore China and make it a powerful force in Central Asia.

Xuanzang encountered Buddhist stupas (usually dome-shaped structures serving as Buddhist shrines) at Balkh and two large Buddhist figures at Bamian in Afghanistan. Although many areas of former Buddhist expansion were in decline, Xuanzang found in Kashmir one hundred Buddhist monasteries and five thousand monks. Welcomed in India at Nalanda by thousands, Xuanzang found a place of intellectual ferment. Cave paintings at Dunhuang record the triumphant passage of Xuanzang back to China; Xuanzang finished The Record of the Western Regions in 646 to document his journey. Gaozong, Taizong’s son and successor, built the Big Wild Goose Pagoda at Xuanzang’s urging to house relics and Buddhist scriptures.

A chaotic period of religious exchange and development began with the rise of the Mongols during the 1100s and 1200s. The Silk Roads’ pivotal role in cultural and religious exchange eventually declined with the advent of the Age of Exploration during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Additionally, Muslim control of long-distance trade routes helped to enhance the Islamization of Central Asia. Central Asian peoples apparently therefore accommodated themselves to those people who were the major participants in their trade connections. Trade led to cultural exchange; thus trade was an important factor in spreading the world’s great religions.

Buddhism in China and Japan

Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam spread in various areas, but to truly make a home in foreign lands these faiths often accommodated themselves to the local culture and modified or even changed some of their values or traditions. In China Buddhists spreading the faith emphasized the compassionate aspects of the faith rather than the disciplined aspects of Theravada Buddhism, and Nestorian Christians used Daoist (relating to a religion developed from Daoist philosophy and folk and Buddhist religion) or Buddhist terms, calling the books of the Bible “sutras” (precepts summarizing Vedic teaching).

Buddhism reached China by the first century CE, and a number of Mahayana sects developed there, including Tiantai, Huayan, Pure Land, and Chan. Pure Land developed as a way to reach the general population without its members having to grasp all the intricate philosophical teachings of Buddhism. Followers of Pure Land simply were to call or chant the name of Amitabha Buddha for salvation in paradise or the Pure Land.

The Indian monk Bodhidhanna is reputed to have brought Chan Buddhism to China during the sixth century CE. The word Chan (Zen in Japanese) derives from the Sanskrit word dhyana and means “meditation,” so Chan is meditation Buddhism. Towering figures such as Huineng (638–713) and Zhaozhou (778–897) strengthened Chan so that by the ninth century major schools of Chan called “Linji” and “Caodong” had developed and would later be exported to Japan as the Zen sects of Rinzai and Soto.

Buddhism had already arrived in Japan from China and Korea during the 500s CE. During the Kamakura period of Japanese history, from 1185 to 1333, Buddhism experienced dramatic growth and reinvigoration. Energetic and charismatic figures such as Nichiren (1222–1282) founded new sects. The medieval period has been characterized as one of the most religious times in Japanese history.

Buddhism had evolved in China to the point that, during the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279), Chan or Zen dominated Buddhist teachings. Scholars usually credit Myozen Eisai (1141–1215) for introducing Rinzai Zen and Dogen Kigen (1200–1253) for introducing Soto Zen. The Rinzai sect emphasizes koan (spiritual exercise) as its prime tool for achieving understanding and enlightenment, whereas the Soto sect emphasizes zazen (sitting meditation). Both Eisai and Dogen studied in China under Chan masters, receiving recognition of their enlightenment—an official document of lineage is important in Zen and helps to provide credentials to teach upon one’s return home. During the twentieth century, appreciation of Dogen’s work grew, and today Dogen is perceived as one of Japan’s greatest geniuses and the most noted Zen figure in Japan.

With the influx of Chinese masters during the 1200s and 1300s, Japanese Zen more closely resembled its Chinese Chan counterpart. In fact, the Five Mountains system of temple organization, which arose during the late 1300s, was based on the Chinese model. The ironic aspect of Zen growth is that Zen had few real practitioners. Its primary role initially was transmitting Chinese culture to Japan. The Japanese and Chinese masters achieved influence and success because of their access to Chinese culture during the Song dynasty (960–1279).

Buddhism and the West

Much of the early Western exposure to Buddhism came through the Japanese. Eight people, including three Buddhist priests, represented Japanese Buddhism at the World Parliament of Religions in 1893, held in Chicago. The writings of D. T. Suzuki helped to open Western eyes to Buddhism and began to popularize Zen Buddhism. During the last half of the twentieth century, new patterns of immigration and many U.S. and European citizens who turned to non-Western faiths helped Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, and Daoism have an impact on Western culture. Older and recent emigrants from Asia—Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, and Tibetans—have played a large role in establishing a Buddhist foothold in the West and exposing Westerners (Euro-Americans) to the traditions of Asia.

Buddhism’s rise in the United States can be attributed to people’s search for answers and the rapid changes brought about by a modern and consumer-driven society. Buddhism’s rise is also because of dedicated teachers, such as Sylvia Boorstein, Chogyam Trungpa, and Jon Kabat-Zinn, who have helped to popularize the faith. The Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh has had an important influence on U.S. Buddhism. The Dalai Lama (the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism) also has promoted a more engaged Buddhism with his pleas for Tibetan freedom from China. The Tibetan diaspora (scattering) has opened up access to teachers and lamas (monks) who, until the Chinese occupied Tibet in 1959, were little known outside their own country. The Dalai Lama himself has come to symbolize for many the face of Buddhism shown to the world. His character and compassion in the face of difficulties for his own people exemplify for many the best attributes of the Buddhist life.

Shunryu Suzuki was a Japanese Zen priest who came to the United States in 1959 and settled at a small temple in San Francisco. He is credited with establishing the first Zen monastery in the United States at Tassajara, California, in 1967. The Three Pillars of Zen (1965) by Philip Kapleau was one of the first books in English that discussed the practice of Zen Buddhism. The book has had an impact far beyond the students of Kapleau because many people in the United States lacked access to a Buddhist teacher but were shown how to begin meditating and practice on their own by Kapleau’s book. Much of the Buddhist faith in Asia is centered on the sangha, whereas in the United States no real sangha exists.

Buddhism and Change

Buddhism flowered in the West during the last three decades of the twentieth century, and Zen became a cottage industry. What attracted Westerners, particularly well-educated and professional people, to the faith? The beliefs of Buddhism “are more compatible with a secular scientific worldview than those of the more established Western religions” (Coleman 2001, 205).

In a world that grows smaller each day, the Internet has provided a link to the Buddhist communities of the world and has begun to house the vast amount of Buddhist scriptural writing. The Internet may hold hope for many who practice alone or who are in ill health to have access to qualified teachers. Nonetheless, Buddhism is uniquely suited to isolated practice and meditation. Whether Buddhism will continue to broaden its appeal in the West is difficult to say. Even in Asia monasteries and monkhood are difficult choices in an ever-broadening world consumer culture. Buddhism, like many of the great faiths of the world, has found ways to adapt and survive for centuries. Buddhism continues as a way, the Middle Way, to work toward peace, compassion, and enlightenment. Yet, we have only to look back to the Buddha’s own words to find the future of Buddhism. The Buddha said that the only really permanent thing in this world is change.



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Buddhism Essays (Examples)

528 results for “Buddhism” .


Buddhism Changing and Adapting to

Thus to some, Chinese acceptance of Buddhism was surprising given that "China was already a very old civilization, with a written language, a well-organized government system and educational system, with two well-established philosophical and religious traditions -- the Confucian and Daoist Traditions -- sophisticated literature, poetry, art & #8230; so we had here a very highly developed highly literate civilization, and Buddhism came from outside via missionaries" (Garfield 2010). Acceptance by the elite and the splintering of Buddhism into many different sects in China -- combined with syncretism with local deities, proved to be effective. However, its outreach, even in ideological climates which might seem less-than-harmonious suggests that Buddhism stands apart from the insistence upon 'purity' of dogma characteristic of so many Western religions, which demand that the adherent choose between that religion and all others. There is no 'jealous God' in Buddhism, and since the ultimate goal is liberation…

Encyclopedia of Religion. Lindsay Jones (Ed.) Macmillan Reference, 2004.

Garfield, J. 2010 Buddhism in the West. Tibetan Buddhism in the West. Available:

  http://info-buddhism.com/Buddhism_in_the_West_Jay_Garfield.html   [12 Jun 2013]

Growth and the spread of Buddhism. 2002. The British Museum. Available:

Buddhism as a Religion Occupies

An examination of the many issues like the left-right divisions in the monastic order, Buddhist social activism, the rise of organized lay movements as well as the Buddhist founded and inspired forms of political activity indicates that indeed politics has a great influence on Buddhism (Harris 1). How cultural and social forces shaped Buddhism in China A review of literature indicates that cultural and social forces shaped Buddhism in China. The vice versa is also true. The adoption of Buddhism in China is noted to have been accelerated the social and political duress that was affecting China. Buddhism was initially an alien concept in China with its origin being traced to India. By the time the concept was taking root among the Chinese population during the Tang dynasty, the concept was quickly losing its appeal in India.It is correct to say that the concept of Buddhism was at the right…

Buddhism and Shamanism Within Mongolian Culture What

Buddhism and Shamanism Within Mongolian Culture What origins relationships Buddhism Shamanism Mongolian culture? Show origins, evolved time, affected 50-year Socialist period, role plays modern day Mongolia. This applies country proper necessarily semi-autonomous area China referred -Mongolia. Origin of Buddhism Buddhism in Mongolia began as a result of its characteristics that it derives from Tibetan Buddhism which is of the Gelugpa School. In the past, Mongols worshipped heaven which was referred to as the eternal blue sky. The Mongol ancestors then followed the Northern Asian practices of Shamanism which were ancient. In Shamanism, human negotiators went into a state of trance and spoke to a numberless infinity of spirits which were accountable to the situations which involved luck or misfortune. The human intermediaries also spoke on behalf of the Mongols Davids, 1900() The emperor of the Yuan Dynasty converted back to Tibetan Buddhism in the 14th and 15th centuries. However, the…

Boyle, J.A. (1972). Turkish and Mongol Shamanism in the Middle Ages. Folklore, 83(3), 177-193.

Bradsher, H.S. (1972). The Sovietization of Mongolia. Foreign Affairs, 50(3), 545-553.

Buyandelgeriyn, M. (2007). Dealing with Uncertainty: Shamans, Marginal Capitalism, and the Remaking of History in Postsocialist Mongolia. American Ethnologist, 34(1), 127-147.

Davids, T.W.R. (1900). Buddhism. The North American Review, 171(527), 517-527.

Buddhism vs Islam

Buddhism vs. Islam hat is the purpose of life? Life holds different meaning for people across the world; such different perceptions on life are framed by religious beliefs. Such meanings and significance be divided into two groups. There are people for whom the significance lies within the world we live in and then there are those who would like to believe in life after death and the entire notion of heaven (Shun 1995, 240). Those belonging to the first category can be further divided into three groups: those who perceive life in terms of family, those who belief life is all about love for country and lastly those for whom life is about mankind. The latter concept appears in religion; it is used by almost all religions to signify the meaning of life (Shun 1995, 242). Taking the latter notion into account, the paper investigates and draws on teachings and…

Works Cited

Hardy, Julia. (2012). Patheos Library-Human nature and the purpose of existence. n.d.   http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence?offset=1&max=1   (accessed 06-14, 2012).

Inc., Quran Explorer. Quran Explorer. (2006).   http://www.quranexplorer.com/Search   / (accessed 06-14, 2012).

Scott, David.(1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons." pg. 141-155.

Shun, Yin. (1995). "Teachings in chinese buddhism." 06 1995.   http://www.buddhanet.net/ebooks_ms.htm   (accessed 06-14, 2012).

Buddhism Human Beings Perhaps Above All Else

Buddhism Human beings, perhaps above all else, are storytellers. Humans value their stories highly and have extensive traditions of passing down the most captivating and popular stories through the generations. One such story that has lasted the test of time is the story of Buddha. His life and teaching grew into a philosophy and/or religion called Buddhism. There is a substantial quantity of writings on Buddha regarding his extended existential dialogues with disciples and colleagues. Buddha, is some ways similarly to the Ancient Greeks, saw the utility in discussion as a way to address and solve dilemmas of the human condition. Of the various aspects that construct Buddhism, the paper will focus only ethics, the nature of self, ultimate reality, and death. While all of these are aspects of Buddhism, they are all connected by their perspective and how one should integrate these ideas into one's everyday existence and over…


Buddha Dharma Education Association. (2012) Buddhist Ethics. Available from   http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/budethics.htm  . 2012 June 22.

Hardy, J. (2012) Ultimate Reality and Divine Beings. Patheos Library, Available from   http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Ultimate-Reality-and-Divine-Beings  . 2012 June 22.

Piyadassi, M. (1982) The Buddha, His Life, and His Teachings. Buddha Dharma Association, Inc. The Wheel Publication, The Buddhist Publication Society 5. Retrieved from   http://www.buddhistelibrary.org/en/displayimage.php?album=15&pid=49#top_display_media  .

Seidel, E.C. (2012) Influence of Buddhism on Popular Culture. Available from   http://www.eseidel.com/lu/matrix.html  .

Buddhism Is a Worldwide Religion Started Over

uddhism is a worldwide religion started over 2,500 years ago by Siddhartha Gautama, called "The uddha," in India (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). Since then it has grown and spread across the globe and now 300 million people profess to be uddhist (Grow, 1996). uddhism, like Protestantism, is actually a group of related religions that have some similarities and some differences (Grow, 1996). However, just as all Christians trace their beliefs back to the life and teachings of Christ, all uddhists trace their beliefs back to Siddhartha Gautama. One of the most significant differences between uddhist beliefs and other religions is that in uddhism, the basic perception of the world around us changes. uddhism characteristically describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity or substance (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). uddhist beliefs are organized into related groups of concepts. The basic doctrines of early uddhism, which remain common to all uddhism,…


Columbia Encyclopedia. "Buddhism." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: columbia University Press, 2004.

(Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004)

Grow, Gerard. 1996. "Buddhism -- A Brief Introduction for Westerners." Accessed via the Internet 2/15/04.

Buddhism and Christianity Presenting the

Charity, it may be said, therefore, is the initial step in establishing any relationship with a person of another faith. The barriers that one may face when attempting, however, to present the Gospel to a person of the Buddhist worldview may be found in the fact that Buddhism itself is not a religion. It is, rather, a kind of philosophy that enables one to remove oneself from the things in life which cause one to desire permanence -- or, rather, the infinite in the finite world. This, of course, could also be turned into an advantage when presenting the Gospel -- which contains the Infinite in the finite world in the Person of Jesus Christ Who is called the Beginning and the End -- the Alpha and the Omega. Christ is a religious solution to the problem of pain, which the Buddhist practices overcoming through adherence to the Buddhist Scriptures…

Reference List

Sheen, Fulton. (2008). Life of Christ. NY: Doubleday.

Van Voorst, R.E. (2008). Anthology of World Scriptures. Belmont, CA: Thomson

Buddhism The Concept of Life

It is through the process of death and rebirth that the knowledge is gained which will finally liberate the individual being from the central cause of all suffering itself - the cycle of death and birth. Essentially, it is only through knowledge that this can be achieved in most uddhist schools of thought. The rationale behind the importance of reincarnation as a process that is required to escape the centrality of suffering is discussed by Keown as follows. "... The uddha was pointing out that human nature cannot provide a foundation for permanent happiness.... Suffering is thus engrained in the very fabric of our being.... until the condition is recognized there can be no hope of a cure. Keown 47) 2.4. The development of the types of uddhism The early more conservative and doctrinaire form of uddhism was known as Theravada uddhism. Theravada uddhism literally translated means Old (Thera) Way…


Akira, Hirakawa. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana. Trans. Groner, Paul. Ed. Paul Groner. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.

Becker, Carl B. Breaking the Circle Death and the Afterlife in Buddhism. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

BRIEF INTRODUCTION to BASIC CONCEPTS of "TIBETAN" BUDDHISM. August 1, 2005.   http://dl.lib.brown.edu/BuddhistTempleArt/buddhism.html  

Buddhism. August 3, 2005.   http://www.kat.gr/kat/history/Rel/Bud/Buddhism.htm

Buddhism and Daoism There Are

In an English concept of second nature performance of an action, no thought only the action is performed. The similar concept of u in Daoism, which is being or the ultimate understanding of what being is, is also represented in Buddhism by Atman, the inner or greater self. Taoist thought in China had been exercised for a long time over the relation of non-being to being, (chen-ju) non-activity to activity. Buddhists also had been concerned with similar problems: the relation of the Absolute being (chen-ju) to the temporal of nirvana to Samsara. The exponents of Madhyamika believed that it was impossible to describe the nature of ultimate reality. Seek to define the infinite and it no longer remains infinite. Seng-chao (384-414), who was closely associated with Kumarajiva, was the first great teacher of San Lun, combining the Madhyamika philosophy with neo-Taoist thought. (Smith 127-128) During the latter period of the…

Aubin, Francoise. "China: A down-to-earth hereafter." UNESCO Courier, 51.3 1998: 10

Hodous, Lewis. Buddhism and Buddhists in China. New York: Macmillan, 1924.

Ikeda, Daisaku. The Flower of Chinese Buddhism. Trans. Burton Watson. New York: Weatherhill, 1986.

Kohn, Livia, and Michael Lafargue, eds. Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Buddhism the Facts of Buddhism

The "collective harming and killing committed by governments...and harming or killing being of the natural world through soil depletion, clear-cutting, lab testing and poisons," Rothberg writes (274), is a violation of the 1st Precept as practiced by those of Theravadan Buddhist faith. And so, a person of Theravadan Buddhist beliefs would have a right, within the context of being in discussion in the temple, to criticize the Bush Administration for its role in the invasion of Iraq, the occupation of Iraq, and the ongoing tyranny in Iraq. Certainly, the "collective harming and killing" of innocent citizens in Iraq by U.S. forces - sent there by the executive branch under Bush - is an anathema to the 1st Precept of Buddhism. One can clearly see why this form of Buddhism would resonate with modern, progressive esterners; because, in a democratic society where the citizens vote to elect leaders to represent them,…

Coleman, James William. The New Buddhism: The Western Transformation of an Ancient

Tradition. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Rothberg, Donald. "Responding to the Cries of the World: Socially Engaged Buddhism in North

America." The Faces of Buddhism in America. Eds. Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K.

Buddhism and Christianity it Is

This also means that it is the Sovereign God and not just Lady Luck that is the Lord of Israel. Since God is sovereign by nature, it means that His sovereignty even extends to the allocation of Gods to tribals and to pagans, and this also means that God did not simply hand over His very representation of Himself as the Father and as the Son and as the Spirit to Lady Luck, and then relax, nor did He give over to chance or to Providence the form of government for the nation that He had chosen to bless by spreading His teachings and wisdom among the people of that region. Krister Stendal, the former Dean of Harvard Divinity School, made a comment wherein he said that God had chosen manly and masculine metaphors with which to describe Him, and that this was by mere accident and chance. However, in…

Buddhism and gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/KS4/Social%20Harmony/buddhismequality.htm. Accessed on 24 March, 2005

Christianity IV Century. Retrieved at http://library.thinkquest.org/29369/Christianity/Christianity.html. Accessed on 24 March, 2005

Decline and fall of Buddhism: A tragedy in Ancient India. Retrieved at   http://www.ambedkar.org/books/dob7.htm  . Accessed on 24 March, 2005

King, Karen. Women in Ancient Christianity, the new Discoveries. Retrieved at  

Buddhism in James Ure's Opinion

12. The life of Buddha is generally illustrated in three stages. In order to attain a spiritual condition similar to Buddha, one would have to refrain from everything that is evil, to do good, and to purify the mind. 13. Psychoactive plants are often related to in Buddhism and some even claim that Siddhartha used hemp for several years before he came forth with his convictions and developing into the Buddha. 14. The Good Friday Experiment was a study directed by alter N. Pahnke with the purpose of finding out if psychoactive substances could produce philosophical theological thinking in religious individuals. The drug he used was psilocybin and the subjects tested reported that they experienced intense religious feelings, making Pahnke's experimentation a success. 15. Roland R. Griffiths conducted a similar experiment in 2006 and it is considered to be a follow-up to Pahnke's study. 16. Huston Smith promoted the belief…

Works cited:

1. Badiner, Alan Hunt & Grey, Alex, "Zig zag zen: Buddhism and psychedelics," Chronicle Books, 2002.

2. Dass, Ram & Metzner, Ralph, "Birth of a Psychedelic Culture:

Conversations about Leary, the Harvard Experiments, Millbrook and the Sixties."

3. Kent, James L. "Psychedelic Information Theory: Shamanism in the Age of Reason." PIT Press, Seattle, 2010.

Buddhism History of Buddhism the

Major Doctrines There are three major recognized doctrines in uddhism: Theravada ("The Speech of the Elders"), Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"), and Vajrayana ("The Diamond Vehicle"). Theravada was the initial teaching of the elderly disciples and is believed to be the most conservative of all doctrines, keeping the closest with uddha's own teachings and traditions. The Mahayana stemmed from the liberal sect that broke away in the incipient phases of uddhism. The teachings of this sect showed that all levels of uddhist enlightenment were readily available for other uddhist believers, including some phases that were believed to have been reached only by uddha himself, such as the uddhahood. Following this and through the removal of Gautama's exceptionality, it was clear through Mahayana, that there were more uddhas in the world, all having reached a similar level of enlightenment and referred to as odhisattvas. The ways that the principles and paths for…

1. Boeree, George.1999. The History of Buddhism. On the Internet at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhahist.html.Last retrieved on September 24, 2008

2. Lama Surya Das. 1998. Awakening the Buddha Within: Tibetan Wisdom for the Western World. Doubleday.

3. Buddhism - the Buddha and the Fundamental Doctrines of Buddhism, Formation of Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhist Doctrines and Traditions. On the Internet at   http://science.jrank.org/pages/7533/Buddhism.html.Last   retrieved on September 24, 2008

4. Ross, Kelley. 2007. The Basic Teachings of Buddhism. On the Internet at   http://www.friesian.com/buddhism.htm.Last   retrieved on September 24, 2008

Buddhism Directly Evolved From the Vedic Aryan

Buddhism directly evolved from the Vedic Aryan religions. The Gautama Buddha was born into a Brahmin caste family that practiced Vedic ritual and tradition. Siddhartha Gautama's teachings strongly reflect Vedic teachings regarding cosmology, morality, and culture. Although there are significant and widespread differences between the Vedic Aryan religious traditions, Buddhism reflects its roots. Some key differences between Buddhism and its Vedic counterparts include the espousal of the caste system; asceticism; theology; and forms of worship. The legend of Gautama Buddha's enlightenment reflects the ways that Buddhism diverged from its Hindu origins. According to the story, the young prince Gautama became severely disillusioned with his father's Brahmanism. His focus shifted toward a study of the human mind: Buddhism remains more solidly grounded in an individualistic, almost scientific pursuit of enlightenment while Hinduism retains its bhakti, or devotional elements. The Buddhist pantheon, or lack thereof, also reflects its branching away from the…

Buddhism I Have Admittedly Led a Pretty

Buddhism I have admittedly led a pretty sheltered life in terms of interactions with people from other cultures. I am not a Buddhist and so I do not have any first-hand experiences with the religious practices associated with Buddhism. Before this course, and before my experience, I knew some things about Buddhism, but only as much as most people know. For example, I knew that Buddhism is primarily associated with Asian culture, that Buddhists tend towards nonviolence and that they hope to achieve inner peace by positive actions. Buddhists are stereotyped as the idea of the monk in robes with shaved heads, but that is only a very small faction of the people who believe in Buddhism. Also, I knew beforehand that Buddhists were associated with nature and that they had many specific customs which were specialized to their own religion. Now that I have attended this religious event and…

Carus, Paul (1909). The Gospel of Buddha: Compiled from Ancient Records.

Dhammananda, K.S. (2002). What Buddhists believe. Buddhist Missionary Society of Malaysia.

Gach, G. (2010). To be continued: an editorial introduction to the future of Buddhism.

Buddhism and Kant

Buddhism and Kant The Philosophies of Buddhism and Immanuel Kant: An Examination and Comparison of Similar Beliefs Major world religions and the philosophies that accompany them are quite numerous. With the help of the internet, anyone can research and find what certain philosophies state and how various religions correlate to one's own beliefs. In this way, he or she can adopt new beliefs, or strengthen existing ones. The study of philosophy, from Plato to Kierkegaard, from Buddha to Mao and from the temples of tribes in Africa, is a very complex and interesting field. In this paper, I will examine two philosophies: Buddhism and Kantianism. These philosophies are important, for both the aims that they promote and for their close links and similarities that are adopted by hundreds of thousands, and I will attempt to prove them both as important and similar in the central argument of this paper. Buddhism:…


-helping others and -strengthening one's own views. [6: Retrieved from: http://web.singnet.com.sg/~alankhoo/Precepts.htm]

Within these principles, one must constantly strive to be good, which may be difficult, but this is what Kant and Buddhism teach society, and although difficult to put these principles into application today, it is not impossible, for many people can do so, if only they take some time from the fast paced, moving life of today.

Buddhism - Buddhism in Chinese History Arthur

Buddhism - Buddhism in Chinese History (Arthur F. Wright) What were the political, social and cultural conditions that permitted the spread of Buddhism in the Chinese World? On page 17-19, the author indicates that there were social and political changes occurring in China that opened the door to the spread of Buddhism. For example (17), in A.D. 27-ca. 97, Imperial Confucianism, "which seemed to serve so well the needs of the monarchy and the elite," carried with it "several weaknesses which ultimately proved fatal." One weakness was the fact that "analogical reasoning" had been pushed so far it attracted the "criticism of skeptics and naturalists and thus brought the whole highly articulated structure into doubt." Meantime, the author explains that while Imperial Confucianism was under attack (Wang Ch'ung had initiated this "process of erosion" of Imperial Confucianism), so too was Han dynasty Confucianism, which gave citizens of China during that…

Wright, Arthur F. (1959). Buddhism in Chinese History. Stanford, California: Stanford

Buddhism and Islam Perspectives on

V. Conclusion Both Islam and Buddhism are great traditions that have contributed much to both history and religious development. In terms of morality, both religions make significant contributions. Buddhism teaches the learner that actions have consequences, and it is important to think about actions and consequences with one's own intellect in order to determine what actions should be taken. Islam, on the other hand, teaches that societal rights and wrongs are important, that morality cannot be changed from one generation to the next, and that a supreme being is the creator of morality. Both of these philosophies shine an interesting light on the topic of morality. They are excellent instigators of conversation and debate on the topic. For a modern society, however, Buddhism's version of morality seems to be the one that is more universally applicable. As Buddhism allows for religious changes over time, many would feel more convicted by…

Armstrong, Karen. (2000). Islam: A Short History. New York: Random House.

Buddhanet. (nd). Buddhist Ethics. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at   http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/budethics.htm  

Budhanet. (nd). Buddhist Pilgrimage. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at   http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/buddha.htm  

Maududi, Syed. (nd). The Moral System of Islam. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at http://islam101.org/introductory-mainmenu-33/13-introductory/17-the-moral-system-of-islam-by-syed-maududi.html

Buddhism in the Cinema Seven

Then, the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, realizing the impermanence of human existence, and the falseness of a notion of fixed selfhood. Harrer achieved a kind of Enlightenment after experiencing the generosity of the Tibetan community where the Dalai Lama dwelled. The film shows how the Austrian Harrer was effectively stripped of his secure sense of national identity after he was nearly conquered by the avalanche and met the Dali Lama. Once Harrer cared little for politics, and the politics he did advocate was divisive, hateful, and nationalistic. Harrer escaped from a PO camp run by the British, who found him after his accident, but by the end of the film he bears the British no resentment: he no longer identifies as part of any nation by at the film's conclusion. Like Buddhism is an international religion, so is Harrer's new, complex and more generous sense of identity. The Buddha was born…

Seven Years in Tibet. Directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud. 1997.

Buddhism Images of the Buddha

On top of the Chinese Buddha's head is a formation that, though it appears like a bowl, is really a rendition of the usnisa: the crown chakra. The usnisa all but disappeared in Japanese Buddhas, evident in the relatively flat-topped Kamakura Buddha. The Kamakura Buddha thus illustrates how Japanese culture simplified the image of Buddha. The Chinese bronze statue, and many other Chinese Buddha images, are comparatively ornate when viewed alongside similar Japanese Buddhas. In the Chinese statue, Buddha sits on a platform flanked by two guardian beasts like lions or dogs. Such imagery is rare in Japanese renditions of Buddha. The Kamakura Buddha sits only on the stone platform built for the statue; there is no bronze carved platform whatsoever. This possibly indicates the Buddha's absolute simplicity and grounding. Moreover, the Kamakura Buddha looks stunningly solid. Wide shoulders, paralleled by the folded legs, give an aura of strength and…

Ebrey, P.B. "Buddhism." A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization. Retrieved Oct 11, 2007 at   http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/bud/5budhism.htm

Buddhism Reflection on Origins

Buddhism: Background, Origins, and Pillars The life of Buddha is directly connected to the teachings of Buddha and reflect some of the main pillars of Buddhism. “Siddhartha Gautama, who would one day become known as Buddha (‘enlightened one’ or ‘the awakened’), lived in Nepal during the 6th to 4th century B.C” (biography.com). There are other religious figures that have made tremendous impacts on society, religion and the belief system of enormous groups of people; with many of these people, there is a lack of clarity regarding whether or not they actually lived. This is not the case with Buddha: most experts agree that he did live on earth for a period of time, though the exact milestones and experiences he had on earth remain under a certain amount of contention. “According to the most widely known story of his life, after experimenting with different teachings for years, and finding none…

The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism

Interview about ReligionBuddhism is a way of life that spread from the East into the West and gained popularity in the US in the latter half of the 20th century. Some argue that it is not actually a religion since it does not admit of the existence of any God. However, its focus on meditation and the goal being to reach a state of no-self has made many see it as an important part of their life, if not a religious experience or way (Giles, 1993). I chose my conversation partner from work because I knew he had a different belief from my own.My conversations partners beliefs were not characterized by explicit faith in the story of the Buddha but rather in a pragmatic appreciation of what Buddhism offers one in a materialistic society where consumerism dominates and the rat race can make people chase after empty dreams that only…

Giles, J. (1993). The no-self theory: Hume, Buddhism, and personal identity. Philosophy East and West, 43(2), 175-200.

Loy, D. (1982). Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same?. International Philosophical Quarterly, 22(1), 65-74.

Dalai Lama's Freedom in Exile

Introduction This is a review of Freedom in Exile, the fourteenth autobiography known as The Autobiography of Dalai Lama. The account of The Dalai Lama was published in 1991. It is an account of his life from the point when he was born in 1935 in a village called Takster Dokham, when he was recognized as the 14 Dalai Lama at a tender age of two, movement to Central Tibet, the occupation of the PRC in the 1950s, when he went into exile in Indiana in 1959 and the life he led in exile. The autobiography gives the reader an exciting and often surprising account of the Monks life and his philosophies while in exile. It reveals that the monk’s life was far from being simple. Analytical review In his preamble to the autobiography called Freedom in Exile; The Autobiography of Dalai Lama, he makes clear the motivation to offer…

Buddhism Is Distinct From Most

Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides. Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…

Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).

Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from   http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/  

Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.

Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx

Buddhism Religion and Philosophy Founded in India

Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan. A third school, the Vajrayana, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism ("Buddhism"). Buddhism is a blend of philosophy, religious belief and educational principles that focuses on personal spiritual development. Although the distinction may be somewhat blurred, strictly speaking, Buddhists do not worship gods or deities, and the Golden Buddha's people pray to are supposed to be merely aids…

"Buddhism." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2009): 1. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.

"BUDDHISM." The Essentials of Philosophy and Ethics. Abingdon: Hodder Education, 2006. Credo Reference. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.

Jacobson, Doranne. "Buddhism and meditation." Calliope 5.4 (1995): 40. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.

Van Biema, David, Jeanne McDowell, and Richard N. Ostling. "Buddhism in America. (cover story)." Time International (South Pacific Edition) 49 (1997): 50. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.

Buddhism vs Hinduism Describe Essential Teachings Buddha

BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can we explain the appeal of Buddhism? Both Buddhism and Hinduism share many similar features. Both possess the doctrine of karma, or the notion that one's actions in this life affect what transpires later on. However, while Hinduism preaches the doctrine of anatma, or self, Buddhism preaches the doctrine of non-self (Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism, 2012, difference between.net). The first noble truth of Buddhism is that there is suffering and the second noble truth of the Buddha is that the cause of suffering is our delusion that we possess a self. For Hindus, the self is a static, unchanging and eternal thing. For Buddhism, what we believe to be the self is merely a conglomeration of the five aggregates: matter, sensation,…

Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism. (2012). difference between.net. Retrieved:


Eng, Tan Swee. (2006). Differences between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism. A Basic

Buddhism Guide. Retrieved:   http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/snapshot02.htm

Buddhism as a Counterweight to

Columbus reveled in making distinctions between his own culture and 'the other,' in a way that prioritized his own culture, even though ironically he went in search of a non-estern civilization's Indian bounty of spices. Columbus' eradication of another civilization is the most extreme form of estern civilization's prioritization of distinction, in contrast to Buddhism's stress upon the collapse of such distinction. The most obvious negative legacy of Columbus, for all of his striving and inquiry, is the current racial divisions of our own society and the damaged material and cultural state of Native Americans. Although a change of attitude cannot heal these distinctions alone, adopting at least some of the Buddhist spirit of the acceptance of the 'Other' as one with the self or 'non-self' might be an important first step in creating common ground in our nation. Our nation was founded not simply in democracy, but upon European…

Ancient Chinese Explorers: Part 2." NOVA. PBS.org. Jan 2001. 14 Dec 2007.  

Buddhism the Foundations and Travels

(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696) The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on political history. It is perhaps unjust to maintain that India had no sense of history whatever, but what interest she had in her own past was generally concentrated on the fabulous kings of a legendary golden age, rather than the great empires which had risen and fallen in historical times. (Basham, 1954, p. 44) Literature and art reflected the lives of the ruling class along side those historical narratives of Buddha, as can be seen in the first example. Medieval revivals also attempted to rejoin these depictions through restorative works that demanded the attention of many to the idea of a foreign king effectively expressing the Sinhalese culture. (Holt, 1996, p. 41) the tradition is long standing in the region and…

Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama Known as the Shakyamuni

Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Shakyamuni Buddha, grew up a prince in India. As the Brahmin teachings of his family and homeland failed to provide Siddhartha with spiritual nourishment, he pursued a path to enlightenment on his own. Thus around 650 BCE Buddhism was born. ith no deity or creation story, Buddhism appears to be more of a philosophy of living than a fundamental religion, although different sects of Buddhism espouse various beliefs in supernatural beings and dogma. Buddhists generally accept scientific explanations of the creation of life. The central tenets of Buddhism are summarized in the Four Noble Truths: Suffering is inevitable; suffering is caused by desire and attachment to desire; to eliminate suffering, eliminate desire; in order to do so, follow the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold Path includes Right Views, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Contemplation. Buddhism is…

Boeree, C. George. "Buddhist Morality." An Introduction to Buddhism. 2000. 3 July 2003.   http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/buddhamorals.html  

Buddhism Basics." 3 July 2003. http://pages.prodigy.net/vancole/Basics.htm

Buddhism Is One of the World's Major

Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much as a faith, because of its non-theocratic nature. Although the Buddha is revered as a historical figure, and many Buddhist traditions invest his persona with a kind of miraculous power, it is not necessary to believe in a god or gods to be a Buddhist. Buddhism could be defined as a way of coping with some of the perplexing problems that all religions grapple with to some degree: injustice and suffering. In contrast to the caste system of India, which stressed how karma could determine the cycle of one's birth or rebirth, Buddhism stressed the adherent's need to escape from the endless karmic cycle and to find a sense of peace and detachment called Nirvana. The first noble truth of Buddhism…

Sumedho, Ajahn. (2012). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved:


Buddhism Emerged in India Around 2500 B C

Buddhism emerged in India around 2500 B.C. At a time when conditions were critical in the area as a result of significant social and religious conflicts. Even with the fact that this culture contradicted a great deal of traditions in India during the period, it received wide-spread appreciation. The fact that it was initially not as well-organized as other religions that it interacted with did not stop it from pervading the Indian society. The sense of self is a very important concept in Buddhism, as the religious ideology promotes it as being a constantly changing idea. Buddhist teachers emphasize the need to acknowledge that it would be wrong for someone to consider his identity as being equivalent to a particular value all the time. Identity changes over the years and ideas that seemed intriguing in the past might seem less impressive in the present. Buddhism addresses life as a trial…

Bainton, R.H. (2000). "Christianity." Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Renard, J. (2002). "101 Questions and Answers on Buddhism." Random House Value Publishing.

Buddhism Japanese vs Chinese Buddha

D.). Rather than standing alone and interacting with the gazer, this Buddha holds back and is flanked by attendants, creating his own scene in the context of the relief. The Buddha's divinity, rather than his humanness is stressed in the design. The Buddha's hand is in a gesture of reassurance, conveyed from on high, as he sits upon an elevated platform. Three seated Buddhas in the halo symbolize the deity's eternal nature, a concept that gained importance in China in the fifth century a.D" ("Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas," Early 6th century a.D.). Rather than being of the moment, and simplicity, the unique and eternal nature of the divine Buddha is stressed. The man's extraordinary, rather than ordinary qualities are at the forefront of the work. The limestone work is also embedded with scenes of the life of the historical Buddha and fantastical legends about his many incarnations over the…

Schumacher, Mark. "Overview of Zen Buddhism and Its Influence on Japanese Art."

21 Feb 2007]   http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/zen_art_tour.shtml  

Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas." Early 6th century a.D. [21 Feb 2007]   http://www.worcesterart.org/Collection/Chinese/1934.34.html  

Shaka Nyorai: Historical Buddha Enlightened One." [21 Feb 2007]   http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shaka.shtml

Buddhism Compare and Contrast Siddhartha Gautama's Buddha's

uddhism Compare and contrast Siddhartha Gautama's (uddha's) "going forth" into the monastic life with that of Maechi Wabi, based on the reading of "Journey of One uddhist Nun." In his account of the story of uddha, Jonathan Landaw writes "As Siddhartha stood alone in the forest, ready to begin his great adventure, he thought, "From today onwards I am no longer a prince. Therefore, it is not right that I continue to look and dress like one." (Story, p 14). So began Siddhartha's journey of knowledge and enlightenment which would lead him to learning "the way to end all suffering" and becoming a uddha. Like, Siddhartha, the uddhist nun, Maechi Wabi, also began her journey into uddhism from a background that otherwise would not shun, and not expect her to change her way of life so drastically. As a woman, Wabi's decision to become a nun was not initially acceptable…

Brown, S. The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even

Against the Wind

State University of New York Press, 2001

Gyatso, T. Dalai Lama My Land and My People

Buddhism Takes Different Forms in

S. There were 2,794,130 Americans of East Asian decent in the United States in 1990. Not all of these people practice a traditional East Asian religion, and reliable figures for the religious affiliations of East Asians are impossible to obtain because the United States Census does not ask questions about religion. In addition, the religious groups are very disparate and keep different kinds of records, and many East Asians observe traditional religious practices only in a family and not in an institutional context. Still, it is clear that the number is sizeable. In addition, many Americans of occidental background have also become involved in East Asian religions, sometimes through a spiritual quest, sometimes through marriage, and sometimes as a by-product of an interest in meditation or the martial arts. Commitment may range from entering a Zen monastery to taking class or doing practices on a lower level. Figures for this…

Bendure, G. & Friary, N. (1993). Hawaii. Berkeley: Lonely Planet.

Cook, F.H. (1994). Heian, Kamakura, and Tokugawa Periods in Japan in Buddhism: A Modern Perspective, C.S. Prebish (ed.), 223-228. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Ellwood, R.S. (1994). East Asian Religions in Today's America. In World Religions in America, J. Neusner (ed.), 219-242. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox Press.

Hammoind, P. & Machacek, D. (1999). Supply and Demand: The Appeal of Buddhism in America. In American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship, C.S. Queen & D.R. Williams (eds.), 100-114. Surrey, England: Curzon Press.

Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism Is a

Today, the Dalai Lama works tirelessly to bring attention to the Tibetan cause, to illuminate human rights abuses by China and to move forward in creating an autonomous, if not independent Tibet. The quest for Tibetan independence and, subsequently, the quest for Tibetan autonomy, have both been informed by this distinct orientation of the Buddhism. The Tibetan mode of Buddhism has historically been a channel for political resistance and the vocalization of protest against injustice. As the text by Fisher indicates, Buddhists have "often been non-violent social activists, protesting and trying to correct injustice, oppression, famine, cruelty to animals, nuclear testing warfare, and environmental devastation. E.F. Schumacher preached what he called 'Buddhist economics,' to restore willingness to live simply, generously, and humanely with each other." (p. 161) These are the very principles which underlie the global endeavors of the 14th Dalai Lama and which have garnered support from international human…

Works Cited:

Fisher, M.P. (2011). Living Religions, Eighth Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson

Prentice Hall.

Buddhism in the Films Little

Similar to how Keanu Reaves's character in Little Buddha is determined to achieve his goal, so are all Buddhists devoted to achieving enlightenment through intense meditation. Buddhists are constantly reminding themselves that life is but a small element in a much longer process, and, that life passes uncontrollably. Both in Little Buddha and in heel of Time, the audiences are presented with the world of Buddhism shown from an outsider's point-of-view. To them, Buddhist monks appear to be mysterious and intriguing in the same time. Furthermore, most people are likely to feel an attraction to Buddhism consequent to viewing both movies. hile the general public considers Buddhist monks to be exceptional people, with an incredible dedication for their religion, Buddhists think of themselves as being nothing more than simple people, with goals that are different than the normal ones in society. hile both movies succeed in promoting Buddhism, they also…

1. Little Buddha. Dir. Bernardo Bertolucci. Miramax Films, 1994.

2. Wheels of Time. Dir. Werner Herzog. 2003.

Buddhism and Human Rights One

3. There is the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha); and 4. There is a path leading to the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha-marga)." (illis) In Buddha's opinion, suffering (duhka) can be represented through any kind of pain and regardless of its form. The best representation of suffering can be presumably felt when a change from a state of happiness to a state of unhappiness occurs. The cause of suffering (duhka-samudaya) states that most of the suffering that humans feel is because of their desires. Most humans are inclined to wish for something that they believe would grant them happiness. However, in most cases, the goal set by some might not have the desired effect on them once it has been achieved. In order for people to leave suffering behind, they would need to understand that the human nature does not necessarily depend on granted wishes. The cessation of suffering (duhka-nirodha) refers directly…

2. Keown, Damien V., Prebish, Charles S., Husted, Wayne R.. 1998. HUMAN RIGHTS and UNIVERSAL RESPONSIBILITY. Curzon Press.

2. Sundaram, P.K. Om Sakthi Spiritual Movement. Available from:   http://www.omsakthi.org/essays/buddhism_peace.html  

3. Tenzin Gyatso, H.H. The XIVth Dalai Lama. His Hollines, the 14th Dalai Lama. Available from:   http://www.dalailama.com/page.233.htm  

4. Traer, Robert. Religion and Human Rights. Available from:   http://religionhumanrights.com/Religion/Buddhist/buddhist.fhr.htm

Buddhism and Christianity Complementary Worldviews According to

uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus advised the eager young man to keep the commandments and essentially adhere to the Golden Rule to be good. ut when the young man persisted and asked the Savior for more advice, Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and follow Him. Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and seek to be rewarded in heaven, not on earth. ut the young man turned away, saddened that he would give up his great wealth to achieve spiritual perfection. Jesus commented to his disciples that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 19:28). However, in the uddhist…

Boeree, George C. "The Basics of Buddhist Wisdom." Published by Shippensburg University.

1999. 7 Feb 2009.   http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhawise.html  

Boeree, George C. "The Life of Siddhartha Gautama." Published by Shippensburg University.

1999. 7 Feb 2009.   http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/siddhartha.html

Buddhism Is a Religion and Philosophy Founded

Buddhism is a religion and philosophy founded in India around 525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (Buddhism pp). There are two main schools of Buddhism, Theravada or Hinayana, which is found in Stri Lanka, Southeast Asian, and the Mahayana, which is found in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan (Buddhism pp). A third school, called Vajrayana, is traditional in Tibet and Japan (Buddhism pp). The basic doctrines of Buddhism include the "four noble truths," which state that existence is suffering, called dukhka, the cause of suffering is due to craving and attachment, called trishna, the cessation of suffering is called nirvana, and the path to the cessation of suffering includes the "eightfold path" of right views, "right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration" (Buddhism pp). Buddhism describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity and substance (Buddhism pp).…

Deegalle, Mahinda. "Is violence justified in Theravada Buddhism?"

The Ecumenical Review; 4/1/2003; pp.

Buddhism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; Columbia University: Gale

Group. 2005; pp.

Buddhism and Judaism Conservative and

Early Judaic religion also has a long extensive history. The ancient beginnings of Judaism come from the sands of the Syro-Arabian desert. Ancient ancestors of the later Hebrew people moved from the Mesopotamian desert towards the coast, moving into what is now known as Jerusalem and Palestine. Abraham was born into a family which still practiced early forms of animism. Through a religious epiphany, he began to worship only one deity, which he named El-Shaddi, meaning "the rock of the mountain," (383). He was encouraged by God to move to better grazing grounds, "The Lord had said to Abram [Abraham], leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great and you will be a blessing," (Gen. 12:1-2). After proving his loyalty, God rewarded…

King James Bible. Genesis. Found at   http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/KjvGene.html  . On October 13, 2007

Powers, John. A Concise Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Oneworld Publications. Oxford.

Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.

Smith, Jean. The Beginner's Guide to Zen Buddism. Bell Tower. New York. 1999.

Buddhism and Nursing the Authors

Hume believed that we couldn't really see what tied one event to the other, and that cause-and-effect does not hold up as an infallible rule, which means that by eliminating cause we can not guarantee that we are eliminating effect (Rich, 169). Perhaps Hume is more flexible on this point than Buddhism. According to your understanding of Kuhn's writings, would an acceptance of an Eastern worldview in nursing constitute a paradigm shift by the profession? Explain. A strict interpretation of Kuhn might lead one to believe that the incorporation of Eastern philosophy would indicate a revolution that would cause a paradigm shift in nursing. But because nursing already has elements of Eastern philosophy, it would be difficult to say a shift will occur, and perhaps more appropriate to say it already has occurred. The empathetic nature of nursing, and the role of nurse as educator, are not new. In fact,…

Naef, Rahel (2006). "Bearing witness: a moral way of engaging in the nurse-person relationship." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.

Rich, Karen (2003). "Critical Response to Rodgers and Yen's Article: Rethinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 4.

Rodgers, Beth L. And Yen, Wen-Jiuan (2002). "Re-thinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.

Buddhism Teaches That the Divisions

Treating others with compassion thinking "what a good person this will make me seem like," is rooted in egoism, one of the causes of the failure to achieve bodhichitta. Being able to give also means being able to receive compassion from others. Giving requires a state of egolessness and acceptance. The second of the six conditions which enable us to achieve bodhichitta lies in a commitment to one's ethical worldview. In Buddhism this means committing acts which generate good karma. This is designed to circumvent the negative effect or failure of generating bad karma through evil actions. The second condition is patience. This is an especially difficult virtue to cultivate today, given that in today's society, we expect instantaneous results. Expecting that bodhichitta will come instantly will hinder us on the path. The fourth condition is determination or perseverance. This is also difficult to achieve today, given the many distractions…

Buddhism vs Quine vs Crowley

Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research. Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self…

Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich the World of Buddhism: Thames & Hudson, 1984.

David Kalupahana, (Ed) Nagarjuna, and Nagarjuna: Albany: State University Press 1986.

Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Donath, Dorothy C. Buddhism for the West: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajray-na; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press, 1971.

Buddhism the Movie Why Bodhidharma

It is small, real elements like this that keep the characters' human consciousness alert and unable to yet make the final step towards enlightenment with a final departing from the real world. Above the two rises the personality and figure of the Master Hyegok. A Zen master, he has devoted his entire life to learning about Zen uddhism and is now ready to pass that knowledge along to his pupils. With his time passing and his death approaching, he becomes more and more determined to leave the appropriate instruments for his pupils to use in order to achieve enlightenment and they use his teachings in order to attempt this after his death. The "Ten ulls" pictures of the Zen tradition reflect the steps in the path to enlightenment and are a good fit on the stages that each of the characters in the movie have achieved. The bull itself is…

1. Reps, Paul; Senzaki, Nyogen. Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. (1957). On the Internet at http://www.iloveulove.com/spirituality/buddhist/tenbulls.htm.Last retrieved on July 31, 2008

Reps, Paul; Senzaki, Nyogen. Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. (1957). On the Internet at http://www.iloveulove.com/spirituality/buddhist/tenbulls.htm.Last retrieved on July 31, 2008

Buddhism Pali Canon Buddhism Entails

If however she had achieved the ideal non-attachment of Buddhism, her grief would still be real, but she would experience it in a different way. Her grief would be part of a process of letting go the son who is no longer there. A degree of non-attachment would then allow her to experience the grief as outside of herself rather than as part of her individuality. This would help her to move on with the life that is her own. In the above way a too great degree of attachment to human relationships may become destructive to the spiritual goal. The same is true of a great degree of attachment to materialistic ideals such as food or money. Great ambition to accumulate money or physical assets may cause a person to lose sight of spiritual goals. This is a very one-sided approach to life, and may lead to destruction when…

Buddhism and Christianity Buddhism Religion

They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to their religion. In the two religions, the people can worship in groups or individually. The religions have a leader of worship that is a monk in Buddhism and a Priest in Christianity. The two principles in the religion used parables to teach, and they are egalitarians. The teachings on respecting others and treating them as oneself are acceptable in both religions. They both emphasize on charity towards the poor and aspire for greater spiritual perfection. Differences The differences are irrefutable, as Buddhism does not talk of a Creator, God while Christianity believes in a divine creator of Universe (allace 26). In Buddhism, the emphasis is on mediation and mindfulness, whereas that of Christianity places stress on prayer. Additionally, Buddhism emphasizes on…

Works cited

Netland, Harold a, and Keith E. Yandell. Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal.

Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2009. Print.

Wallace, BA. Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.

King, Sallie B. Socially Engaged Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai-i Press, 2009. Print.

Buddhism Has Leapt Out of

The buggy piece of software is not embedded in the computer; it is just a program that can be eliminated by recognizing it for what it is. Likewise, the inner critic is a program that can be extricated from the mind by recognizing it as such and then erasing it from the system's hard drive. When the inner critic is no longer part of the person's identity, he or she is liberated from the tyranny of self-criticism and self-hatred. Any self-critical thoughts that arise during the day are dismissed with a simple smile, in the same way a customer service representative deftly dismisses irate customers. Mindfulness brings up not only cognitions but emotions and physical sensations as well. Those emotions and physical sensations can be used as biofeedback tools in the process of healing. If the client becomes aware of feeling tension in the neck when certain critical thoughts arise,…

Carey, B. (2008). Mindfulness meditation: lotus therapy. International Herald Tribune. May 27, 2008. Retrieved Aug 5, 2008 from   http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/27/healthscience/27budd.php  

Elliot, J.E. (1993). Using Releasing Statements to Challenge Shoulds. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Volume 7, Number 4, 1993, pp. 291-295(5)

Elliot, K.J. (1999). The Inner Critic as a key element in working with adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. Retrieved Aug 5, 2008 from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1773747

Teasdale, J.D., Williams, J.M.G., Soulsby, J.M., Segal, Z.V., Ridgeway, V.A., & Lau, M.A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence of major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 68(4): 615-623.

Buddhism if the Complexity of

There are many ironies and paradoxes embedded within the Four Noble Truths. For example, it is ironic that one must desire liberation from desire. Such seeming contradictions are resolved easily by discerning the difference between the desire for truth, wisdom, and peace vs. The desire for things that are harmful to the psyche such as pride, revenge, or anger. The Four Noble Truths are essentially psychological in nature rather than spiritual or metaphysical. The Four Noble Truths are like a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Four Noble Truths can be understood as a consistent and coherent whole. In fact, the Four Noble Truths are best understood as a whole rather than being fragmented. When considered as a whole, the Four Noble Truths play themselves out in the person's mind each and every day, possibly each and every moment. The person who becomes more aware of how suffering arises in the…

Buddhism and Hinduism Compare and

) These consist in offerings made at the home shrine or performing puja to the family deities whereas Nainittika occur only at certain times during the year.For instance, the celebration of festivals in temples, offering thanksgiving etc.Kamya are pilgrimages. Although optional they are ocnsidered by the followers of the faith to be highly desirable. It allows a devotee to see and be seen by the deity which is an important part of Hindu Worship. Areas of pilgrimage would be rivers (especially river Ganges, and holy places such as Banares (believed to be the home of Lord Shiva), Allahabad, etc.), temples, mountains, and other sacred sites are popular pilgrimage places Due to the atheistic nature of Buddhism, this faith has no doctrine of a personal god. In order to arise to enlightment buddhist meditate.Meditation involves the body and the mind. For Buddhists this is particularly important as they want to avoid…

Knipe, David M. Hinduism: Experiments in the Sacred. Religious traditions of the world. San Francisco, Calif: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Print

Knott, Kim. Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Very short introductions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print

Buddhism in the United States

Meditation centers became popular during this time, and so did extensive study into eastern religions, such as Buddhism. There is another aspect of Buddhism that has had a remarkable effect on American society in just about every area, and that is yoga. While all Buddhists do not practice yoga (or meditation, for that matter), a large part of them do. Yoga has spread from being a relatively unknown practice to one of the most popular types of no-stress exercise in the country today. Millions of people attend yoga classes each week across the country, and it is touted as an excellent source of exercise for mind and body. Buddhists are often thought to be non-materially oriented and interested more in spiritual enlightenment, but that is another area where the religion has altered in America. Author McCormick continues, "Instead, one's external, material circumstances are viewed as an effect of one's inner,…

Coleman, J.W. (2001). The new Buddhism: The western transformation of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press.

McCormick, R.M. (2002). Buddhism in America. Retrieved 4 May 2009 from the NichirenCoffeeHouse Web Site: http://nichirenscoffeehouse.net/Ryuei/Buddhism-in-America.html.

Seager, R.H. (1999). Buddhism in America. New York: Columbia University Press.

Buddhism and Hinduism Both the

Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the dualities of the ordinary world. In most Buddhist schools of thought we understand the search for Nirvana as the personal search for enlightenment and understanding of existence beyond ordinary duality. This is also reflected in Advaita Hinduism. Another important area of comparison is the rejection of a personal God or the concept of God as part of the realization of Nirvana. This is evident in all forms of Buddhism and in Advaita Hinduism. However, the Dvaita school of thought and other forms of Hinduism tend to place emphasis on God or Gods as essential for enlighten. There are many other similarities and differences between these two faiths, which would take as few books to discuss. In the final analysis we could…

Advaita. February 6, 2010.

Dasa, Shukavak N. A Hindu Primer. February 3, 2010.

Buddhism in the Following Films

He instructs people that everything is possible through belief, and, that their life is nothing as they had previously perceived it. The claim that "the universe is an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere" (Bernard, I Heart Huckabees) is a clear reference to Buddhism, with the religion's followers believing that nothing is as society sees it, and, that everything has shape and color because people want it to. Also, they believe that everything in the universe is connected, even with the fact that people are accustomed to differentiating. Bernard continues to promote Buddhist theories by describing how every person is the same and differences in language, skin color, and backgrounds are not to be considered actual dissimilarities, as they are just the outer shell of the spirit. People are generally limited by themselves, with them being unable to attain a higher state of mind because…

1. I Heart Huckabees. Dir. David O. Russell. Fox Searchlight, 2004.

2. Rashomon. Dir. Akira Kurosawa. Daiei/Rko Radio Pictures, 1950/1951.

Buddhism Jean Smith Radiant Mind

Wisdom in Buddhism Some twenty-five hundred years ago, Buddha Shakyamuni devoted the last forty-nine of seventy-nine-years of life teaching his practices to people in the area today of Northern India about enlightenment and how to achieve that state of being, as he had. The term Buddha as translated today from the Sanskrit word means wisdom or enlightenment, though the two terms are not interchangeable. It is the goal for all sentient beings to achieve enlightenment, or Buddhahood, where all pain and suffering in one's life are extinguished and removed from their very being. Nevertheless, wisdom is an essential concept within Buddhism; in fact, it is the third essential elemental practice within the Noble Eightfold Path. Wisdom is innate in all of us, as is enlightenment. Some two thousand years ago, some forty Mahayana sutras were composed on the perfection of wisdom, which is also known as prajnaparamita. There are three…

Buddhism Buddhist Practices

Buddha the founder of the Buddhist faith lived in India, Bihar, from 563-483 BCE. As the Buddha or enlightened one he preached his doctrine of the four great truths. Sorrow is inherent in life, it arises from desire, and only by eliminating desire can man be released from sorrow. This may be achieved by following the noble eight-fold path of right conduct in vision, thought, speech, action, giving, striving, vigilance and meditation. He preached that this middle path would lead to nirvana. There are now 4 distinctive types of Buddhism. Theravada - or "way of the elders" - is the sole remaining form of conservative Buddhism, of which there were once at least 18 schools, or nikaya. It originated in India during the centuries after the final nirvana of the Buddha and was probably the dominant form of Buddhism in India. Theravada is now the dominant form of Buddhism in…

Buddhism Jean Smith

Buddha-Nature and Enlightenment Buddhism is a unique religion: it doesn't worship any deity nor does it require any individual to live their lives through divine will. Approximately 2,500 years ago, when Buddha achieved enlightenment he spent the next forty-five years teaching others that personal growth and awakening is possible through finding the truth within themselves. This concept is very alien in comparison to Western religions. There are many aspects of Buddhism, but what is essential is that personal awakening is possible personal experience and that suffering can be ceased through changing behavior, meditation, and transcendent wisdom. We are grateful to Siddartha Gautama for institutionalizing the practices we call Buddhism today so that we may better understand what Buddha experienced, and what he taught to the people along the Ganges River. Two essential understandings in the teachings of Buddhism are Buddha-nature and Enlightenment. To understand Buddha-nature we must first to come…

Enlightenment: Karma, Bodhisattvas, and Nirvana For some twenty-four hundred years, Buddhism has been a pre-dominantly Eastern religion. But in the last one-hundred-and-fifty years - ever since the first Asian immigrants arrived on these American shores as workers - the unique teachings and practices of Buddha have incorporated itself into Western society. And throughout the migration of this religion through the centuries, one goal has never changed: to achieve enlightenment as Buddha had under the bodhi tree. And what Buddha did next is the fundamental foundation of Buddhism: he taught others how to achieve it, too: he didn't keep the secret to himself. But there is no secret in achieving enlightenment. It only requires commitment, aspiration, following certain practices and vows, and understanding many concepts within Buddhism can an individual become enlightened. Three of the concepts an individual must come to understand are the laws of karma, identifying Nirvana, and knowledge…

Compare and Contrast Christianity and Buddhism

uddhism and Christianity As a system of belief, Zen uddhism arrived in Japan in the 14th century as the result of liberalization of trade relationships between Japan and China after finding it entry into the far eastern cultures through India. (Kitagawa, 1966) uddhism is a system of belief with many sects that follow individual masters who are said to have achieved a new revelation on how to apply the Four Noble Laws. uddhism was meant to give the practitioners influence and control over suffering in the world by teaching then to have greater control over themselves. The combined effect was to help the uddhist to respond differently to the suffering around him. Thereby the uddhist would be less entangled in the suffering in the surrounding world, and indirectly be able to affect change by lessening the corporate experience in suffering. In Medieval Japan, which was ruled by militaristic lords who…

The Four Noble Laws. 2004. Asunam -- Reiki Master 9 Feb 2004.

Tsunoda, R., de Bary W.T., and Keene, D. Sources of Japanese tradition. New York: Columbia University Press. 1958

Kitagawa, J. Religion in Japanese History. New York: Columbia University Press. 1966

The Thompson Chain Reference Bible, King James Version. 1964. Indiana: B.B. Kirkbride Bible Company.

How Buddhism and Hinduism Are Alike and Are Also Different

Buddhism hen Buddha discusses suffering or pain (dukkha), the First Noble Truth, he is referring not only to pain as though someone had burned a hand on a stove, or had stumbled and bruised knee. Dukkha-dukkha is in reference to negative things, painful emotional moments, mental agony and the suffering that goes along with mental disturbances. According to sources used for this paper, some scholars suggest that dukkha alludes to something closer to "dissatisfaction" or "stress" (about.com). And viparinama-dukkha also refers to change or a lack of permanence. For example, when a person is very happy but the success that produced that happiness fades away, that is dukkha (about.com). The cause of suffering (samkhara-dukkha) (the Second Noble Truth) can be attributed to a "craving," and to "desire" and "ignorance"; desire means craving for material things and pleasure, along with immortality (pbs.org). Buddha believed these wants and desires could never be…

About.com. (2010). What is Self? / Life Is Suffering? What Does That Mean? Retrieved

July 20, 2015, from   http://buddhism.about.com  .

BBC. (2009). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from   http://www.bbc.co.uk  .

Bliss of Hinduism. (2012). The Self in Hinduism. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from https://blissofhinduism.wordpress.com.

islam christianity and buddhism are universal

Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are a few of the "universal" or "universalizing" religions. Strayer frames the universalizing religions in terms of the spread of different cultures and ideas throughout the world. Religions are integral to social and political power and control, and thus have a transformative effect on society as well as on the individuals within that society. The nature of universalizing religion is such that they can be all-pervasive, permeating almost every dimension of life including political, economic, and social institutions. However, universalizing religions are distinct in that they actively seek new followers; they believe their message is indeed universal and contains universal truths embedded within it. Although universalizing religions use different methods of spreading their faiths, they share in common the desire to influence human thought and even public discourse. Of the universalizing religions, Christianity and Islam have historically revealed the most aggressive evangelical tendencies but Hinduism and…

Kong, Lily. Christian evangelizing across national boundaries. Religion and Place, 2012, pp. 21-38.

Premawardhana, S. Religious Conversion. John Wiley, 2015.

"Religions of the World." Retrieved online:   http://lindblomeagles.org/ourpages/auto/2015/2/18/44701116/L6_ReligionsReading.pdf  

Strayer, R.W. Ways of the World. [Kindle Edition]. 2012.

Religions of Buddhism and Christianity

Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless. The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…

Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Bowker, John Westerdale. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Easwaran, Eknath. The Dhammapada. Petaluma, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1986.

Meeks, Wayne a. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.


Mythology - Religion

Thus to some, Chinese acceptance of Buddhism was surprising given that "China was already a very old civilization, with a written language, a well-organized government system and educational system,…

An examination of the many issues like the left-right divisions in the monastic order, Buddhist social activism, the rise of organized lay movements as well as the Buddhist founded…

Buddhism and Shamanism Within Mongolian Culture What origins relationships Buddhism Shamanism Mongolian culture? Show origins, evolved time, affected 50-year Socialist period, role plays modern day Mongolia. This applies country…

Buddhism vs. Islam hat is the purpose of life? Life holds different meaning for people across the world; such different perceptions on life are framed by religious beliefs. Such…

Buddhism Human beings, perhaps above all else, are storytellers. Humans value their stories highly and have extensive traditions of passing down the most captivating and popular stories through the…

uddhism is a worldwide religion started over 2,500 years ago by Siddhartha Gautama, called "The uddha," in India (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). Since then it has grown and spread across…

Charity, it may be said, therefore, is the initial step in establishing any relationship with a person of another faith. The barriers that one may face when attempting, however,…

It is through the process of death and rebirth that the knowledge is gained which will finally liberate the individual being from the central cause of all suffering itself…

In an English concept of second nature performance of an action, no thought only the action is performed. The similar concept of u in Daoism, which is being or…

The "collective harming and killing committed by governments...and harming or killing being of the natural world through soil depletion, clear-cutting, lab testing and poisons," Rothberg writes (274), is a…

This also means that it is the Sovereign God and not just Lady Luck that is the Lord of Israel. Since God is sovereign by nature, it means that…

12. The life of Buddha is generally illustrated in three stages. In order to attain a spiritual condition similar to Buddha, one would have to refrain from everything that…

Major Doctrines There are three major recognized doctrines in uddhism: Theravada ("The Speech of the Elders"), Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"), and Vajrayana ("The Diamond Vehicle"). Theravada was the initial…

Buddhism directly evolved from the Vedic Aryan religions. The Gautama Buddha was born into a Brahmin caste family that practiced Vedic ritual and tradition. Siddhartha Gautama's teachings strongly reflect…

Research Paper

Buddhism I have admittedly led a pretty sheltered life in terms of interactions with people from other cultures. I am not a Buddhist and so I do not have…

Black Studies - Philosophy

Buddhism and Kant The Philosophies of Buddhism and Immanuel Kant: An Examination and Comparison of Similar Beliefs Major world religions and the philosophies that accompany them are quite numerous.…

Buddhism - Buddhism in Chinese History (Arthur F. Wright) What were the political, social and cultural conditions that permitted the spread of Buddhism in the Chinese World? On page…

V. Conclusion Both Islam and Buddhism are great traditions that have contributed much to both history and religious development. In terms of morality, both religions make significant contributions. Buddhism…

Then, the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, realizing the impermanence of human existence, and the falseness of a notion of fixed selfhood. Harrer achieved a kind of Enlightenment after experiencing the…

History - Asian

On top of the Chinese Buddha's head is a formation that, though it appears like a bowl, is really a rendition of the usnisa: the crown chakra. The usnisa…

Religion - Buddhism

Buddhism: Background, Origins, and Pillars The life of Buddha is directly connected to the teachings of Buddha and reflect some of the main pillars of Buddhism. “Siddhartha Gautama, who…

Interview about ReligionBuddhism is a way of life that spread from the East into the West and gained popularity in the US in the latter half of the 20th…

Introduction This is a review of Freedom in Exile, the fourteenth autobiography known as The Autobiography of Dalai Lama. The account of The Dalai Lama was published in 1991.…

Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners…

Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it…

BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can…

Columbus reveled in making distinctions between his own culture and 'the other,' in a way that prioritized his own culture, even though ironically he went in search of a…

(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696) The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on…

Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Shakyamuni Buddha, grew up a prince in India. As the Brahmin teachings of his family and homeland failed to provide Siddhartha with spiritual…

Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much…

Buddhism emerged in India around 2500 B.C. At a time when conditions were critical in the area as a result of significant social and religious conflicts. Even with the…

D.). Rather than standing alone and interacting with the gazer, this Buddha holds back and is flanked by attendants, creating his own scene in the context of the relief.…

uddhism Compare and contrast Siddhartha Gautama's (uddha's) "going forth" into the monastic life with that of Maechi Wabi, based on the reading of "Journey of One uddhist Nun." In…

S. There were 2,794,130 Americans of East Asian decent in the United States in 1990. Not all of these people practice a traditional East Asian religion, and reliable figures…

Today, the Dalai Lama works tirelessly to bring attention to the Tibetan cause, to illuminate human rights abuses by China and to move forward in creating an autonomous, if…

Similar to how Keanu Reaves's character in Little Buddha is determined to achieve his goal, so are all Buddhists devoted to achieving enlightenment through intense meditation. Buddhists are constantly…

3. There is the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha); and 4. There is a path leading to the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha-marga)." (illis) In Buddha's opinion, suffering (duhka) can be…

uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus…

Buddhism is a religion and philosophy founded in India around 525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (Buddhism pp). There are two main schools of Buddhism, Theravada or…

Early Judaic religion also has a long extensive history. The ancient beginnings of Judaism come from the sands of the Syro-Arabian desert. Ancient ancestors of the later Hebrew people…

Health - Nursing

Hume believed that we couldn't really see what tied one event to the other, and that cause-and-effect does not hold up as an infallible rule, which means that by…

Treating others with compassion thinking "what a good person this will make me seem like," is rooted in egoism, one of the causes of the failure to achieve bodhichitta.…

Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other…

It is small, real elements like this that keep the characters' human consciousness alert and unable to yet make the final step towards enlightenment with a final departing from…

If however she had achieved the ideal non-attachment of Buddhism, her grief would still be real, but she would experience it in a different way. Her grief would be…

They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to…

The buggy piece of software is not embedded in the computer; it is just a program that can be eliminated by recognizing it for what it is. Likewise, the…

There are many ironies and paradoxes embedded within the Four Noble Truths. For example, it is ironic that one must desire liberation from desire. Such seeming contradictions are resolved…

) These consist in offerings made at the home shrine or performing puja to the family deities whereas Nainittika occur only at certain times during the year.For instance, the…

Meditation centers became popular during this time, and so did extensive study into eastern religions, such as Buddhism. There is another aspect of Buddhism that has had a remarkable…

Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the…

He instructs people that everything is possible through belief, and, that their life is nothing as they had previously perceived it. The claim that "the universe is an infinite…

Wisdom in Buddhism Some twenty-five hundred years ago, Buddha Shakyamuni devoted the last forty-nine of seventy-nine-years of life teaching his practices to people in the area today of Northern…

Buddha the founder of the Buddhist faith lived in India, Bihar, from 563-483 BCE. As the Buddha or enlightened one he preached his doctrine of the four great truths.…

Buddha-Nature and Enlightenment Buddhism is a unique religion: it doesn't worship any deity nor does it require any individual to live their lives through divine will. Approximately 2,500 years…

Enlightenment: Karma, Bodhisattvas, and Nirvana For some twenty-four hundred years, Buddhism has been a pre-dominantly Eastern religion. But in the last one-hundred-and-fifty years - ever since the first Asian…

uddhism and Christianity As a system of belief, Zen uddhism arrived in Japan in the 14th century as the result of liberalization of trade relationships between Japan and China…

Buddhism hen Buddha discusses suffering or pain (dukkha), the First Noble Truth, he is referring not only to pain as though someone had burned a hand on a stove,…

Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are a few of the "universal" or "universalizing" religions. Strayer frames the universalizing religions in terms of the spread of different cultures and ideas throughout…

Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The…

Buddhism Essays

Religious perspectives on euthanasia.

Death is one of the most important things that religions deal with. All faiths offer meaning and explanations for death and dying; all faiths try to find a place for death and dying within human experience. Most religions disapprove of euthanasia. Some of them absolutely forbid it. Virtually all religions state that those who become vulnerable through illness or disability deserve special care and protection and that proper end of life care is a much better thing than euthanasia. Religions […]

The Four Noble Truths

The Four noble truths are one of the stories covered in the book “World views: Classic and contemporary readings” by Elizabeth Hair, Mike Krist, Richard Harnett and Roger West. The four noble truths are the teaching of the Buddhist path and is a summary of the awakening path. They are the key components that helps one understand Buddhism and the teachings of Buddha. It is often defined in four interdependent and logical steps. The truths have been defined differently by […]

History of Meditation

The Axial Age: the earliest written records of meditation come from the Hindu tradition of Vedantism around 1500 B.C.E. The Vedas discussed the ancient traditions of meditation which came from India. In the fifth and sixth century, B.C.E. meditation seems to develop other forms in Taoist China and Buddhist India. Dyhana in early Buddhism takes effect in Vedanta somewhere around century B.C.E. Buddhist meditation exact organs are still under debate by most scholars. Multilevel of meditation are seen in Buddhism’s […]

“Three Legged Buddha”

The “Three Legged Buddha” is a structure influenced by the Buddhist philosophy and ideas. The creator Zhang Huan was greatly inspired by the catastrophe of ruins and destroyed monasteries from the time of the Cultural Revolution in Tibet. Zhang collected copper and steel from the leftover fragments of Buddhist sculptures in Tibet to construct the “Three Legged Buddha”. The sculpture was created in 2007 and stands at the height of twenty-eight feet tall and forty-eight feet wide. The sculpture, given […]

Buddha’s Lost Children

This paper is devoted to one remarkable documentary made by director Mark Verkerk in 2006 called Buddha’s Lost Children (Buddha Elveszett Gyermekei). Buddha’s Lost Children is about one remarkable Buddhist monk called Abbot Khru Bah Neua Chai Kositto, who has devoted himself to the orphaned and abandoned children came from poor and problematic families of remote villages in Northern Thailand. Khru Bah used to be a Thai boxer, later he became a Buddhist monk. I would like to talk about […]

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Representation of Religion in Asian Buddha Statues

Artistic concepts are broad. Art may be interpreted either literally or symbolically depending on a person’s insights. It goes a long way in the depiction of reality or imaginary insinuation, be it a person or a place. However, the study of artistic features gives more profound meaning and relates each work of art to the subjects under study for example religion. Eliade Mircea once said that the Buddha’s iconography had been changed to spiritual existence from human nature[1]. Considering the […]

Earth-touching Buddha

This semester I took History of far Eastern Art, as a project assignment we had to visit a museum, I chose the freer gallery of art in Washington D,C. I visited the section ” Encountering the buddha, Art and practice across Asia.” In this section you found “collections of Buddhist art from Afghanistan, India, Southeast Asia, China and Japan(web).” My experience at freer gallery of art was great, I was able to learn a lot more from the Asian art […]

The Religion of Buddhism

Siddhartha Gautama was numerous things. He was a ruler, an educator, the Buddha and later a divine being. He showed the religion of Buddhism. Moreover, he even affected Indian history until the end of time. Buddhism has spread to numerous nations including Thailand and Mongolia. The Buddha was conceived in sixth Century BCE. He was fundamentally secured up a castle for a large portion of his initial life in light of the fact that a prescience told that his family […]

Buddha Come Gone

The Buddha had a variety of names that he and others used for himself. One of the names is “Tath?gata” which means “one who has come thus” (tath? + ?gata) and “one who has gone thus” (tath?+ gata). This dichotomy of this name explains much of who Buddha was. First, “Tath?gata” will be examined through his reincarnation into the Buddha. Secondly, the Buddha will be observed through his renunciation of the material world. Thirdly, Buddha Gautama’s dichotomy of character will […]

Existence in the Buddhist Religion

Existence consists of three characteristics: suffering, impermanence, and the concept of no-self. Ideas of these three characteristics make up much of the Buddhist religion. The three characteristics of existence constitute much of the Buddhist world view, from views toward pain to ideas about rebirth. Suffering, or dukkha, is a central focus in the Dhammapada. Suffering can be caused by physical pain, from pleasure changing to pain, or from the perpetual state of change that all things exist in. The Buddha […]

Buddhist in Northern Afghanistan

Siddhartha Gautama was born in the 6th century in Northern India. Better known as “Buddha”, he was a great spiritual leader and ancient philosopher. Siddhartha Gautama is a man whom, “found the meaning of life” or a man whom, “Has achieved his goals (Cunningham, et al. Chapter 5, “Preview”).” In 1922 a German novelist, Hermann Hesse establish his story of Gautama, during the 5 century BCE during a time when his life overlapped this ear Cunningham, et al. Chapter 5, […]

About Siddhartha Gautama

Buddha is not a name but a title which is a Sanskrit word for “Enlightened one.” Siddhartha Gautama was born in 567 B.C.E. in the Himalayan region of Kapilavastu, Shakya which is now a modern Lumbini, Nepal. He born to the King Sudhodhana, who rule Kapilavastu in ancient Bharata Khanda, And Queen Maya. When he was born a Brahmin guru prophesize that young Gautama would either become an Emperor of Bharata Khanda or a very holy man, which worried his […]

Buddhism in Society

With approximately 400 million people practicing Buddhism, it is one of the largest religions in the world. Buddhism encompasses a variety of beliefs, traditions and spiritual practices that are attributed to the teachings of the Buddha. These teachings focus on spiritual personal development. The teachings and scriptures of Buddhism reiterate that violence is not a good thing and that being peaceful will lead to a better life on earth and a chance to reach nirvana. Even though Buddhism has a […]

Two Faces of the Early Buddha

Buddhism began roughly around the 5th century BCE in eastern India, and is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, or the Buddha Shakyamuni (Dehejia, 1). As one of the largest religions in the world to date, there is a plethora of Buddhist and Buddha images. However, like most ancient religious icons, there are a few mysteries behind the first known depictions of the Buddha. Before the 1st century AD portrait images of the Buddha seem to have been forbidden […]

Buddhism in my Life

The foundations of Buddhism are built upon the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. The Four Noble Truths are a summary of the things that the Buddha witnessed and examined in his life, such as Dukkha or suffering, Dukkha is the result of tanha or selfish desire, the cure is get rid of tanha and to get rid of tanha you must follow the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold Path involves eight steps to reach nirvana, including right knowledge, right […]

Standing Buddha

The Standing Buddha statue, held in the MET museum as a gift from Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Foundation in 1993, is one of many renditions of the Buddha (MET). The Buddha is a human man who experienced enlightenment and spread the message through sermons and travel for years (Richie). This figure is the originator of the Buddhist religion, and his sculptures have a long history and significance to spiritual practice that continues into today. The statue is bronze with […]

Buddha Stautes and Beliefs

I have always seen the buddha statue in places all across the world while travelling and I never had an understanding of what it really means. What’s the culture and story behind it? The reason I picked this for my cultural artifact is because I’ve always seen the Himalayas in documentaries and have associated the Buddhist religion with that part of Asia, but without any real knowledge on the teachings. I want to have an understanding of the buddhism culture […]

Comparative Religion Life of Buddha

Buddha which means enlightened one or the awakened is the titled conferred to Siddhartha Gautama. It is believed that he lived in Nepal between the sixth and fourth centuries. During that time, he tried different teachings but could not find any that was acceptable to him. One night while in meditation, he found the answers he was seeking thereby achieving awareness. This is what made him become Buddha. His life serves as the foundation of the Buddhist religion. Enlightenment, personal […]

The Fictional Character Siddhartha and Buddha

Siddhartha is a fictional character created by Herman Hesse, but that name is also the name of Buddha before he became enlightened. Siddhartha was known as a rich, intelligent and good-looking man in town he lived in. Despite being seen as someone with intellectual prowess he left home because he was not content with what he was being taught. He believed the knowledge he was learning with his father was true and wise, yet he believed there was more for […]

Buddhist Suffering

Buddhism helps to understand the concept of change and its consistency. In life there are no certainties, which explains the temporariness of our emotions and experiences. Good nor bad things last forever and eventually everything decays. As humans we are constantly undergoing changes, physically and mentally, for example: birth, death, breakups, sudden weather changes, moving to a new city, failing a test, sudden accidents, climate change, a growing plant, etc. Change can occur suddenly without warning or can come expectedly. […]

Influence of Buddhism

“The secret of health, both mind, and body, is not to mourn for the past, nor worry about the future, but to live the present moment both wisely and earnestly.” This idea, and others similar concepts like it, are those given by Siddhartha Gautama, eventually known as Buddha, and are the basis for the religion known as Buddhism. Buddhism, a religion founded in Nepal, a country in Asia, is now practiced and observed all over the world. Buddhism was founded […]

Rituals in Buddhism

In Buddhism, rites and rituals expressed by human condition, including our relationships to others and to our spiritual life. As ways of being mindful, rites and rituals can bring a heightened awareness of the interpretation of life and humanity. Through both mental and physical trainings, rites and rituals set followers onto the passage toward their personal goals. Spreading world-wide in all directions and into numerous languages since around 2,500 years ago, Buddhism teachings have developed into many brunches. Among all […]

What is Buddhism?

Buddhism is one of the most privilege religions, spread throughout Vietnam, China, Japan and most parts of Asia. Buddhism has opened a door for many people to practice mindfulness especially the right way to meditate to relieve the stress and help them forgive that past or things that shouldn’t be on their mind. Buddha has taught people many things that people can apply to daily life, and also bring a good environment to other people surrounding them. “There is no […]

Buddhism in Myanmar

Buddhism in Myanmar was very early spread into Myanmar. Buddhist missionaries from Gangetic India who reached Upper Burma through Bengal and Manipur. Others, amongst whom is Rhys Davids, supposed that Buddhism was introduced from China. It is not unlikely, however, that the Burmese obtained both their religion and their alphabet through the Talaings. The Burmese alphabet is almost the same as the Talaing, and the circular form of both strongly indicates the influence of the Singalese, or the Tamulic type […]

Christianity Vs Buddhism

Because I was brought up in an extremely strict Pentecostal church does not imply that I will be conceded everlasting life in the Kingdom of Paradise. In fact, it means that my curiosity for other religions has always been peaked. I have always been interested as to fundamental standards, actualities, and demonstrated sciences behind every one of them. I was instructed to place confidence in that which can’t be seen, to never scrutinize the Lord or his reasonings, and to […]

An Analysis of Buddhism on the Hermann Hesse’s Siddh?rtha

Siddhartha is a novel written by Herman Hesse. It is about a young man named Siddhartha who is the son of Brahmin. Everyone thinks that Siddhartha should follow in his father’s footsteps, but Siddhartha thinks otherwise. Siddhartha practices all of the religion rituals, but he is not satisfied. He feels something is missing. He wants to find enlightenment as a munk. So he goes on a journey with his friend named Govinda and does just that. One day a group […]

What are the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism?

According to The Register and InfoPlease, Buddhism has become one of the top five religions of the world while being one of the top three most practiced. Buddhism originated in eastern central Asia and it encompasses the idea of reaching enlightenment by following the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. Buddhism has increased in popularity over the centuries because of its stance as not only a religion, but as a philosophy. Buddhism focuses on compassion and does not preach about reaching the […]

Buddhism – the Four Noble Truths

“Pain is inevitable, suffering is optional” –Buddha. Suffering is something that all human beings in society must endure over the course of their lifetime. It is perceived to be a negative part of life and something that cannot be avoided. However, has one ever dug deeper into the roots of suffering? Why do humans suffer? Is it something that can be further understood and better overcome? Buddhism explores the notion of suffering through its path to enlightenment by practicing such […]

Christianity and Buddhism

Christianity originated during the 1st-century in Israel, starting with the birth of Jesus Christ, while Buddhism originated in the 6th-century India from the birth and life of Siddhartha, Buddha. While Buddhism and Christianity began with a single founder who sacrificed their lives for the suffering of humans, they did not share the same views on God. Christians put their faith in God while Buddhists ignored the widespread religious belief in a controlling higher power other religions adapted to. Built on […]

“4 C’s” in Buddhism

Every religion is different. They all do the things they do for different reasons. Buddhism is no exception to this. Catherine Albanese’s definition of religion is “A system of symbols (creed, code, cults) and by means of which people (community) orient themselves in the world with reference to both ordinary and extra ordinary values, powers, and meanings”. This definition is known as the “4 C’s”. The “creed” are the beliefs within the religion. The “Four Noble Truths” is the core […]

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