109 Buddhism Essay Topics
🏆 best essay topics on buddhism, 👍 good buddhism research topics & essay examples, 🎓 most interesting buddhism research titles, 💡 simple buddhism essay ideas, ❓ research questions about buddhism.
- Buddhism and the Life Teaching of Siddhartha Most scholars observe that the roots of Buddhism are very deep, and though Siddhartha contributed a lot to the development of the religion.
- What Is Buddhism? History of the Religion, Beliefs, and Rituals This paper will set out to elaborate on what Buddhism is by providing a history of the religion and underscoring some of the beliefs and rituals practiced in this religion.
- Buddhist Meditation Practices The paper looks at the differences between acalminga (samatha) and ainsighta (vipasana) Mahayana teachings of Buddhist meditation.
- Buddhism and Classical Hinduism Each religion of the East teaches separate principles from one another. This paper compares and contrasts the fundamental concepts and values of Buddhism and Classical Hinduism.
- Buddhism’ Religion: The Life and Teaching of Siddhartha The paper studies the teaching of Buddhism according to the Four Noble Truths and dependent origination and reveals spread of Buddhism and upheaval of democracy in India.
- The Christian and Buddhist Perspectives in Healthcare This paper purposes to conduct a comparative analysis on the Christian and Buddhist perspectives regarding healthcare provision and its implications for healthcare practice.
- Deities in Hinduism and Buddhism This paper dwells upon the differences in roles of Hindu and Buddhist deities from mythological and scientific perspectives.
- Buddhist Spirituality: Contribution to Psychological Well-Being Buddhist Spirituality is based on the principles that can enhance one’s psychological well-being significantly. Buddhism teaches people how to avoid negative emotions and harmful mental states.
- Self-Concept in Buddhist Reductionism This paper investigates the idea of self in its relation to the Buddhist perception of suffering and discusses the notion of objectual and intentional properties.
- Death and Dying in Christianity and Buddhism Using Christianity and Buddhism as two diverse religious perspectives, this discussion explores how patient’s health demands can be met by healthcare practitioners.
- Christianity and Buddhism for Terminally Ill Patient The patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has been thinking about euthanasia. Christianity and Buddhism offer different answers to death-related questions.
- Euthanasia in Christianity and Buddhism This paper provides a discussion on a case study on euthanasia of a man, who finds out he has a severe disease that will disable him within several years.
- Human Life and Death in Christianity and Buddhism Illness often leads to agony and prompts the search for the meaning of life as people try to understand the reasons behind their predicaments.
- Medical Ethics: Christianity and Buddhism Perspectives Ethical concerns are present in any working conditions. However, ethics in medicine is particularly important, and it has many complicated issues.
- Buddhism and Classical Hinduism Concept and Values Buddhism and classical Hinduism are the oldest religions in the world. It is worth to note that both religions originated from India.
- Spiritual Philosophy: Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism as spiritual philosophies stress on the acceptance of things the way they are, overcoming desires and humility.
- Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist Teachings Theravada and Mahayana are both schools of Buddhism. The primary differences that exist between the two came into existence after Buddha’s death.
- Beliefs in Buddhism and Classical Hinduism This paper shows that Buddhism progressed from Hinduism, with the main difference being that they do not share similar beliefs.
- Buddhist Religion and Western Psychologies Buddhists believe that any conception of “self” is an illusion; no separate “self” exists, only a collection of parts.
- Buddhism and Life: Living the Principles of the Buddhist Religion Contrary to the popular thought that suggests that the Buddhist belief seeks to view the world from a negative perspective, the religion conceives life from its imperfect face.
- Buddhism, Caring and Moral Obligations This paper argues that the Buddhist account of the personality and the self provides an applicable approach to caring as well as moral obligations.
- Zen Buddhism in America Zen Buddhism is a separate school of Mahayana Buddhism that emphasizes mindfulness and meditation practices as the path to achieving enlightenment.
- Death & Dying Ethics in Christianity and Buddhism The paper will discuss the attitude toward the deliberate ending of life from the viewpoint of Christianity and Buddhism.
- Incurable Disease in Christianity and Buddhism This paper examines Christianity and Buddhism in regards to views on life and death and applies the concepts to the case study of a patient with an untreatable illness.
- Death & Dying Ethics in Buddhism and Christianity The paper describes the ethical challenge the patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is facing and the best approaches to support him using religious values or ideas.
- King Asoka Spreading Buddhism Along the Silk Road King Asoka’s commitment to Buddha’s Four Noble Truths and the encouragement of missionary work substantially facilitated the transmission of Buddhism to distant states.
- Hinduism and Buddhism: Similarities and Differences Buddhism and Hinduism are two very similar religions. They both believe in reincarnation, they both believe in their religion focusing on more than one god.
- The Religious Position of Women and Men in Buddhist Countries: Sri Lanka The position accorded to women in all spheres of activity has been a subject of considerable interest in recent decades.
- Personality Psychology and Zen Buddhism Zen Buddhism is a movement that occurred in the 1960s and involves monks, their feats and their monasticism, and the study of doctrines.
- Buddhist Culture in Thailand In Thailand, Buddhism is the official religion of the state based on century-old traditions and principles.
- Zen Buddhism: Basic Teachings The principles and beliefs of Buddhism is what has given it popularity and a vast fellowship. These beliefs are founded on human experience.
- Zen Buddhism: Brief Giude The major point of Zen Buddhism is single – every human being is a Buddha and he or she needs only to realize this by reaching enlightenment.
- Christianity and Buddhism: Religion Comparison Christianity only became a religion, in full sense of this word, when materialistic spirit of Judaism was being transformed into something opposite to what it originally used to be by European mentality.
- Zen Buddhism: Main Features Zen Buddhism can safely be considered as a philosophy due to its lack of a “god” aspect. It is a religion that is based on basically the act of meditation.
- Cosmogony: Catholic and Buddhist Approaches This paper presents a dialogue between two believers- a Catholic and a Buddhist concerning creation of the world.
- Tibetan Buddhism and Zen Buddhism Comparison The Five Tibetan rituals are considered to be life changing which helps the Tibetan’s in the spiritual and religious obligations they desire. It’s also actually great for your body
- How Buddhism do not believe in Gods? Our research focuses and defends the basic concept of how and in what manner Buddhists do not stick to the existence of the Omnipotent.
- Religion and Architecture: Christian Church, Buddhist, Islamic Mosques Religious architecture is mainly concerned with design and building of houses of reverence or holy deliberate places such as stupas, mosques, churches and temples.
- Buddhism and Christianity: Understanding of Religions This essay is intended to help bring out the Buddhist’s understanding of Christianity and correct the wrong perceptions through pointing out relevant scriptures.
- Judaism and Buddhism: Similarities and Differences The differences and similarities between Judaism and Buddhism in relation to their origination, foundation, beliefs, rituals and major prophets.
- Environmental, Social or Political Conflict in Buddhism There is a simple fact which is known to every Buddhist: although Buddha was beyond routine, still, he gave guidelines concerning good government.
- Non-christian World Religions: History, Concepts, and Beliefs of Buddhism Buddhism is one of the widespread non-Christian religions in the world today. This paper discusses the history, beliefs, ethics, people and subdivisions of Buddhism.
- Foundations of Buddhism and Meditation Different religions illustrate the diversity of philosophies, customs, many different communities in the world are inspired by similar truths and purposes.
- Gender Roles in Society: Hinduism and Buddhism Both Hindu and Buddhist beliefs have a strained relationship with the concept of gender, while in the two cases, men and women are supposed to be equal, it is not really true.
- Buddhism in China and Japan Buddhism is one of the major religions in the world, and it is now practiced in various countries, including China and Japan.
- Description of “Buddhism in America” by Seager This paper covers the first seven chapters of the book “Buddhism in America”. The author starts by giving background information concerning the American Buddhist landscape.
- Karma and Rebirth in Hinduism and Buddhism Religions The principles of Karma and rebirth provide an emotional and intellectual account of suffering and evils in Hinduism and Buddhism religions.
- Buddha as a Leader of a Buddhism Religion This essay will analyze the reasons behind Buddha’s teachings, events, and ideas that shaped the views during his time and the relevance of Buddhism presently.
- Tea in the Prism of Zen Buddhism and Health The tea ceremony is connected with Zen Buddhism not only in its actual development but mainly in preserving the spirit with which it is imbued.
- Healthcare Provider and Faith Diversity: Native American Spirituality, Buddhism, and Sikhism This paper outlines an explicit view on the following diverse faiths in regard to healthcare provision: Native American spirituality, Buddhism, and Sikhism.
- Buddhism’s Resilience from Western Ideologies This paper addresses how believers of the Buddhism faith have been initiating and planning various methods to make the religion resilient from western ideologies and Christianity.
- China Buddhism vs. Japan Buddhism and Shintoism Buddhism is a religion that uses Buddha’s perspective, such as the traditions and beliefs attributed to the religious faith.
- Discussion of History of Buddhism The discussion describes the short history of Buddhism from the 19th century and how it overcame some of the challenges arising from Christianity.
- Buddhism: New Religions and Human Balance The paper indicates that Buddhism, one of the fundamental world religions, has been introduced in a series of new forms over the past years.
- Comparison Between Buddhism and Christianity This paper seeks to compare and contrast the two religions’ differences and similarities based on three key aspects such as Afterlife, Suffering, and Rituals.
- The Dukkha Concept in Buddhism Dukkha is a traditional element of the religious philosophy of Buddhism, aimed at describing the prevailing situation in the surrounding material world.
- Basic Beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism This paper gives an insight into how the concepts of Karma and Rebirth are practiced in the religious traditions of both Hinduism and Buddhism.
- Christianity and Buddhism: Interreligious Relations There are many similar points between Christianity and Buddhism, but the differences are likely to outweigh them.
- Religion Research: Hinduism and Buddhism The paper describes and compares two religion: Hinduism and Buddhism from aspects of history, popularity and areas of rerligion.
- Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism: The Afterlife Concepts The purpose of this paper is to compare the afterlife, as presented in Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism, through an examination of both primary and secondary sources.
- Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity in Society This paper analyses three of the most common religions: Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity, in order to identify their role in the life of society.
- The Pragmatic Theory of Truth in Buddhism and Christianity Pragmatically, the Buddha belief and the Christians’ beliefs are true as believers tend to achieve their desired effects.
- The History and Beliefs of the Theravadan Buddhism
- Biblical Worldview and Buddhism Worldview
- Parallels, Departures, and What Science Can Gain From Buddhism
- Buddhism: The Role Desires Play in Our Everyday Lives
- Doctrinal and Philosophical Sizing of Buddhism
- Basic Philosophical Differences Between Zen, Buddhism, and Taoism
- Buddhism as Religion That Offers Peace, Wisdom, and True Enlightenment
- The History and Evolution of Buddhism Across the World
- Bodhisattvas and the Evolution of Buddhism
- The Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism
- Buddhism and the Vietnamese Buddhist Association
- Key Differences Between Christianity and Buddhism
- Korean Development and the Influences of Shamanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism
- Buddhism: The Four Noble Truths
- The Dalai Lama and the Spiritual Leader of Buddhism
- Comparing Buddhism and Shinto in Japan
- Buddhism, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the Four Noble Truths
- Ancient Greek Philosophy, Buddhism, and Vedanta Hinduism
- Beliefs and Practices: Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism
- Buddhism: Seeing the Familiar in the Strange
- Hinduism and Buddhism’s Influence of Indian Culture in Southeast Asia
- The Political and Religious Impact of Buddhism in Thailand
- What Are the 4 Main Beliefs of Buddhism?
- Is Buddhism a Belief System or Ideology?
- How Has Buddhism Impacted the World?
- What Are the Differences Between Mainstream Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism?
- Does Anything Survive Death in Buddhism?
- How Did Early Buddhism Impact Western Culture?
- What Are the Two Main Branches of Buddhism?
- Who Were the Founders of Buddhism in Japan?
- Are Women Allowed to Practice Buddhism?
- How Has Buddhism Interacted With Nature and Environment?
- What Are the Gender Roles in Buddhism?
- Does Neuroplasticity Relate to Buddhism?
- How Does Buddhism Reflect the Human Understanding of God?
- Are There Similarities Between Buddhism and Islamic Religion?
- How Does Dalai Lama Exemplify the Ultimate Meaning of Buddhism in His Life and Works?
- What Is the Link Between Mahayana Buddhism and Chinese Culture?
- How Did Buddhism Spread Through China?
- What Does Buddhism Teach About Human Life?
- How Does Buddhism Treat Its Women?
- Is There Social Conflict Between Buddhism and Catholicism?
- How Does Geoffrey Samuels Portray Tibetan Buddhism?
- What Are the Origins, History, and Beliefs About Evil in Buddhism?
- How Does Samsara Work in Buddhism?
- Does Buddhism Believe in Equality?
- What Are the Similarities Between Buddhism and Other Eastern Religions?
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70 Buddhism Research Paper Topics & Essay Examples
Buddhism is one of the most ancient yes still popular religions in the world. It was born in India more than 2500 years ago. The followers of Buddhism believe that that good behavior, ascetic lifestyle, and spiritual practices are the means to achieve nirvana.
If you need to write a persuasive or argumentative essay on Buddhism, you’re in the right place! On this page, we’ve collected top Buddhism research paper topics, thesis statement ideas, and essay samples that focus on the historical aspects and current issues of the religion. Go on reading to find the perfect Buddhism essay topic for your assignment!
- 📝 Buddhism Research Paper Topics & Examples
💡 Buddhism Essay Topics
❓ buddhism discussion questions, 📝 buddhism research paper topics & examples.
- Religion Comparison: Judaism, Buddhism, Islam and Hinduism This essay seeks to establish the similarities and differences between the religions in terms of origin, issue of salvation and creation, and their perception of God.
- Religion in India: Hinduism and Buddhism This paper will focus on rituals and divine worship associated with Hinduism and Buddhism as well as their importance in both religions.
- World Religions Studies and Key Concepts Religion can be defined as beliefs and practices that underscore the relationship between people and their God.
- Dharma, Karma, and Samsara – Essay on Religion in India What is the relationship between the ideas of Dharma, Karma, and Samsara? This essay on religion in India focuses on this concept. It explains what role they play in Hinduism and Buddhism.
- Afterlife in Different World Cultures Most modern religions including atheists do not believe in the existence of an afterlife. Atheists do not believe in a supernatural God.
- Buddhism: Teachings of Buddha The teachings of Buddha are found in the Dhammapada and clearly states that if these laws are followed people will have peace and happiness.
- Japanese and Chinese Culture: Comparison and Contrast The purpose of this paper is to contrast the mentalities, worldviews, religion, traditions, habits, and everyday routines of both Japan and China and prove that they are different.
- Buddhism: History, Origins and Rituals There is contemplation that Buddhism is a philosophy, way of life, and the code of ethics, but many declare untrue to it the characteristic of a religion.
- Death, Views of Asian and Western Culture on Death and Dying The Asians receive death with happiness, and in case a person was on medication and felt the time was ready to die, one would forfeit medication to embrace death wholeheartedly.
- Buddhism Religion and Philosophy Founded in India
- Buddhism’s Spread Throughout the East
- The Impact Buddhism Had on Human Rights in China
- Analyzing Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism
- Buddhism as an Extensive and Internally Diverse Tradition
- The Second Noble Truth of Buddhism
- Buddhism as a Faith Founded by Siddhartha Gautama
- The Life and Influence of Shen-Hui on Chinese Buddhism
- Zen Buddhism Combined With Psychotherapy
- Tracing Back the Origins of Buddhism and Its Main Characteristics
- The Role and Status of Women in Buddhism
- Understanding the Mahayana Doctrine in Buddhism
- The Spread and Emergence of Buddhism
- History and Comparison of Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam
- The Teachings and Core Beliefs of Buddhism
- Linking Buddhism Based Charity and Philanthropy
- The Rising of Christianity and the Fall of Buddhism
- Integrating Democracy With Tibetan Buddhism
- Existence in the Buddhist Religion
- Repentance Between Bible and Buddhism
- The Middle Way According to Mahayana Buddhism
- How Buddhism Agrees with Science
- Buddhism and Shamanism Within Mongolian Culture
- The Link Between Mahayana Buddhism and Chinese Culture
- The Rise and Development of Buddhism
- Buddhist Meditation Practice and Buddhism
- Holy Books of Buddhism
- Buddhist Teachings and Beliefs of Buddhism
- The Main Emotions Covered in Buddhism
- Incorporating Tibetan Buddhism Into Modern Psychotherapy
- Understanding the Two Forms of Happiness in Buddhism
- Lotus Versus Zen Buddhism
- Buddhism’s Life-Changing Experience
- Zen Buddhism From Chinese Buddhism
- The Rise and Enlightenment of Buddhism
- The First Mention of the Buddhism
- Supreme Being of Buddhism
- Twenty-First Century Challenges to Buddhism
- Ashoka as the Greatest Promoter of Buddhism
- Buddhism as a Question About Yourself
- How Does Buddhism Reflect the Human Understanding of God?
- Who Were the Founders of Buddhism in Japan?
- How Does Buddhism Teach Us to Experience Anger and Forgiveness?
- How Does Buddhism Affect Chinese Culture History?
- How Does Buddhism Treat Its Women?
- How Has Buddhism Changed Over Years?
- How Applied Buddhism Affected Peoples’ Daily Activities?
- How Buddhism Transformed and Transformed Chinese Culture?
- How Did Buddhism Spread Through China?
- How Has Buddhism Interacted With Nature and Environment?
- How Buddhism and Hinduism Share a Belief That Life Suffering Is Caused by Desire?
- What Does Buddhism Teach?
- How Did Chinese Culture Shape a New Form of Buddhism?
- What Are the Similarities Between Buddhism and Other Eastern Religions?
- What Are the Core Beliefs of Buddhism?
- When Diving Into the Depths of Buddhism?
- Where Buddhism Meets Science?
- When Buddhism Was the Dominant Tradition in India?
- What Role Does Karma Play in Buddhism?
- What Are the Main Differences Between Sikhism and Buddhism?
- How Was Buddhism Expressed Differently Across Cultures, Geographies, and Languages?
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241 Buddhism Essay Topics & Examples
Looking for Buddhism essay topics? Being one of the world’s largest and most ancient religions, buddhism is definitely worth exploring!
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In your Buddhism essay, you might want to focus on the history of the religion or Buddhist attitude to controversial social issues. Another option would be to write about Buddhist philosophy or practices. Whether you need to write a short Buddhism essay or a more substantive paper, this article will be helpful. Here you’ll find a collection of 185 Buddhism topics for essays and research papers together with Buddhism essay examples.
🏆 Best Buddhism Essay Examples & Topic Ideas
- Buddhism and Hinduism Thus it is each individuals role to return the soul but this is not possible because of the sins and impurities one becomes exposed to once living in this world and since the process of […]
- Buddhism & Hinduism: Comparisons and Contractions To start with the two religions share many things in their beliefs in that they both believe in rebirth which is determined by the actions one does in the daily life.
- Dialogue Over the Interfaith Christian and Buddhist Perspectives To begin with Tom’s idea on the existence of the sharing of certain perspectives among both the Christians and the Buddhists, I think the outlook is true.
- Zen Buddhism and Oneida community The purpose of the Oneida community was to bring back the love that was lost between man and wife. Oneida community believed in God, who was the creator of the universe.
- Misconceptions about Buddhism Because of the debates that have clouded the sexuality of the monks many have had to believe that monks can marry.
- Concepts of Buddhism At the age of twenty-nine, he left the comforts of the palace and went out to seek the real meaning of life.
- Shinto and its Relationship with China and Buddhism As such, those who identify with the two religions have continued to engage in practices of the Buddhist and Shinto faiths either knowingly or unknowingly.
- The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism In the third Noble Truth, the Buddha identified a cure to the problem and in the fourth Noble Truth, he identified the prescription to end suffering.
- Buddhism: The Concept of Death and Dying Life is permanent but death is the transition of a human soul to either one of the six Buddhist realms. The purpose of this paper is to explain the concept of death from the Buddhist […]
- Zen Buddhism’s Religion According to Buddhism, salvation is the state of ‘being’ of a person obtained through the cleansing of one’s being by meditation.
- The Origin of Buddhism The Sanron School advocated for teaching of the middle path These teachings of the middle translated into four views which the school held closely in its teachings.
- The confluence of Buddhism and Hinduism in India The basis of Buddhism is found in the answers to two questions that Gautama attempted to answer. Buddhism was spread to other parts of the world with different doctrines and beliefs.
- Buddhism: Analysis of the Religion’s Faith and Practices This includes the name of the religion followers, the history and origins of the religion including the founders, the name of the Supreme Being or God, as well as the name of the place of […]
- Buddhism’s Things and Ideas The vase of treasure in Buddhist iconography represents a continuous rain of happy life, posterity, riches and all the good things of the world and freedom.
- Buddhism and Christianity The privileged persons of society such as presidents and the rich have similar chances in comparison to the destitute persons. Contrary to this, Christians appreciate the existence of God and acknowledge Him as their path […]
- Buddhism as a Sacred Tradition The four elements are the truth with respect to anguish, the truth about the basis of anguish, the truth about the end of anguish, and the truth about the means of ending anguish.
- Padmasambhava’ Effects on Buddhist Beliefs According to legend, the Bon deities who were converted by Padmasambhava are “bound under mighty oaths to serve Buddhism in new roles as protectors and defenders of the law”.
- Anger Emotion and Buddhism The mind will be disturbed as one tries to imagine how the incident took place, and why it happened the way it did, and not in the manner desired. When the resentment in the mind […]
- Religion of Christianity and Buddhism – Similarities and Difference After the emergence of the Buddhism and Christianity, there have been several additions and alterations because of the expansion to other countries.
- Buddhism in China: Origin and Expansion One of the most fascinating cultural histories is the existence and the expansion of Buddhism in China. However, it is worth noting that one of the most significant factors, which favored the flourishing of Buddhism, […]
- How does Mahayana differ from early Buddhism? According to Mahayana believers, the rituals and ceremonies are important in affirming their faith and in teaching vital traditions and rules that have to be followed by those who accept to be members of the […]
- Newspaper Response on Buddhism Finally, the author estimates that harmony is the “essential ingredient” of all religions and it is a guarantee of the welfare of all nations.
- Japanese Buddhism vs Chinese Buddhism: Differences The introduction and spread of Buddhism in Japan depended on the support that was offered by the Japanese rulers. Japanese Buddhist art has relied heavily on the Chinese art since the introduction of Buddhism in […]
- Buddhism and its impact on Japan When Buddhism entered the borders of Japan, then the people started using the term Shinto to differentiate the indigenous beliefs of Japanese people.
- Zhong Kui, the Keeper of Hearth and Home: Japanese Myth with Buddhist Philosophy Zhong Kui, the Demon Queller, or Shoki, as foreigners call this creature, is the keeper of the hearth and home in Japan and one of the most picturesque characters of Japanese legends.
- Buddhism in Canada Buddhism is based on the assumption that reality is a constant instability together with the principle of interdependence, the dominance of mind and consecrated admiration of health and the world.
- The Zen Temple as the Place of Worship in Japanese Zen Buddhism Each Zen temple is not only a simple building, where Zen Buddhism is taught and explained; it is the place, where the essence of Buddhism is depicted by means of each stone, detail, and color; […]
- Buddhism, Sikhism and Baha’ism It teaches about the Gurus; the Sikhs believe in God referred to as Waheguru that is wonderful Lord and the creator of all things.
- Tibetan Buddhist and Christian Symbols of Worship This paper is an in-depth exploration of the symbols used in Tibetan Buddhism and Christianity and their respective meanings. Some of the symbols of Tibetan Buddhism include the stupa, the wheel and the lotus.
- Morality in Buddhism The purpose of this paper is to expound on the concept of morality in Buddhism, and how the various Buddhist teachings, such as the Four Noble Truths, have enhanced my morality in me and in […]
- Asian Studies: Confucianism and Buddhism in China For this reasons, Buddhism is popular followed in China and has contributed to the growth of the Chinese culture up to date.
- Siddhartha Gautama and Buddhism The knowledge is summarized in the four noble truths, which include life means suffering, the cessation of suffering is attainable, the origin of suffering is attachment, and the path to the cessation of suffering.
- Buddhism: The History of Development 3 Perception of the world among Buddhists One of the staunch belief systems of the Buddhists is attached on the notion that solution to problems can be caused through suffering.
- Comparison of Hinduism and Buddhism Rituals Buddhism and Hinduism are some of the popular religions in the world with their origins dating back to the Common Era in India.
- Comparison between Hinduism and Buddhism The Afghans, Persians, and Arabs first used the term “Hindu” to denote the inhabitants of the aforementioned regions. The aspect of worship is one of the most vital religious practices in Hinduism.
👍 Good Essay Topics on Buddhism
- Role of Brahmanism in the decline of Buddhism In addition to this, the persecution of Bramanical Kings together with the anti-Buddhism propaganda was a heavy hit to the Buddhists.
- The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even Against the Wind The behaviors of her father contributed greatly to her resentment of men, this is because her father was greatly opposed to her will of being a nun because he wanted her to grow into a […]
- Christianity vs. Buddhism On the other hand, Christianity is based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The use of statues is common in Buddhism while the Catholics and Orthodox are the frequent users of statues in […]
- Comparison of Buddhism and the Baptist Religions The other structure in the Temple is the vihan which is the place where the members of the Temple assemble for prayers.
- Thich Nhat Hanh’s Engaged Buddhism Interreligious dialogue is a conversation and exchange of valuable ideas between religions and faiths for the purpose of discussing the subject of love, non-violence, and solutions to problems and ills of the present world.
- How Zen Buddhism Has Influenced The Development of Tea Ceremony This tea is served in a tranquil environment and involves a set of practices which hold a lot of relevance to all those who participate in the ceremony.
- Sustainability of Buddhism in the Health System With the changing trends in the way of life and the environment, establishing effective health system becomes imperative. The mind of an individual is attributed with the control every aspect and action of the body.
- Buddhism on Animal Treatment Followers of Buddhism adhere to a strict code of ethics when it comes to the treatment of animals. Another prominent belief in Buddhism is the practice of releasing animals into the world.
- Buddhism Psychology in Changing Negative Behaviors The concept of the bad habit is nonexistent if the intention to do harm to self or others is not manifested. In Buddhism psychology, the action of intention is not immediately established from an individual […]
- Exploring Buddhism: An Introduction to the Chinese Philosophy. In Search for the Enlightenment The author devotes an entire chapter of his paper to Mahayana as the teaching of Buddha, thus, allowing to understand the key differences between the former and the original Buddhist teachings.
- The Main Aspects of Buddhism To try to unify it, the monks and nuns still follow the teachings that existed during the ancient times. It is a sin to lie, still, kill, and engage in sexual acts and to take […]
- Buddhism Believer’s Practice: Meditation The basic practices in meditation are taught according to the original teachings of the historical Buddha. The practice of meditation in Buddhism is primarily divided into two categories: insight and tranquility.
- Buddhism in a Post- Han China However, the influence of Buddhism was because of the collapse of the Han dynasty in 220 AD. After the fall of the Han, most of the scholars in China abandoned the Confucian philosophy that had […]
- Anapanasati: As a Method for Reading the Buddhist Goal The third state of this method is primarily related to the emotions of a person. This is one of the main aspects that should be considered by scholars and people who are interested in Buddhism.
- Dalai Lama and Buddhism Tradition Dalai Lama did not seem to care for the consequences that would follow as a result of his engagement in political activities, and was ready to engage in extremely risky activities for the sake of […]
- The Comparison of Buddhism and Daoism Principles The foundational spiritual beliefs of Daoism are the idea of Tao as the search for the right way in order to achieve the universal harmony, the idea of reincarnation and eternal soul, and the principle […]
- Buddhism and Hinduism: Similarities and Differences The most conspicuous similarity is the origin of the two religions in sub-continent India. Some worship and religious practices are similar but there is a profound difference in the style and purpose of life in […]
- Buddhism Characteristics and Attributes The readings under analysis focus on the main characteristics and attributes of Buddhism, as well as on schools of thought that emerged due to the spread of this teaching.
- History: Women in Hinduism and Buddhism For instance, one of the main problems that arise when examining the situation of women in Karimpur is the fact that there is a considerable level of disparity in the survival rates between male and […]
- Religious Studies: Hinduism and Buddhism Samsara refers to the processor rebirth whereby the individual is reincarnated in a succession of lives. This is what has led to the many differences that arise, causing Buddhism to be viewed as a religious […]
- Religious Studies: Morality in Buddhism In this case, much attention should be paid to a collection of restrictions or taboos that should govern the decisions or actions of a person. This is one of the issues that should not be […]
- Buddhism Religion in the East Asian Societies This paper explores an argument whether Buddhism was a change for better or worse for the East Asian societies and concludes that even though Buddhism created a lot of discomfort during the period of introduction, […]
- To What Extent Was China a Buddhist Country? The religion was associated with super powers and the potential to prosper, and thus many people were challenged to learn and experience it since it had compatible aspects with the Chinese Daoism.
- Buddhism Religion History in China The differences between the two regions of China led to the advancement of the northern and southern disciplines hence the emergence of the Mahayana Buddhism.
- Buddhism and Christianity Comparison In Buddhism, the ultimate goal is the acquisition of the Nirvana state, a state in which one is relieved of egos, desires, and cravings and saved from the suffering experienced due to reincarnations.
- Buddhism: Religion or Philosophy Buddhists believe in a higher power and life after death, they have a moral code of ethics, and they perform rituals; these things are the definition of established religion.
- India’s Women in Buddhism’ Religion Regarding the place of women in Buddhism, it is interesting to note that Buddhism is not attached to any gender despite the fact that Buddha himself has historically been a man.
- What Brings Women to Buddhism? Once establishing the source that has the greatest influence on the women and the ways which are most typical of women to be converted into Buddhism, whether it is the doctrinal one, or the one […]
- Women and the Buddhist Religion According to Arvandi Sharma, ancient Indian women chose to become Buddhists nuns purely due to the influence of Buddha’s positive ways, teachings and the Buddhism doctrines.
- The Idea Salvation in Buddhism Religion Focusing on the discussion of the concept of salvation in Buddhism, it is important to state that salvation is the emancipation of a person from the attachment to the reality and from the person’s focus […]
- David Hume’s and Buddhism Self Concepts Correlation Hume’s philosophy is based on the ideas that all the knowledge of the world is gained from the interaction of human’s experiences and the thoughts.
- History of Buddhism and the Life of Buddha Buddha took the opportunity of being a member of the loyal family to influence the development of Buddhism. One of the factors that contributed to the speedy development of Buddhism was its inspirational teachings.
- Bhagavad Gita: Buddhism and Ancient Indian Philosophy First of all, it should be said that Bhagavad Gita is a part of the great epic of Mahabharata, which is known to be one of the greatest literary works of Ancient India.
- Religion Comparative Aspects: Hindu and Buddhism The similarities and differences in the ethical teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism include the following. Fourth, the act of lying is unacceptable in both Hinduism and Buddhism.
- Religious Teachings: Jainism vs. Buddhism and Hinduism The Jains believe in the existence of a divine being, and they attribute the forces that govern their fate in life to the Supreme Being.
💡 Easy Buddhism Essay Topics
- Religious Teachings of Buddhist Doctrine To substantiate the validity of his opinion, in this respect, Nagasena came up with the ‘parable of the lamp.’ According to the monk, just as it is the case with the flame of a burning […]
- Asian Religions in Practice: Buddhism, Islam and Sikhism This school of thought claims that salvation is possible through believing in the power of Amitabha and the desire to be reborn in a gracious place. This means that it advocates for people to be […]
- Buddhism Studies in the Far East This emanates from the fact that the religion is only popular in one part of the world. Woo writes that it is possible to have many misconceptions about a belief, a religion and a practice […]
- Religious Studies Discussion: Hinduism and Buddhism It is believed that Hinduism evolved and later spread to other areas in India. In conclusion, the objectives and practices of Hinduism and Buddhism are similar in many ways.
- Buddhism and Sikhism Comparison: Four Noble Truths The four are dukkha, the origin of dukkha, the cessation of dukkha, and the path to the cessation of suffering. He forsook the luxuries and other benefits associated with life in the palace to join […]
- The Highest Good of Buddhism: Arahantship This state of awakening is the highest good that a human being can achieve, and all Buddhists are urged to aspire to achieve it.
- Zen Buddhism Religion in Japanese Culture The uniqueness of Zen is in rejecting the importance of doctrines and emphasizing the role of the spiritual growth of the person through the practice of meditation.
- Buddhism and Hinduism Differences One of the main differences between Buddhism and Hinduism is the fact that Theravada Buddhism has no gods, as Buddha is not a god, he is an enlightened being that has reached and realised the […]
- Buddhism Revitalization in China and Japan The comparison stems from the idea of general similarity between the theological traditions that are valued by the citizens of two countries.
- Four Noble Truths in Buddhist Teaching The Buddha said that there is dukkha, there is an origin of dukkha, there is an end of dukkha and there is a path that leads to the end of dukkha.
- Buddhism as the Most Peaceful Religion He is mainly spread on the East of our planet, that is why it is not surprising that it is one of the most popular and recognized religions all over the world, as the majority […]
- Buddhist Traditional Healing in Mental Health To understand the traditional healing in Buddhist culture in mental health, it is important to start by understanding the origin of Buddhism as a religion.
- Nagarjuna’s Buddhist Philosophy Investigation Additionally, it is possible to say that it is not just a religion, however, it is the way of life and philosophy.
- ”The History of God” by Karen Armstrong: An Overview of the History of Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism “The History of God” by Karen Armstrong is a comprehensive overview of the history of the development of Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
- How Does Buddhism Explain the Nature of Our Existence? One of the largest world religions, Buddhism is based on the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama who emphasized a significant role of nature in our lives and the importance of personal harmony with nature.
- Descartes’ and Buddhist Ideas of Self-Existence It is the assumption of this paper that Descartes’ perspective and the teachings of Buddha on the self are inherently incompatible due to their different perspectives on what constitutes “the self”.
- Four Noble Truths as Buddhism Fundamentals The first noble truth in Buddhism teachings is the truth of suffering that is frequently referred to as Dukkha. The last interpretation of the Dukkha is the expression of suffering that is inevitable.
- Denver Buddhist Temple: Cultural Outing In this connection, the paper aims at identifying Buddhist religion that is prevalent in Vietnam focusing on three paramount concepts I learned in class such as the moral policy of the Denver Buddhist Temple, symbolic […]
- Philosophy of Science: Approaches on Buddhism In this view, this research paper aims at understanding the Tibetan monks’ practice of feeding the remains of one of their own to vultures, upon their demise, based on the Durkheim and Wittgensteinian’s approaches to […]
- Buddhism and Hinduism: Religious Differences In Hinduism, only representatives of higher varnas, Brahmins, can attain moksha with the help of gods. Hinduists believe in the multitude of gods who can be the manifestations of one Great God.
- Confucianism and Daoism Influence on Zen Buddhism The concept of “emptiness” and “nothingness” is often mentioned and discussed in Zen philosophy. Together with the concept of ephemerality, Zen and Daoism explain that reality is conceived rather than seen.
- Purpose of Meditation in Buddhism One of the key roles of meditation in the Buddhist faith is the relaxation of the mind and the improvement of mental alertness.
- How Enterprises Appropriate the Vocabulary of Buddhism? This popular association that has been created by advertisers for the purposes of commodification has transformed Buddhism into a resource of imagery and concepts for vendors within the context of a modern marketplace.
- The Role of Meditation in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism Some of the claims in the article sound farfetched, but it is apparent that one of the characteristics of the Tibetan Buddhists is the mystical powers possessed by some of the individuals.
- Buddhism and Confucianism in Modern China In the article “Concepts and Institutions for a New Buddhist Education: Reforming the Sa gha between and within State Agencies,” Stefania Travagnin discusses the opposition between Buddhist education and Western education in China the beginning […]
- Daoism’s Influence on Chan Buddhism in China To comprehend the connection between Daoism and Buddhism and the possible influence of the former on the latter, it is expected to identify the main concepts of Taoism in Chinese philosophy and culture first.
- Filial Piety in Zen Buddhist Discursive Paradigm Nevertheless, there appears to have been a phenomenological quality to the development in question, because during the initial phase of Buddhism’s expansion into China this concept used to be commonly regarded contradictory to the religion’s […]
- Wu Wei in Daoism and Zen Buddhism Therefore, the original ideas and thoughts of Taoism are believed to have influenced the development of Zen Buddhism in China. This discussion shows clearly that emptiness in Buddhism points to dependent origination as the true […]
- Death of the Historical Buddha in Zen Buddhism The hanging scroll Death of the Historical Buddha is a perfect example of an idiosyncratic subgenre of the nirvana images, which permeated Japanese art in the sixth century after the adoption of Buddhism. The composition […]
- Asian Philosophy: Veddic Period and Early Buddhism In the creation hymn of the Rg Vega, Aditi is acknowledged to be the god of all gods because he is the creator and has equally been granted the status of five men.
- The Key Features of Buddhist Thought and Practice These three characteristics are always connected with existence as they tend to illuminate the nature of existence as well as helping the faithful to have knowledge of what to do with existence.
- Religious Rituals in Judaism and Buddhism This whole process causes the religious follower to learn that the sacred or the spiritual is a vital part of the human world.
- Buddhism Practices, Theories, Teachings, Rituals The author provides the evolution of Buddhism and the main religious figures that influenced the formation of the Buddhist vision of the world.
- Jainism and Theravada Buddhism The cause of this violence, according to Jainism, is greed and so for a person to attain the ultimate goal, which is bliss or liberation from karma.
- Buddhism and Christianity: Comparative Religious Analysis The wiremen’s interpretation of the dream was that there was going to be born a son to the royal family. Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, Siddharta was a son to the Queen.
⭐ Buddhism Research Paper Topics
- Hinduism and Buddhism: Definition and Comparison The only technique required in this context is wouldevotion.’ The followers of this religious group are required to demonstrate outstanding devotion as they strive to serve their religious faiths.
- Religions: Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam In the Bhagavad Gita, three yogas, or paths to liberation, are outlined: jnana yoga, which liberates one via knowledge; karma yoga, which liberates one via actions; and bhakti yoga, which liberates one via devotion.
- World Religions: Confucianism and Buddhism Birth as the first stage of human life is supported by rituals that have to protect the woman and her child.
- Buddhism in China, Its Spread and Sinification The lack of material concerning the early spread of Buddhism into China and the appearance of a dignified form of Buddhism has suggested a series of factors that contributed to filtering the original Indian doctrine […]
- The Tibetan Buddhism Lecture On the journey to Nirvana, traditions of donation of money and donation of the body are important, as charity is said to benefit those around you and make the journey easier. Tibetan Buddhism is very […]
- Religion in Japan: Buddhism, Shintoism, and Daoism Unlike in different European and American nations, the citizens of this country uphold unique ideas informed by the concepts of Buddhism and Shintoism.
- Changes to Buddhism in Modern Times Buddhism originated in the middle of the first millennium BC in northern India as an opposition to the religion of Brahmanism that dominated in those days. Tolerance of Buddhism undoubtedly contributes to its attractiveness in […]
- Buddhism in the 19th and 20th Centuries The 19th and 20th centuries brought challenges and opportunities for Buddhism, as a religious sect, which underlined the need for change from an amorphous and disorganized outfit to the formation of institutions of governance and […]
- Nirvana and Other Buddhism Concepts Different regions have adopted specific ways of being religious that have been influenced by the cultural attributes of the people, influence from other religions, and the ideas associated with various Asian philosophies.
- Buddhism in Taiwan Then and Now The origin and development of Buddhism is attributed to the life experiences and achievements of the Buddha. 1 The Dutch colonialists and settlers from China presented the teachings of the Buddha to the people.
- Buddhism in Different Historical Regions He became Buddha and gathered disciples in the valley of the Ganges who spread the knowledge and contributed to the scripture.
- Buddhism Spread as Globalization of Knowledge Modern Buddhism has been integrated as a key part of the globalization movement, and it explains why the faith has spread throughout different parts of the world. The correlation between Buddhism and globalization stems from […]
- Buddhist Allegories in “The Monkey and the Monk” The Monkey and the Monk is not an ordinary story with a list of characters with the ability to develop particular relationships, grow in their specific ways, and demonstrate necessary lessons to the reader.
- Buddhism. Allegory in “The Monkey and the Monk” In The Monkey & the Monk: an Abridgment of the Journey to the West, the Monkey is one of the main protagonists of the book, as is apparent from its title.
- Monkey Novel as an Allegory of Buddhist Teachings The purpose of this paper is to explain why Monkey is an allegory of Buddhist teachings in the selected novel. The reader also observed that Tripitaka is a representation of the physical outcomes and experiences […]
- Buddhist Teachings Allegory in “Monkey” by Lamport The Monkey is one of the masterpieces of literature that contains the ethics, morality, religion, and culture of the Eastern world.
- Formation and Development of Tibetan Buddhist Canon Kangyur means “translations of the word” of the Buddhas and consists of sutras, tantras, and the root texts attributed to the Buddhas Buddha Shakyamuni and later enlightened beings, like Guru Padmasambhava.
- Salvation and Self in Hinduism and Theravada Buddhism The accomplishment of the elevating state of ‘Moksha’ is the final goal of Hinduism, whereas Buddhism aspires to attain the elevating state of ‘Nirvana’ as its final aim.’Moksha’, the final outcome of which is ultimate […]
- Buddhism and William James’ Theory of Religions It can also be learned from the theory that philosophy is the head of emancipation, and the proletariat is its heart.
- Three Jewels of Buddhism and Their Role The three jewels of Buddhism which are the main ideals at the heart of Buddhism are together identified as the Three Jewels, or the Three Treasures.
- Presenting Christianity to Buddhism A Buddhist can therefore relate to the phrase ‘kingdom of God’ as the process of living and discovering the heaven that is located within a person’s heart.
- Teachings of Buddhism as a Means To Alleviate Sadness Buddhism, one of the major religions of the world, provides valuable teachings on how to alleviate sadness in life, among others specifically advocating Contentment, Peace of Mind and Love, all of which lie at the […]
- Meeting of Buddhist Monks and Nuns The stupa became a symbol of the Buddha, of his final release from the cycle of birth and rebirth – the Parinirvana or the “Final Dying,” the monk explained. He explained that the main Buddha […]
- Buddhism in Koryo Analysis Although some of the concepts similar to the teachings Buddhism had spread to Paschke and Koguyo, the places inhabited by the Koryo people, the religion preached by Buddha could not be firmly established in two […]
- Buddhism: Brief History of Religion From Origin to Modern Days The faith of Buddhism was shaped by a man by the name of Siddhartha Gautama who is supposed to have been imagines by a miraculous conception “in which the future Buddha came to his look […]
- Buddhism Studies: A Visit of the Jade Buddha Temple The teachings of the Buddhist are essentially meant to change ourselves and not others like a Christian believer and in the teaching the change occurs when we are “filled with” or we are awaken to […]
- Karuna Part of Spiritual Path in Buddhism and Jainism The purpose of this paper is to study the concept of karuna in Buddhism and its relevance to the two major sects in that religion namely Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism.
- Death and Dying in Christianity and Buddhism Birth and death are part of everybody’s life: birth is the beginning of living, and death is the end of it.
- Existence Viewed by Modern America, Buddhism, and Christianity Humans of all generations and historical periods seek to find the answer to the cause about the cause of life, the destiny and the role of each human in the life of others.
- Dualism, Ignorance, and Clinging in the Buddhism Writings To understand the truth of life, the essence of objects, and the meaning of existence, it is necessary to set yourself aside from fixed thoughts.
- The Feminine Aspect of Tibetan Buddhism One of the inspiring stories of the first of enlightened females in the literature is of Princess Yeshe Bawa who was a follower of the Buddha of her time and was determined to become enlightened.
- Middle Path’ in Chinese Buddhism and Zen Buddhism Followers of Mahayana tradition consider their doctrine as the finding of the truth about the nature and teachings of the Buddha in contrast to the Theravada tradition, which they characterize as Lesser Vehicle, known as […]
- Buddhism and Greater Peace: Conflict, Visions of Peace The main reason for this Buddhism teaches is that by encouraging people in the communities to live in peace with neighbors, chances of conflicts would greatly be diminished.
- Ways in Which the Hindu and Buddhist Philosophy Criticize the Body as a Source of Suffering Yet Use It as Path to Enlighten The level of how weakness and sensibility to pain, adversity is discouraged is shown when the lord Krishna makes it a point to elaborate to Arjuna, that in his position as a warrior he has […]
- Buddhism. “The Burmese Harp” Drama Film When the Japanese troops are supposed to surrender and a soldier is sent to other Japanese troops to tell them to drop their guns, they deny the orders and continue to fight and thereby, continue […]
- The History of Buddhism in Korea: Origin, Establishment, and Development
- How Tibetan Buddhism is Represented by Hollywood
- Buddhism and Hinduism: A Comparison
- World Religions. Buddhism and Its Teaching
- Thailand’s Social Investment Project and Buddhist Philosophy
- Buddhist Religion, Its Past and Its Present
- Nirvana in Buddhism and Atman in Hinduism
- The Comparison of Buddhism and Taoism Philosophies
- Vedic Hinduism, Classical Hinduism, and Buddhism: A Uniting Belief Systems
- Nature of Self, Death, and Ethics in Buddhism
- Hindu and Buddhism: Concept of Karma
- The Place of Buddhism Among Other Religions
- Comparing Early Christian and Buddhist Sculpture
- Buddhism: Definition and Origins of Buddhism
- Philosophy of Confucius Compared to That of Buddhism
- The Unexamined Life and the Buddhist Four Noble Truths
- No-Self or Anatman Concept in Buddhism
- China Impact on Transformation of Buddhist Teachings
- The Emergence of Tibetan Buddhism
- Buddhism in China: Yogācāra Buddhism
- Buddhism in ‘The World’s Religions’ by Huston Smith
- Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism in America: A Country of Many Religions
- Animal Ethics From the Buddhist Perspective
- Religion. How Buddhism Views the World
- Soul Concept in Islam and Buddhism
- Buddhist Arts and Visual Culture
- Buddhism and Sexuality: Restraining Sexual Desires for Enlightenment
- Comprehending Heart Sutra in Mahayana Buddhism
- Healthy Grief: Kübler-Ross, Job, and Buddhist Stages of Grieving
- Buddhism: Ancient Wisdom and Modern Times
- Reflection on Self in Buddhism and Hinduism
- A Conversation With a Buddhist
- An Introduction to Buddhism
- Architeture and Function in Buddhism, Christianity, and Islamic Religion
- Judaism and Buddhism: Overview and Comparison
- Hinduism, Buddhism, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Ramayana in the News Media
- Buddhism and Hinduism: A Comparative Study
- Karma and Other Concepts in Buddhism
- Why Was the Silk Road So Important in the Spread of Buddhism
🥇 Most Interesting Buddhism Topics to Write about
- A Brief Comparison of Native American Religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Confucianism, and Taoism
- A Biography of Buddhism Born From a Single Man Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha in Factors in Achieving Enlightenment
- A Comparative Study between the Teachings of Two World Religions: Islam and Buddhism
- Affirmative Action Confucius Buddhism And Taoism
- An Analysis of Buddhism in Women and World Religions
- A History of Buddhism and an Analysis of the Teachings of the Buddha
- A History of the Influence of Buddhism and Hinduism on the South Asian Culture
- An Analysis of Buddhism First Sermon Which Should be Treated With Circumspection
- The Concept of Buddhism and the Figure of Buddha as a Central Symbol and Reality for Buddhist Monks
- Convergence of Ideas About Christianity and Buddhism in Living Buddha, Living Christ by Thich Nhat Hanh
- Early Life of Buddha, His Enlightenment, Founding of Buddhism and the Buddhist Literature
- An Analysis of Impermanence, Selflessness and Dissatisfaction on Buddhism as a Religion Nor a Philosophy
- Life and Teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), the Founder of Buddhism
- An Argument in Favor of the Quote Life is Dukkha and Explanation of My Opinion on the Goals of Buddhism
- An Examination of Asian Philosophy and the Different Philosophical Schools: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism and Confucianism
- An Overview of the Selflessness in Buddhism and the Works by Buddha in Contrast to the Monks
- Buddhism And Pop Culture Details The Comparison Between The Movies The Matrix And Fight Club And Buddhists Beliefs
- Buddhism: The Discipline and Knowledge for a Spiritual Life of Well-Being and the Path to Awakening the Nirvana
- Enlightened Revolutionary How King Asoka Entrenched Buddhism into Indian
- Reincarnation as an Important Part of the Teachings of Tibetan Buddhism
- Religion and Homosexuality: Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam
- The Growing Popularity of the Tibetan Buddhism and the Suspicion of the Non-Believers
- Zen Buddhism And Its Relationship To The Practical Psychology Of Daily Living
✅ Controversial Buddhism Topics for Essay
- How Buddhism Reflect The Human Understanding Of God?
- How Does Buddhism Relate And Help To Formulate A Local Understanding Of Transsexuals In Thailand?
- How Climate Change is Affecting Human Civilization and the Relationship Between Buddhism and Climate Change in Today’s Society?
- How Buddhism Has Interacted With Nature And Environment?
- What Role Does Karma Play in Buddhism? Who Does It Affect, and How Does It Affect Them in This Life, the Afterlife, and the Next Life?
- What do Buddhism and Christianity Teach About the Significance, Purpose And Value of Human Life?
- What Are The Core Beliefs Of Buddhism? How Do Buddhists View Craving?
- Why Are Experiences of Stillness and Reflection (Meditation) Important to Buddhism?
- Why A Key Part Of The Beliefs Of Tibetan Buddhism Is Reincarnation?
❓ Research Questions about Buddhism
- How Applied Buddhism Affected Peoples Daily Activities?
- What Is the Influence of Shen Hui on Chinese Buddhism?
- How Buddhism and Hinduism Share a Belief That Life Suffering Is Caused by Desire?
- What Are the Similarities and Differences Between Buddhism and Jainism?
- How Has Tibetan Buddhism Been Incorporated Into Modern Psychotherapy?
- What Are the Key Differences Between Christianity and Buddhism?
- How Is Japanese Culture Related to Buddhism?
- What Parallels and Deviations Can Science Learn From Buddhism?
- Precisely How Zen Buddhism Gives Influenced the Progress of Tea Services?
- Why Did the Rise of Buddhism in Britain Come About?
- What Are Buddhist Beliefs and the Role of the Dalai Lama in Tibetan Buddhism?
- How Did Chinese Culture Shape a New Form of Buddhism?
- What Significant Overlap Between Buddhism and Neuroscience Research Work?
- How does Buddhism Affect Chinese Culture History?
- What Is the Middle Way According to Mahayana Buddhism?
- How Did Buddhism Appear and Spread?
- What Are the Similarities Between Buddhism and Christianity?
- How Did Buddhism Spread in Southeast Asia?
- What Are the Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism?
- What Is the Impact of Buddhism on Western Civilization?
- What Are the Beliefs and Values of Buddhism?
- How Do Buddhists View Craving?
- What Are the Core Beliefs of Buddhism?
- What Does Buddhism Teach?
- Why Did Buddhism Become So Powerful in Ancient History?
- What Role Did Zen Buddhism Play in Shaping the Art of Japan?
- What Role Does Karma Play in Buddhism?
- When Buddhism Was the Dominant Tradition in India?
- Who Were the Founders of Buddhism in Japan?
- Why Did Buddhism Fail To Take Hold in India?
💯 Free Buddhism Essay Topic Generator
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Essays on Buddhism
Philosophy of the self: western science and eastern karma, the teaching of buddha: sayings and thoughts, the story of siddhartha gautama - the buddha, the great of buddha: the history of building, siddhartha gautama: the path of becoming buddha, history and early development of buddhism, buddhism - role of the gods, buddha's life as an example to become a better person, buddha: the story of creating 5 main morals, analysis of religious beliefs of buddhism, a brief history of the creation of the religion of buddhism, misogyny in buddhism and shinto religious practices, japanese religions: shinto and buddhism, to comprehend zen through willpower and faith, a comparative analysis of buddhism and islam, the comparison between chinese religions: taoism and buddhism, differences and similarities between judaism, buddhism and hinduism, hinduism, buddhism, and judaism: comparison of the influence, the ideology of reincarnation in buddhism, feeling stressed about your essay.
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Buddhism as Philosophy: Fundamental Themes
Haidy Geismar et al (eds.), Impermanence: Exploring Continuous Change Across Cultures (2022)
Roger R. Jackson, Rebirth: A Guide to Mind, Karma, and Cosmos in the Buddhist World (2022)
Mark Siderits, How Things Are: An Introduction to Buddhist Metaphysics (2021)
Peter D. Hershock & Roger T. Ames (eds.), Human Beings or Human Becomings? A Conversation with Confucianism on the Concept of Person (2021)
Y. Karunadasa, The Buddhist Analysis of Matter (2020)
Jan Westerhoff, The Non-Existence of the Real World (2020)
Graham Priest, The Fifth Corner of Four: An Essay on Buddhist Metaphysics and the Catuskoti (2019)
Vajragupta Staunton, Free Time! From Clock-Watching to Free-Flowing: A Buddhist Guide (2019)
David Burton, Buddhism: A Contemporary Philosophical Investigation (2017)
Steven M. Emmanuel (ed.), Buddhist Philosophy: A Comparative Approach (2017)
Bryan W. Van Norden, Taking Back Philosophy: A Multicultural Manifesto (2017)
Mark Siderits, Studies in Buddhist Philosophy, ed. Jan Westerhoff (2016)
Marcus Boon, Eric M. Cazdyn, & Timothy Morton, Nothing: Three Inquiries in Buddhism (2015)
Jay L. Garfield, Engaging Buddhism: Why It Matters to Philosophy (2015)
JeeLoo Liu & Douglas Berger (eds.), Nothingness in Asian Philosophy (2014)
Steven M. Emmanuel (ed.), A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy (2013)
Cyrus Panjvani, Buddhism: A Philosophical Approach (2013)
Mark Siderits, Evan Thompson, & Dan Zahavi (eds.), Self, No Self? Perspectives from Analytical, Phenomenological, and Indian Traditions (2013)
Robin Cooper (Ratnaprabha), Finding the Mind: A Buddhist View (2012)
John Danvers, Agents of Uncertainty: Mysticism, Scepticism, Buddhism, Art and Poetry (2012)
Louis de La Vallée Poussin, The Way to Nirvana: Six Lectures on Ancient Buddhism as a Discipline of Salvation (2012)
Musashi Tachikawa, Essays in Buddhist Theology (2012)
Johannes Bronkhorst, Karma (2011)
Alf Hiltebeitel, Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative (2011)
Dhivan Thomas Jones, This Being, That Becomes: The Buddha's Teaching on Conditionality (2011)
Erich Frauwallner, The Philosophy of Buddhism [Die Philosophie des Buddhismus], trans. Gelong Lodro Sangpo & Jigme Sheldron (2010)
William Edelglass & Jay Garfield (eds.), Buddhist Philosophy: Essential Readings (2009)
Dan Arnold, Buddhists, Brahmins, and Belief: Epistemology in South Asian Philosophy of Religion (2008)
George Grimm, Buddhist Wisdom: The Mystery of the Self (2008)
Stephen J. Laumakis, An Introduction to Buddhist Philosophy (2008)
Sangharakshita, The Meaning of Conversion in Buddhism (2008)
Dharmachari Subhuti, Buddhism and Friendship (2008)
Sangharakshita, The Buddha's Noble Eightfold Path (2007)
Mark Siderits, Buddhism as Philosophy: An Introduction (2007)
Lama Shenpen Hookham, There's More to Dying Than Death: A Buddhist Perspective (2006)
Bruce Matthews, Craving and Salvation: A Study in Buddhist Soteriology (2006)
Sangharakshita, The Three Jewels: The Central Ideals of Buddhism (2006)
Jennifer Crawford, Spiritually-Engaged Knowledge: The Attentive Heart (2005)
John Taber (ed. & trans.), A Hindu Critique of Buddhist Epistemology: Kumarila on Perception (2005)
Fernando Tola & Carmen Dragonetti, On Voidness: A Study of Buddhist Nihilism (2005)
David Burton, Buddhism, Knowledge and Liberation: A Philosophical Study (2004)
Richard H. Jones, Mysticism and Morality: A New Look at Old Questions (2004)
Maitreyabandhu, Thicker Than Blood: Friendship on the Buddhist Path (2004)
Nagapriya, Exploring Karma and Rebirth (2004)
Sangharakshita, Buddha Mind (2004)
Sangharakshita, Living with Kindness: The Buddha's Teaching on Metta (2004)
John W. Schroeder, Skillful Means: The Heart of Buddhist Compassion (2004)
Brook Ziporyn, Being and Ambiguity: Philosophical Experiments with Tiantai Buddhism (2004)
Vincent L. Wimbush & Richard Valantasis (eds.), Asceticism (2002)
Rupert Gethin, The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiya Dhamma (2001)
David J. Kalupahana, Buddhist Thought and Ritual (2001)
Michael C. Brannigan, The Pulse of Wisdom: The Philosophies of India, China, and Japan (1999)
Duncan Forbes, The Buddhist Pilgrimage, ed. Alex Wayman (1999)
Roger R. Jackson & John J. Makransky (eds.), Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars (1999)
Jamie Hubbard & Paul L. Swanson (eds.), Pruning the Bodhi Tree: The Storm over Critical Buddhism (1997)
Alex Wayman, Untying the Knots in Buddhism: Selected Essays (1997)
Newman Robert Glass, Working Emptiness: Toward a Third Reading of Emptiness in Buddhism and Postmodern Thought (1995)
Kaisa Puhakka, Knowledge and Reality: A Comparative Study of Divine and Some Buddhist Logicians (1994)
Robert E. Buswell & Robert M. Gimello (eds.), Paths to Liberation: The Marga and Its Transformations in Buddhist Thought (1992)
Jan Nattier, Once upon a Future Time: Studies in a Buddhist Prophecy of Decline (1992)
John M. Koller & Patricia Koller (eds.), Sourcebook in Asian Philosophy (1991)
Gail Hinich Sutherland, The Disguises of the Demon: The Development of the Yaksa in Hinduism and Buddhism (1991)
Gregory Darling, An Evaluation of the Vedantic Critique of Buddhism (1987)
Martin Willson, Rebirth and the Western Buddhist (1987)
Alphonse Verdu, The Philosophy of Buddhism: A "Totalistic" Synthesis (1981)
John r. carter, dhamma: western academic and sinhalese buddhist interpretations: a study of a religious concept (1978).
W.H. Weeraratne, Individual and Society in Buddhism (1977)
David J. Kalupahana, Buddhist Philosophy: A Historical Analysis (1976)
William M. McGovern, A Manual of Buddhist Philosophy (1976)
David J. Kalupahana, Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism (1975)
Francis Story, Rebirth as Doctrine and Experience: Essays and Case Studies (1975)
Junjiro Takakusu, Wing-Tsit Chan & Charles A. Moore (eds.), The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (1975)
John E. Blofeld, Beyond the Gods: Taoist and Buddhist Mysticism (1974)
Herbert V. Guenther, Buddhist Philosophy in Theory and Practice (1972)
Daigan L. Matsunaga & Alicia Matsunaga, The Buddhist Concept of Hell (1971)
Ven. nyanaponika & maurice walshe (eds.), pathways of buddhist thought: essays from the wheel (1971).
T. Stcherbatsky, The Central Conception of Buddhism and the Meaning of the Word "Dharma" (1961)
This book is a collection of essays by Mark Siderits on topics in Indian Buddhist philosophy. The essays are divided into six main systematic sections, dealing with realism and anti-realism, further problems in metaphysics and logic, philosophy of language, epistemology, ethics, and specific discussions of the interaction between Buddhist and classical Indian philosophy. Each of the essays is followed by a postscript Siderits has written specifically for this volume, which make it possible to connect essays of the volume with each other, showing thematic interrelations, or locating them relative to the development of Siderits’s thought. New works have been published, new translations have come out, and additional connections have been discovered. The postscripts make it possible to acquaint the reader with the most important of these developments.
This book is the most comprehensive single volume on the subject available. It offers the very latest scholarship to create a wide-ranging survey of the most important ideas, problems, and debates in the history of Buddhist philosophy. Encompasses the broadest treatment of Buddhist philosophy available, covering social and political thought, meditation, ecology and contemporary issues and applications Each section contains overviews and cutting-edge scholarship that expands readers understanding of the breadth and diversity of Buddhist thought. Broad coverage of topics allows flexibility to instructors in creating a syllabus. Essays provide valuable alternative philosophical perspectives on topics to those available in Western traditions.
This book examines how the Brahmanical tradition of Purva Mimamsa and the writings of the seventh-century Buddhist Madhyamika philosopher Candrakirti challenged dominant Indian Buddhist views of epistemology. Arnold retrieves these two very different but equally important voices of philosophical dissent, showing them to have developed highly sophisticated and cogent critiques of influential Buddhist epistemologists such as Dignaga and Dharmakirti. His analysis—developed in conversation with modern Western philosophers like William Alston and J.L. Austin—offers an innovative reinterpretation of the Indian philosophical tradition, while suggesting that pre-modern Indian thinkers have much to contribute to contemporary philosophical debates.
Buddhism is essentially a teaching about liberation - from suffering, ignorance, selfishness and continued rebirth. Knowledge of 'the way things really are' is thought by many Buddhists to be vital in bringing about this emancipation. This book is a philosophical study of the notion of liberating knowledge as it occurs in a range of Buddhist sources. Burton assesses the common Buddhist idea that knowledge of the three characteristics of existence (impermanence, not-self and suffering) is the key to liberation. It argues that this claim must be seen in the context of the Buddhist path and training as a whole. Detailed attention is also given to anti-realist, sceptical and mystical strands within the Buddhist tradition, all of which make distinctive claims about liberating knowledge.
Ecology, Economics, Globalization, and the Environment
Jeanine M. Canty, Returning the Self to Nature: Undoing Our Collective Narcissism and Healing Our Planet (2022)
Daniel Capper, Roaming Free Like a Deer: Buddhism and the Natural World (2022)
David Hinton, Wild Mind, Wild Earth: Our Place in the Sixth Extinction (2022)
Christoph Brumann et al (eds.), Monks, Money, and Morality: The Balancing Act of Contemporary Buddhism (2021)
Shantigarbha, The Burning House: A Buddhist Response to the Climate and Ecological Emergency (2021)
Trine Brox & Elizabeth Williams-Oerberg, Buddhism and Business: Merit, Material Wealth, and Morality in the Global Market Economy (2020)
Alex John Catanese, Buddha in the Marketplace: The Commodification of Buddhist Objects in Tibet (2020)
Ernest C.H. Ng, Introduction to Buddhist Economics: The Relevance of Buddhist Values in Contemporary Economy and Society (2020)
Geoffrey Barstow (ed.), The Faults of Meat: Tibetan Buddhist Writings on Vegetarianism (2019)
Geoffrey Barstow, Food of Sinful Demons: Meat, Vegetarianism, and the Limits of Buddhism in Tibet (2019)
Candi K. Cann (ed.), Dying to Eat: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Food, Death, and the Afterlife (2019)
Gergely Hidas, A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture: A Critical Edition (2019)
Stephanie Kaza, Green Buddhism: Practice and Compassionate Action in Uncertain Times (2019)
Belden C. Lane, The Great Conversation: Nature and the Care of the Soul (2019)
Clair Brown, Buddhist Economics: An Enlightened Approach to the Dismal Science (2018)
Shravasti Dhammika, Nature and the Environment in Early Buddhism (2018)
Karine Gagné, Caring for Glaciers: Land, Animals, and Humanity in the Himalayas (2018)
Willis J. Jenkins, Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John Grim (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Religion and Ecology (2018)
Vajragupta, Wild Awake: Alone, Offline and Aware in Nature (2018)
Whitney Bauman, Richard Bohannon, and Kevin O'Brien (eds.), Grounding Religion: A Field Guide to the Study of Religion and Ecology, 2nd ed. (2017)
Caroline Brazier, Ecotherapy in Practice: A Buddhist Model (2017)
J. Baird Callicott & James McRae (eds.), Japanese Environmental Philosophy (2017)
David E. Cooper & Simon P. James, Buddhism, Virtue and Environment (2017)
Simon P. James, Zen Buddhism and Environmental Ethics (2017)
Bodhipaksa, Vegetarianism: A Buddhist View (2016)
Padmasiri De Silva, Environmental Philosophy and Ethics in Buddhism (2016)
Todd LeVasseur et al (eds.), Religion and Sustainable Agriculture: World Spiritual Traditions and Food Ethics (2016)
Daniel P. Scheid, The Cosmic Common Good: Religious Grounds for Ecological Ethics (2016)
J. Baird Callicott & James McRae (eds.), Environmental Philosophy in Asian Traditions of Thought (2015)
Ugo Dessì, Japanese Religions and Globalization (2015)
Vaddhaka Linn, The Buddha on Wall Street: What's Wrong with Capitalism and What We Can Do About It (2015)
Joan Marques, Business and Buddhism (2015)
James Stewart, Vegetarianism and Animal Ethics in Contemporary Buddhism (2015)
Whitney A. Bauman, Religion and Ecology: Developing a Planetary Ethic (2014)
James Mark Shields (ed.), Buddhist Responses to Globalization (2014)
Susan M. Darlington, The Ordination of a Tree: The Thai Buddhist Environmental Movement (2013)
Tariq Jazeel, Sacred Modernity: Nature, Environment and the Postcolonial Geographies of Sri Lankan Nationhood (2013)
Bhikkhu Nyanasobhano, Landscapes of Wonder: Discovering Buddhist Dhamma in the World Around Us (2013)
Leslie E. Sponsel, Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution (2012)
Pragati Sahni, Environmental Ethics in Buddhism: A Virtues Approach (2011)
David M. Engel & Jaruwan S. Engel, Tort, Custom, and Karma: Globalization and Legal Consciousness in Thailand (2010)
Roger S. Gottlieb (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology (2010)
Lin Jensen, Deep Down Things: The Earth in Celebration and Dismay (2010)
Richard Payne, How Much is Enough? Buddhism, Consumerism, and the Human Environment (2010)
Thomas Berry, The Sacred Universe: Earth, Spirituality, and Religion, ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker (2009)
Peter D. Hershock, Buddhism in the Public Sphere: Reorienting Global Interdependence (2009)
John Stanley et al (eds.), A Buddhist Response to the Climate Emergency (2009)
Ananda W. P. Guruge, Buddhism, Economics and Science: Further Studies in Socially Engaged Humanistic Buddhism (2008)
Stephanie Kaza, Mindfully Green: A Personal and Spiritual Guide to Whole Earth Thinking (2008)
Bhikkhu Basnagoda Rahula, The Buddha's Teachings on Prosperity: At Home, At Work, in the World (2008)
Lloyd Field, Business and the Buddha: Doing Well by Doing Good (2007)
Bhikkhu Nyanasobhano, Available Truth: Excursions into Buddhist Wisdom and the Natural World (2007)
Lisa Kemmerer, In Search of Consistency: Ethics and Animals (2006)
Kirkpatrick Sale, After Eden: The Evolution of Human Domination (2006)
Paul Waldau & Kimberley Christine Patton (eds.), A Communion of Subjects: Animals in Religion, Science, and Ethics (2006)
Sulak Sivaraksa, Conflict, Culture, Change: Engaged Buddhism in a Globalizing World (2005)
Stuart Chandler, Establishing a Pure Land on Earth: The Foguang Buddhist Perspective on Modernization and Globalization (2004)
Linda Learman, Buddhist Missionaries in the Era of Globalization (2004)
Roger S. Gottlieb, This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment, 2nd ed. (2003)
Joanna Macy, World As Lover, World As Self: Courage for Global Justice and Ecological Renewal (2003)
Paul Waldau, The Specter of Speciesism: Buddhist and Christian Views of Animals (2001)
Stephanie Kaza & Kenneth Kraft (eds.), Dharma Rain: Sources of Buddhist Environmentalism (2000)
Tony Page, Buddhism and Animals: A Buddhist Vision of Humanity's Rightful Relationship with the Animal Kingdom (1999)
Laurel Kearns & Catherine Keller (eds.), Ecospirit: Religions and Philosophies for the Earth (2007)
Mary E. Tucker & Duncan R. Williams (eds.), Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds (1997)
Christopher Key Chapple, Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions (1993)
Martine Batchelor & Kerry Brown (eds.), Buddhism and Ecology (1992)
Allan Hunt Badiner (ed.), Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology (1990)
Arne Naess, Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy, trans. David Rothenberg (1989)
In this study of the place of vegetarianism within Tibetan religiosity, Geoffrey Barstow explores the tension between Buddhist ethics and Tibetan cultural norms to offer a novel perspective on the spiritual and social dimensions of meat eating. Barstow offers a detailed analysis of the debates over meat eating and vegetarianism, from the first references to such a diet in the tenth century through the Chinese invasion in the 1950s. He discusses elements of Tibetan Buddhist thought, but also looks beyond religious attitudes to examine the cultural, economic, and environmental factors that oppose the Buddhist critique of meat, including Tibetan concepts of medicine and health, food scarcity, the display of wealth, and idealized male gender roles. Barstow argues that the issue of meat eating was influenced by a complex interplay of factors, with religious perspectives largely supporting vegetarianism while practical concerns and secular ideals pulled in the other direction.
Clair Brown, professor of economics at UC Berkeley and a practicing Buddhist, has developed a holistic model, one based on the notion that quality of life should be measured by more than national income. Brown advocates an approach to organizing the economy that embraces rather than skirts questions of values, sustainability, and equity, and incorporates the Buddhist emphasis on interdependence, shared prosperity, and happiness into her vision for a sustainable and compassionate world. Buddhist economics leads us to think mindfully as we go about our daily activities, and offers a way to appreciate how our actions affect the well-being of those around us. By replacing the endless cycle of desire with more positive collective activities, we can make our lives more meaningful as well as happier. This book represents an enlightened approach to our modern world infused with ancient wisdom, with benefits both personal and global, for generations to come.
This book reflects the growing interest and research in this field. Drawing on a diversity of experience from the counselling and psychotherapy professions, but also from practitioners in community work, mental health and education, this book explores the exciting and innovative possibilities involved in practising outdoors. Brazier brings to bear her experience and knowledge as a psychotherapist, group worker and trainer over several decades to think about therapeutic work outdoors in all its forms. The book presents a model of ecotherapy based on principles drawn from Buddhist psychology and Western psychotherapy which focuses particularly on the relationship between person and environment at three levels, moving from the personal level of individual history to cultural influences, then finally to global circumstances, all of which condition mind-states and psychological well-being. This work will provide refreshing and valuable reading for psychotherapists and counsellors in the field, those interested in Buddhism, and other mental health and health professionals working outdoors.
This work explores alternative ways of leading in the aftermath of the Great Recession and the many stories of fraud and greed that emerged. The book explores shifts in business perspectives as more value is placed on soft skills like emotional intelligence and listening, and introduces the reader to the principles in Buddhist philosophy that can be applied in the workplace. Marques explores the value of applying the positive psychology of Buddhism to work settings. She outlines the ways in which it offers highly effective solutions to addressing important management and organizational behavior related issues, but also flags up critical areas for caution. For example, Buddhism is non-confrontational, and promotes detachment. How can business leaders negotiate these principles in light of the demands of modern day pressures? The book includes end of chapter questions to promote reflection and critical thinking, and examples of Buddhist leaders in action. It will prove a captivating read for students of organizational behavior, management, leadership, diversity and ethics.
Eric Huntington, Creating the Universe: Depictions of the Cosmos in Himalayan Buddhism (2019)
Rebecca Redwood French, The Golden Yoke: The Legal Cosmology of Buddhist Tibet (2002)
Akira Sadakata, Buddhist Cosmology: Philosophy and Origins (1997)
Jamgon K.L. Taye, Myriad Worlds: Buddhist Cosmology in Abhidharma, Kalacakra, and Dzog-chen (1995)
Randy Kloetzli, Buddhist Cosmology: From Single World System to Pure Land: Science and Theology in the Images of Motion and Light (1983)
Frank E. Reynolds & Mani B. Reynolds (trans.), Three Worlds According to King Ruang: A Thai Buddhist Cosmology (1982)
Jay L. Garfield, Buddhist Ethics: A Philosophical Exploration (2021)
Daniel Cozort & James Mark Shields (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Buddhist Ethics (2018)
Jake H. Davis (ed.), A Mirror Is for Reflection: Understanding Buddhist Ethics (2017)
The Cowherds, Moonpaths: Ethics and Emptiness (2015)
Dharmachari Subhuti, Mind in Harmony: A Guide to the Psychology of Buddhist Ethics (2015)
Charles Goodman, Consequences of Compassion: An Interpretation and Defense of Buddhist Ethics (2014)
Christopher W. Gowans, Buddhist Moral Philosophy: An Introduction (2014)
Alexus McLeod, Understanding Asian Philosophy: Ethics in the Analects, Zhuangzi, Dhammapada, and the Bhagavad Gita (2014)
Subhadramati, Not About Being Good: A Practical Guide to Buddhist Ethics (2013)
Dale Wright, The Six Perfections: Buddhism and the Cultivation of Character (2011)
Charles S. Prebish (ed.), Destroying Mara Forever: Buddhist Ethics Essays in Honor of Damien Keown (2010)
Susanne Mrozik, Virtuous Bodies: The Physical Dimensions of Morality in Buddhist Ethics (2007)
Hari Shankar Prasad, The Centrality of Ethics in Buddhism: Exploratory Essays (2007)
Pamela Bloom, The Healing Power of Compassion: The Essence of Buddhist Acts (2006)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Into the Jaws of Yama, Lord of Death: Buddhism, Bioethics, and Death (2006)
Damien Keown, Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (2005)
Sangharakshita, Know Your Mind: The Psychological Dimension of Ethics in Buddhism (2004)
Jeffrey Hopkins, Cultivating Compassion: A Buddhist Perspective (2002)
Gananath Obeyesekere, Imagining Karma: Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth (2002)
Peter Harvey, An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values, and Issues (2000)
Damien Keown (ed.), Contemporary Buddhist Ethics (2000)
Damien Keown (ed.), Buddhism and Abortion (1998)
Hammalawa Saddhatissa, Buddhist Ethics (1997)
Peggy Morgan & Clive Lawton (eds.), Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions (1996)
Damien Keown, Buddhism and Bioethics (1995)
Phillip Olson, The Discipline of Freedom: A Kantian View of the Role of Moral Precepts in Zen Practice (1993)
Damien Keown, The Nature of Buddhist Ethics (1992)
William R. LaFleur, Liquid Life: Abortion and Buddhism in Japan (1992)
Charles W. Fu & Sandra A. Wawrytko (eds.), Buddhist Ethics and Modern Society (1991)
Bruce Reichenbach, The Law of Karma: A Philosophical Study (1990)
Russell F. Sizemore & Donald K. Swearer (eds.), Ethics, Wealth and Salvation: A Study in Buddhist Social Ethics (1989)
Toshiichi Endo, Dana: The Development of Its Concept and Practice (1987)
G.S. Misra, The Development of Buddhist Ethics (1984)
Robert Aitken, The Mind of Clover: Essays in Zen Buddhist Ethics (1982)
Roderick Hindery, Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions (1978)
Michael Pye, Skilful Means: A Concept in Mahayana Buddhism (1978)
Unto Tahtinen, Ahimsa: Non-Violence in Indian Tradition (1976)
Shundo Tachibana, The Ethics of Buddhism (1975)
Winston King, In the Hope of Nibbana: An Essay on Theravada Buddhist Ethics (1964)
All the varied forms of Buddhism embody an ethical core that is remarkably consistent. Articulated by the historical Buddha in his first sermon, this moral core is founded on the concept of karma--that intentions and actions have future consequences for an individual--and is summarized as Right Speech, Right Action, and Right Livelihood, three of the elements of the Eightfold Path. Although they were later elaborated and interpreted in a multitude of ways, none of these core principles were ever abandoned. This work provides a comprehensive overview of the field of Buddhist ethics in the twenty-first century. It discusses the foundations of Buddhist ethics, focusing on karma and the precepts for abstinence from harming others, stealing, and intoxication. It considers ethics in the different Buddhist traditions and the similarities they share, and compares Buddhist ethics to Western ethics and the psychology of moral judgments. The volume also investigates Buddhism and society, analysing economics, environmental ethics, and Just War ethics. The final section focuses on contemporary issues surrounding Buddhist ethics, including gender, sexuality, animal rights, and euthanasia.
Here is a lucid, accessible, and inspiring guide to the six perfections--Buddhist teachings about six dimensions of human character that require "perfecting": generosity, morality, tolerance, energy, meditation, and wisdom. Drawing on the Diamond Sutra, the Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom, and other essential Mahayana texts, Dale Wright shows how these teachings were understood and practiced in classical Mahayana Buddhism and how they can be adapted to contemporary life in a global society. What would the perfection of generosity look like today, for example? What would it mean to give with neither ulterior motives nor naiveté? Devoting a separate chapter to each of the six perfections, Wright combines sophisticated analysis with real-life applications. Buddhists have always stressed self-cultivation and the freedom of human beings to shape their own lives. For those interested in ideals of human character and practices of self-cultivation, this work offers invaluable guidance.
This book explores the Buddhist view of death and its implications for contemporary bioethics. Writing primarily from within the Tibetan tradition, Tsomo discusses Buddhist notions of human consciousness and personal identity and how these figure in the Buddhist view of death. Beliefs about death and enlightenment and states between life and death are also discussed. Tsomo goes on to examine such hot-button topics as cloning, abortion, assisted suicide, euthanasia, organ donation, genetic engineering, and stem-cell research within a Buddhist context, introducing new ways of thinking about these highly controversial issues.
With this work, Obeyesekere embarks on the very first comparison of rebirth concepts across a wide range of cultures. Exploring in rich detail the beliefs of small-scale societies of West Africa, Melanesia, traditional Siberia, Canada, and the northwest coast of North America, Obeyesekere compares their ideas with those of the ancient and modern Indic civilizations and with the Greek rebirth theories of Pythagoras, Empedocles, Pindar, and Plato. His groundbreaking and authoritative discussion decenters the popular notion that India was the origin and locus of ideas of rebirth. As he compares responses to the most fundamental questions of human existence, the author challenges readers to reexamine accepted ideas about death, cosmology, morality, and eschatology. Obeyesekere's comprehensive inquiry shows that diverse societies have come through independent invention or borrowing to believe in reincarnation as an integral part of their larger cosmological systems. The author brings together into a coherent methodological framework the thought of such diverse thinkers as Weber, Wittgenstein, and Nietzsche. In a contemporary intellectual context that celebrates difference and cultural relativism, this book makes a case for disciplined comparison, a humane view of human nature, and a theoretical understanding of "family resemblances" and differences across great cultural divides.
Gender, Sexuality, Reproduction, and Children
Elisabeth A. Benard, The Sakya Jetsunmas: The Hidden World of Tibetan Female Lamas (2022)
Rachael Stevens, Red Tara: The Female Buddha of Power and Magnetism (2022)
Stephanie Guyer-Stevens & Françoise Pommaret, Divine Messengers: The Untold Story of Bhutan's Female Shamans (2021)
Alice Collett, I Hear Her Words: An Introduction to Women in Buddhism (2021)
Wendy Garling, The Woman Who Raised the Buddha: The Extraordinary Life of Mahaprajapati (2021)
Carola Roloff, The Buddhist Nun´s Ordination in the Tibetan Canon: Possibilities of the Revival of the Mulasarvastivada Bhiksuni Lineage (2021)
Vanessa R. Sasson, Yasodhara and the Buddha (2021)
Mayumi Oda, Sarasvati's Gift: The Autobiography of Mayumi Oda - Artist, Activist, and Modern Buddhist Revolutionary (2020)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Women in Buddhist Traditions (2020)
Matty Weingast, The First Free Women: Poems of the Early Buddhist Nuns (2020)
Jan Willis, Dharma Matters: Women, Race, and Tantra (2020)
Sokthan Yeng, Buddhist Feminism: Transforming Anger Against Patriarchy (2020)
Anne Cushman, The Mama Sutra: A Story of Love, Loss, and the Pain of Motherhood (2019)
Martin Seeger, Gender and the Path to Awakening: Hidden Histories of Nuns in Modern Thai Buddhism (2018)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo (ed.), Buddhist Feminisms and Femininities (2019)
Gendun Chopel, The Passion Book: A Tibetan Guide to Love & Sex, trans. Donald S. Lopez, Jr. (2018)
Pamela Ayo Yetunde, Object Relations, Buddhism, and Relationality in Womanist Practical Theology (2018)
Amy Paris Langenberg, Birth in Buddhism: The Suffering Fetus and Female Freedom (2017)
Karen Muldoon-Hules, Brides of the Buddha: Nuns' Stories from the Avadanasataka (2017)
Bhikkhu Analayo, The Foundation History of the Nuns' Order (2016)
Anna Andreeva & Dominic Steavu (eds.), Transforming the Void: Embryological Discourse and Reproductive Imagery in East Asian Religions (2016)
Wendy Garling, Stars at Dawn: Forgotten Stories of Women in the Buddha's Life (2016)
Kamalamani, Other Than Mother: Choosing Childlessness with Life in Mind (2016)
Ashley Thompson, Engendering the Buddhist State: Territory, Sovereignty and Sexual Difference in the Inventions of Angkor (2016)
Pascale Engelmajer, Women in Pali Buddhism: Walking the Spiritual Paths in Mutual Dependence (2015)
Rosemarie Freeney Harding & Rachel Elizabeth Harding, Remnants: A Memoir of Spirit, Activism, and Mothering (2015)
Jennifer McWeeny & Ashby Butnor (eds.), Asian and Feminist Philosophies in Dialogue: Liberating Traditions (2014)
Andrea Miller (ed.), Buddha's Daughters: Teachings from Women Who Are Shaping Buddhism in the West (2014)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo (ed.), Eminent Buddhist Women (2014)
Kathryn R. Blackstone, Women in the Footsteps of the Buddha: Struggle for Liberation in the Therigatha (2013)
Florence Caplow & Susan Moon (eds.), The Hidden Lamp: Stories from Twenty-Five Centuries of Awakened Women (2013)
Nirmala S. Salgado, Buddhist Nuns and Gendered Practice: In Search of the Female Renunciant (2013)
Bardwell L. Smith, Narratives of Sorrow and Dignity: Japanese Women, Pregnancy Loss, and Modern Rituals of Grieving (2013)
Reiko Ohnuma, Ties That Bind: Maternal Imagery and Discourse in Indian Buddhism (2012)
Vanessa R. Sasson (ed.), Little Buddhas: Children and Childhoods in Buddhist Texts and Traditions (2012)
Paula Arai, Bringing Zen Home: The Healing Heart of Japanese Women's Rituals (2011)
Hsiao-Lan Hu, This-Worldly Nibbana: A Buddhist-Feminist Social Ethic for Peacemaking in the Global Community (2011)
Lori Rachelle Meeks, Hokkeji and the Reemergence of Female Monastic Orders in Premodern Japan (2010)
Thea Mohr & Jampa Tsedroen (eds.), Dignity and Discipline: Reviewing Full Ordination for Buddhist Nuns (2010)
Mohan Wijayaratna, Buddhist Nuns: The Birth and Development of a Women's Monastic Order (2010)
Christina Feldman, Woman Awake: Women Practicing Buddhism (2009)
Rita M. Gross, A Garland of Feminist Reflections: Forty Years of Religious Exploration (2009)
Grace Schireson, Zen Women: Beyond Tea Ladies, Iron Maidens, and Macho Masters (2009)
Andrea Whittaker, Abortion, Sin and the State in Thailand (2009)
Frances Mary Garrett, Religion, Medicine and the Human Embryo in Tibet (2008)
Sara Burns, A Path for Parents: What Buddhism Can Offer (2007)
Peter N. Gregory & Susanne Mrozik (eds.), Women Practicing Buddhism: American Experiences (2007)
Maura O'Halloran, Pure Heart, Enlightened Mind: The Life and Letters of an Irish Zen Saint (2007)
Sallie Tisdale, Women of the Way: Discovering 2,500 Years of Buddhist Wisdom (2007)
Martine Batchelor & Son'gyong Sunim, Women in Korean Zen: Lives and Practices (2006)
Sandy Boucher, Dancing in the Dharma: The Life and Teachings of Ruth Denison (2006)
Wei-Yi Cheng, Buddhist Nuns in Taiwan and Sri Lanka: A Critique of the Feminist Perspective (2006)
Alexandra David-Néel, My Journey to Lhasa: The Classic Story of the Only Western Woman Who Succeeded in Entering the Forbidden City (2005)
Kim Gutschow, Being a Buddhist Nun: The Struggle for Enlightenment in the Himalayas (2004)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Buddhist Women and Social Justice: Ideals, Challenges, and Achievements (2004)
Bernard Faure, The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity and Gender (2003)
Beata Grant, Daughters of Emptiness: Poems of Chinese Buddhist Nuns (2003)
Hugh B. Urban, Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics, and Power in the Study of Religion (2003)
Martine Batchelor, Women on the Buddhist Path (2002)
Susan Murcott, First Buddhist Women: Poems and Stories of Awakening (2002)
Sid Brown, The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even Against the Wind (2001)
Rita M. Gross & Rosemary Radford Ruether, Religious Feminism and the Future of the Planet: A Christian-Buddhist Conversation (2001)
Ranjini Obeyesekere (trans.), Portraits of Buddhist Women: Stories from the Saddharmaratnaavaliya (2001)
Tsültrim Allione, Women of Wisdom (2000)
Sandy Boucher, Discovering Kwan Yin, Buddhist Goddess of Compassion: A Path Towards Clarity and Peace (2000)
Mandakranta Bose (ed.), Faces of the Feminine in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern India (2000)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Innovative Buddhist Women: Swimming Against the Stream (2000)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Buddhist Women Across Cultures: Realizations (1999)
Sandy Boucher, Opening the Lotus: A Woman's Guide to Buddhism (1998)
Alan Cole, Mothers and Sons in Chinese Buddhism (1998)
Bernard Faure, The Red Thread: Buddhist Approaches to Sexuality (1998)
Chamindaji gamage, buddhism and sensuality: as recorded in the theravada canon (1998).
Rita M. Gross, Soaring and Settling: Buddhist Perspectives on Contemporary Social and Religious Issues (1998)
Lenore Friedman & Susan Moon (eds.), Being Bodies: Buddhist Women on the Paradox of Embodiment (1997)
Helen Hardacre, Marketing the Menacing Fetus in Japan (1997)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo, Sisters in Solitude: Two Traditions of Buddhist Monastic Ethics for Women (1997)
Martine Batchelor, Walking on Lotus Flowers: Buddhist Women Living, Loving and Meditating (1996)
Marianne Dresser (ed.), Buddhist Women on the Edge: Contemporary Perspectives from the Western Frontier (1996)
Liz Wilson, Charming Cadavers: Horrific Figurations of the Feminine in Indian Buddhist Hagiographic Literature (1996)
Anne C. Klein, Meeting the Great Bliss Queen: Buddhists, Feminists, and the Art of the Self (1995)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo (ed.), Buddhism Through American Women's Eyes (1995)
L.p.n. perera, sexuality in ancient india: a study based on the pali vinayapitaka (1993).
Rita M. Gross, Buddhism after Patriarchy: A Feminist History, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Buddhism (1992)
Susan Murcott, The First Buddhist Women (1992)
José Ignacio Cabezón (ed.), Buddhism, Sexuality, and Gender (1991)
I. B. Horner, Women under Primitive Buddhism: Laywomen and Almswomen (1990)
John Stevens, Lust for Enlightenment: Buddhism and Sex (1990)
Janice Willis (ed.), Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet (1989)
Sandy Boucher, Turning the Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism (1988)
Karma Lekshe Tsomo (ed.), Sakyadhita: Daughters of the Buddha (1988)
Lenore Friedman, Meetings with Remarkable Women: Buddhist Teachers in America (1987)
Deborah Hopkinson, Not Mixing Up Buddhism: Essays on Women and Buddhism (1987)
Diana m. paul, women in buddhism: images of the feminine in the mahayana tradition (1985), diana m. paul, the buddhist feminine ideal (1980).
Recent decades have seen a transnational agitation for better opportunities for Buddhist women. Many of the main players in this movement self-identify as feminists, but other participants in this movement may not know or use the language of feminism. In fact, many ordained Buddhist women say they seek higher ordination so that they might be better Buddhist practitioners, not for the sake of gender equality. Eschewing the backward projection of secular liberal feminist categories, this book describes the basic features of the Buddhist discourse of the female body, held more or less in common across sectarian lines, and still pertinent to ordained Buddhist women today. The textual focus of the study is an early-first-millennium Sanskrit Buddhist work, the "Descent into the Womb Scripture" or Garbhāvakrānti-sūtra. Drawing out the implications of this text, the author offers innovative arguments about the significance of childbirth and fertility in Buddhism, namely that birth is a master metaphor in Indian Buddhism; that Buddhist gender constructions are centrally shaped by Buddhist birth discourse; and that, by undermining the religious importance of female fertility, the Buddhist construction of an inauspicious, chronically impure, and disgusting femininity constituted a portal to a new, liberated, feminine life for Buddhist monastic women.
Based on extensive research in Sri Lanka and interviews with Theravada and Tibetan nuns from around the world, Salgado's groundbreaking study urges a rethinking of female renunciation. How are scholarly accounts complicit in reinscribing imperialist stories about the subjectivity of Buddhist women? How do key Buddhist "concepts" such as dukkha, samsara, and sila ground female renunciant practice? Salgado's provocative analysis questions the secular notion of the higher ordination of nuns as a political movement for freedom against patriarchal norms. Arguing that the lives of nuns defy translation into a politics of global sisterhood equal before law, she calls for more-nuanced readings of nuns' everyday renunciant practices.
Consideration of children in the academic field of Religious Studies is taking root, but Buddhist Studies has yet to take notice. This book brings together a wide range of scholarship and expertise to address the question of what role children have played in Buddhist literature, in particular historical contexts, and what role they continue to play in specific Buddhist contexts today. The volume is divided into two parts, one addressing the representation of children in Buddhist texts, the other children and childhoods in Buddhist cultures around the world. The ground-breaking contributions in this volume challenge the perception of irreconcilable differences between Buddhist idealism and family ties. This work will be an indispensable resource for students and scholars of Buddhism and Childhood Studies, and a catalyst for further research on the topic.
Rita M. Gross has long been acknowledged as a founder in the field of feminist theology. One of the earliest scholars in religious studies to discover how feminism affects that discipline, she is recognized as preeminent in Buddhist feminist theology. The essays in this book represent the major aspects of her work and provide an overview of her methodology in women's studies in religion and feminism. The introductory article, written specifically for this volume, summarizes the conclusions Gross has reached about gender and feminism after forty years of searching and exploring, and the autobiography, also written for this volume, narrates how those conclusions were reached. These articles reveal the range of scholarship and reflection found in Gross's work and demonstrate how feminist scholars in the 1970s shifted the paradigm away from an androcentric model of humanity and forever changed the way we study religion.
Enlightenment & Enlightened Beings
Dale S. Wright, What Is Buddhist Enlightenment? (2016)
Soon-il Hwang, Metaphor and Literalism in Buddhism: The Doctrinal History of Nirvana (2012)
Alan Sponberg & Helen Hardacre (eds.), Maitreya: The Future Buddha (2011)
Bhikkhu Analayo, The Genesis of the Bodhisattva Ideal (2010)
Steven Collins, Nirvana: Concept, Imagery, Narrative (2010)
Guang Xing, The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early Buddhism to the Trikaya Theory (2010)
Jan Nattier, A Few Good Men: The Bodhisattva Path According to the Inquiry of Ugra (2005)
Sangharakshita, Wisdom Beyond Words: The Buddhist Vision of Ultimate Reality (2004)
Steven Collins, Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities: Utopias of the Pali Imaginaire (1998)
Ulrich Pagel, The Bodhisattvapitaka: Its Doctrines, Practices and Their Position in Mahayana Literature (1995)
Cheng Chien, Manifestation of the Tathagata: Buddhahood According to the Avatamsaka Sutra (1993)
Sallie B. King, Buddha Nature (1991)
David Seyfort Ruegg, Buddha-Nature, Mind and the Problem of Gradualism in a Comparative Perspective (1989)
Sung Bae Park, Buddhist Faith and Sudden Enlightenment (1983)
Nathan Katz, Buddhist Images of Human Perfection: The Arahant of the Sutta Pitaka compared with the Bodhisattva and the Mahasiddha (1982)
Leslie Kawamura (ed.), The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhism (1981)
Theodor Stcherbatsky, The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. With Sanskrit Text of the Madhyamaka-karika, 2nd rev. ed. (1977)
Har Dayal, The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit Literature (1970)
Rune E. A. Johansson, The Psychology of Nirvana: A Comparative Study (1970)
G.R. Welbon, The Buddhist Nirvana and Its Western Interpreters (1968)
Robert L. Slater, Paradox and Nirvana: A Study of Religious Ultimates with Special Reference to Burmese Buddhism (1951)
Julius Evola, The Doctrine of Awakening: The Attainment of Self-Mastery According to the Earliest Buddhist Texts (1943)
Law, Politics, War, and Violence
Stephanie Balkwill & James A. Benn (eds.), Buddhist Statecraft in East Asia (2022)
William J. Long, A Buddhist Approach to International Relations: Radical Interdependence (2021)
George Yancy & Emily McRae (eds.), Buddhism and Whiteness: Critical Reflections (2019)
Michael Jerryson, If You Meet the Buddha on the Road: Essays on Buddhism, Politics, and Violence (2018)
D. Christian Lammerts, Buddhist Law in Burma: A History of Dhammasattha Texts and Jurisprudence (2018)
Padmasiri de Silva, The Psychology of Buddhism in Conflict Studies (2017)
Hiroko Kawanami (ed.), Buddhism and the Political Process (2016)
Matthew J. Moore, Buddhism and Political Theory (2016)
Wayne R. Husted & Damien Keown (eds.), Buddhism and Human Rights (2015)
Rebecca Redwood French & Mark A. Nathan (eds.), Buddhism and Law: An Introduction (2014)
Hiroko Kawanami & Geoffrey Samuel (eds.), Buddhism, International Relief Work, and Civil Society (2013)
Vincent Eltschinger, Caste and Buddhist Philosophy: Continuity of Some Buddhist Arguments against the Realist Interpretation of Social Denominations (2012)
Melvin McLeod (ed.), Mindful Politics: A Buddhist Guide to Making the World a Better Place (2012)
Vladimir Tikhonov & Torkel Brekke (eds.), Buddhism and Violence: Militarism and Buddhism in Modern Asia (2012)
Michael K. Jerryson & Mark Juergensmeyer (eds.), Buddhist Warfare (2010)
Carmen Meinert, Hans-Bernd Zöllner (eds.), Buddhist Approaches to Human Rights: Dissonances and Resonances (2010)
Brian D. Victoria, Zen at War (2006)
Susan Moon, Not Turning Away: The Practice of Engaged Buddhism (2004)
Brian D. Victoria, Zen War Stories (2003)
Tessa J. Bartholomeusz, In Defense of Dharma: Just-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka (2002)
Andrew Huxley, Religion, Law and Tradition: Comparative Studies in Religious Law (2002)
Daisaku Ikeda, For the Sake of Peace: Seven Paths to Global Harmony: A Buddhist Perspective (2002)
Ian Harris (ed.), Buddhism and Politics in Twentieth Century Asia (2001)
Jan E.M. Houben & Karel R. Van Kooj (eds.), Violence Denied: Violence, Non-Violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History (1999)
David R. Loy, The Great Awakening: A Buddhist Social Theory (1997)
Kenneth Kraft (ed.), Inner Peace, World Peace: Essays on Buddhism and Nonviolence (1992)
Glenn D. Paige & Sarah Gilliatt, Buddhism and Non-Violent Global Problem-Solving: Ulan Bator Explorations (1991)
Unto tahtinen, non-violent theories of punishment: indian and western (1983).
Burma and neighboring areas of Southeast Asia comprise the only region of the world to have developed a written corpus of Buddhist law claiming jurisdiction over all members of society. Yet in contrast with the extensive scholarship on Islamic and Hindu law, this tradition of Buddhist law has been largely overlooked. In fact, it is commonplace to read that Buddhism gave rise to no law aside from the vinaya, or monastic law. In this book, Lammerts upends this misperception and provides an intellectual and literary history of the dynamic jurisprudence of the dhammasattha legal genre between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries. Based on a critical study of hundreds of little-known surviving dhammasattha and related manuscripts, the work demonstrates the centrality of law as a crucial discipline of Buddhist knowledge in precolonial Southeast Asia. Lammerts argues that there were multiple, sometimes contentious, modes of reckoning Buddhist jurisprudence and legal authority in the region and assesses these in the context of local cultural, textual, and ritual practices. Over time, the foundational jurisprudence of the genre underwent considerable reformulation in light of arguments raised by its critics, bibliographers, and historians, resulting in a reorientation from a cosmological to a more positivist conception of Buddhist law and legislation that had far-reaching implications for innovative forms of dhammasattha -related discourse on the eve of British colonialism. Lammerts' book shows how, despite such textual and theoretical transformations, late precolonial Burmese jurists continued to promote and justify the dhammasattha genre, and the role of law generally in Buddhism, as a vital aspect of the ongoing effort to protect and preserve the sāsana of Gotama Buddha.
As the first comprehensive study of Buddhism and law in Asia, this interdisciplinary volume challenges the concept of Buddhism as an apolitical religion without implications for law. This collection draws on the expertise of the foremost scholars in Buddhist studies and in law to trace the legal aspects of the religion from the time of the Buddha to the present. In some cases, Buddhism provided the crucial architecture for legal ideologies and secular law codes, while in other cases it had to contend with a preexisting legal system, to which it added a new layer of complexity. The wide-ranging studies in this book reveal a diversity of relationships between Buddhist monastic codes and secular legal systems in terms of substantive rules, factoring, and ritual practices. This volume will be an essential resource for all students and teachers in Buddhist studies, law and religion, and comparative law.
Though traditionally regarded as a peaceful religion, Buddhism has a dark side. On multiple occasions over the past fifteen centuries, Buddhist leaders have sanctioned violence, and even war. The eight essays in this book focus on a variety of Buddhist traditions, from antiquity to the present, and show that Buddhist organizations have used religious images and rhetoric to support military conquest throughout history. Buddhist soldiers in sixth century China were given the illustrious status of Bodhisattva after killing their adversaries. In seventeenth century Tibet, the Fifth Dalai Lama endorsed a Mongol ruler's killing of his rivals. And in modern-day Thailand, Buddhist soldiers carry out their duties undercover, as fully ordained monks armed with guns. This work demonstrates that the discourse on religion and violence, usually applied to Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, can no longer exclude Buddhist traditions. The book examines Buddhist military action in Tibet, China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and shows that even the most unlikely and allegedly pacifist religious traditions are susceptible to the violent tendencies of man.
The "golden yoke" of Buddhist Tibet was the last medieval legal system still in existence in the middle of the twentieth century. This book reconstructs that system as a series of layered narratives from the memories of people who participated in the daily operation of law in the houses and courtyards the offices and courts of Tibet prior to 1959. The practice of law in this unique legal world, which lacked most of our familiar sign posts, ranged from the fantastic use of oracles in the search for evidence to the more mundane presentation of cases in court. Buddhism and law, two topics rarely intertwined in Western consciousness, are at the center of this work. The Tibetan legal system was based on Buddhist philosophy and reflected Buddhist thought in legal practice and decision making. For Tibetans, law is a cosmology, a kaleidoscopic patterning of relations which is constantly changing, recycling, and re-forming even as it integrates the universe and the individual into a timeless mandalic whole. This work causes us to rethink American legal culture. It argues that in the United States, legal matters are segregated into a separate space with rigidly defined categories. The legal cosmology of Buddhist Tibet brings into question both this autonomous framework and most of the presumptions we have about the very nature of law from precedent and res judicata to rule formation and closure.
The Literature of Buddhism
Michihiro Ama, The Awakening of Modern Japanese Fiction: Path Literature and the Interpretation of Buddhism (2021)
John Brehm, The Dharma of Poetry: How Poems Can Deepen Your Spiritual Practice and Open You to Joy (2021)
Karen Derris, Storied Companions: Cancer, Trauma, and Discovering Guides for Living in Buddhist Narratives (2021)
Ven. K.L. Dhammajoti, Reading Buddhist Sanskrit Texts: An Elementary Grammatical Guide, 4th ed. (2021)
Natalie Gummer (ed.), The Language of the Sutras: Essays in Honor of Luis Gómez (2021)
Stefan Larsson & Kristoffer af Edholm, Songs on the Road: Wandering Religious Poets in India, Tibet, and Japan (2021)
Eviatar Shulman, Visions of the Buddha: Creative Dimensions of Early Buddhist Scripture (2021)
Chunwen Hao, Dunhuang Manuscripts: An Introduction to Texts from the Silk Road (2020)
Rafal K. Stepien (ed.), Buddhist Literature as Philosophy, Buddhist Philosophy as Literature (2020)
Dominique Julien, Borges, Buddhism, and World Literature: A Morphology of Renunciation Tales (2019)
Naomi Appleton, Shared Characters in Jain, Buddhist and Hindu Narrative: Gods, Kings and Other Heroes (2016)
Hildegard Diemberger et al (eds.), Tibetan Printing: Comparison, Continuities, and Change (2016)
Naomi Appleton, Narrating Karma and Rebirth: Buddhist and Jain Multi-Life Stories (2015)
Jae-Seong Lee, Postmodern Ethics, Emptiness, and Literature (2015)
Lawrence Normand & Alison Winch (eds.), Encountering Buddhism in Twentieth-Century British and American Literature (2015)
Agnieszka Helman-Wazny, The Archaeology of Tibetan Books (2014)
Kurtis R. Schaeffer, The Culture of the Book in Tibet (2014)
Jinah Kim, Receptacle of the Sacred: Illustrated Manuscripts and the Buddhist Book Cult in South Asia (2013)
Richard S. Cohen, The Splendid Vision: Reading a Buddhist Sutra (2012)
Stephen C. Berkwitz et al (eds.), Buddhist Manuscript Cultures: Knowledge, Ritual, and Art (2011)
John Whalen-Bridge & Gary Storhoff (eds.), Writing as Enlightenment: Buddhist American Literature into the Twenty-First Century (2011)
John Whalen-Bridge & Gary Storhoff (eds.), The Emergence of Buddhist American Literature (2009)
Ralph Flores, Buddhist Scriptures as Literature: Sacred Rhetoric and the Uses of Theory (2008)
Richard F. Gombrich & Cristina Scherrer-Schaub (eds.), Buddhist Studies: Papers of the 12th World Sanskrit Conference, Vol. 8 (2008)
Deborah Klimburg-Salter et al (eds.), Text, Image and Song in Transdisciplinary Dialogue (2007)
Jeff Humphries, Reading Emptiness: Buddhism and Literature (1999)
Milton C. Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, Volume II: Buddhist and Jaina Literature (1999)
Kogen Mizuno, Buddhist Sutras: Origin, Development, Transmission (1989)
Donald S. Lopez (ed.), Buddhist Hermeneutics (1988)
Roy C. Amore & Larry D. Shinn (ed. & trans.), Lustful Maidens and Ascetic Kings: Buddhist and Hindu Stories of Life (1981)
Shinsho Hanayama, Bibliography on Buddhism (1961)
Buddhism and Jainism share the concepts of karma, rebirth, and the desirability of escaping from rebirth. The literature of both traditions contains many stories about past, and sometimes future, lives which reveal much about these foundational doctrines. Naomi Appleton carefully explores how multi-life stories served to construct, communicate, and challenge ideas about karma and rebirth within early South Asia, examining portrayals of the different realms of rebirth, the potential paths and goals of human beings, and the biographies of ideal religious figures. Appleton also deftly surveys the ability of karma to bind individuals together over multiple lives, and the nature of the supernormal memory that makes multi-life stories available in the first place. This original study not only sheds light on the individual preoccupations of Buddhist and Jain tradition, but contributes to a more complete history of religious thought in South Asia.
In considering medieval illustrated Buddhist manuscripts as sacred objects of cultic innovation, this book explores how and why the South Asian Buddhist book-cult has survived for almost two millennia to the present. A book "manuscript" should be understood as a form of sacred space: a temple in microcosm, not only imbued with divine presence but also layered with the memories of many generations of users. Kim argues that illustrating a manuscript with Buddhist imagery not only empowered it as a three-dimensional sacred object, but also made it a suitable tool for the spiritual transformation of medieval Indian practitioners. Through a detailed historical analysis, she suggests that while Buddhism’s disappearance in eastern India was a slow and gradual process, the Buddhist book-cult played an important role in sustaining its identity. In addition, by examining the physical traces left by later Nepalese users and the contemporary ritual use of the book in Nepal, Kim shows how human agency was critical in perpetuating and intensifying the potency of a manuscript as a sacred object throughout time.
This work explores how religious and cultural practices in premodern Asia were shaped by literary and artistic traditions as well as by Buddhist material culture. This study of Buddhist texts focuses on the significance of their material forms rather than their doctrinal contents, and examines how and why they were made. Collectively, the book offers cross-cultural and comparative insights into the transmission of Buddhist knowledge and the use of texts and images as ritual objects in the artistic and aesthetic traditions of Buddhist cultures. Drawing on case studies from India, Gandhara, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Mongolia, China and Nepal, the chapters included investigate the range of interests and values associated with producing and using written texts, and the roles manuscripts and images play in the transmission of Buddhist texts and in fostering devotion among Buddhist communities. Contributions are by reputed scholars in Buddhist Studies and represent diverse disciplinary approaches from religious studies, art history, anthropology, and history.
This work connects ancient Buddhist attitudes and ideas with postmodern theory and aesthetics, concluding that the closest thing in Western culture to the Middle Way of Buddhism is not any sort of theory or philosophy, but the practice of literature. The book draws on scholarship and criticism in literary theory, philosophy, and science to speculate about the possible common ground between literary and Buddhist practices, aiming not so much to elucidate the ancient traditions of Buddhism as to seek ways in which literature might be integrated into a truly Western practice of Buddhism that would remain philosophically true to its Eastern roots.
Language, Logic, and Semiotics
Eun-Su Cho, Language and Meaning: Buddhist Interpretations of the "Buddha's Word" in Indian and East Asian Perspectives (2020)
Manel Herat (ed.), Buddhism and Linguistics: Theory and Philosophy (2017)
Sangharakshita, Metaphors, Magic, and Mystery: An Anthology of Writings and Teachings on Words and Their Relation to the Truth (2015)
Koji Tanaka et al (eds.), The Moon Points Back (2015)
Youxuan Wang, Buddhism and Deconstruction: Towards a Comparative Semiotics (2015)
Jayant Burde, Buddhist Logic and Quantum Dilemma (2012)
The Cowherds, Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy (2010)
Jay L. Garfield et al (eds.), Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy (2009)
Jin Y. Park (ed.), Buddhisms and Deconstructions (2006)
Alex Wayman, A Millennium of Buddhist Logic (1999)
Asanga tilakaratne, nirvana and ineffability: a study of the buddhist theory of reality and language (1993).
R.S.Y. Chi, Buddhist Formal Logic: A Study of Dignaga's Hetucakra and K'uei-chi's Great Commentary on the Nyayapravesa (1990)
Joan Stambaugh, The Real Is Not the Rational (1986)
G.M. Sprung (ed.), The Problem of Two Truths in Buddhism and Vedanta (1973)
T. Stcherbatsky, Buddhist Logic, 2 vols. (1962)
Meditation, Mindfulness, and Insight
Bhikkhu Analayo, Developments in Buddhist Meditation Traditions: The Interplay Between Theory and Practice (2022)
L.S. Cousins, Meditations of the Pali Tradition: Illuminating Buddhist Doctrine, History, and Practice, ed. Sarah Shaw (2022)
Paul Dennison, Jhana Consciousness: Buddhist Meditation in the Age of Neuroscience (2022)
B. Alan Wallace, The Art of Transforming the Mind: A Meditator’s Guide to the Tibetan Practice of Lojong (2022)
Karen O'Brien-Kop, Rethinking 'Classical Yoga' and Buddhism: Meditation, Metaphors and Materiality (2021)
Vajradevi, Uncontrived Mindfulness: Ending Suffering Through Attention, Curiosity, and Wisdom (2021)
B. Alan Wallace, Minding Closely: The Four Applications of Mindfulness (2021)
Bhikkhu Analayo, Introducing Mindfulness: The Buddhist Background and Practical Exercises (2020)
Bhikkhu Analayo, Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: Characteristics and Functions (2020)
Will Johnson, The Posture of Meditation: A Practical Manual for Meditators of All Traditions (2020)
Sarah Shaw, Mindfulness: Where It Comes From and What It Means (2020)
Bhikkhu Analayo, Mindfulness of Breathing: A Practice Guide and Translations (2019)
Tullio Giraldi, Psychotherapy, Mindfulness and Buddhist Meditation (2019)
Michal Pagis, Inward: Vipassana Meditation and the Embodiment of the Self (2019)
Paramananda, The Myth of Meditation: Restoring Imaginal Ground through Embodied Buddhist Practice (2019)
Ronald Purser, McMindfulness: How Mindfulness Became the New Capitalist Spirituality (2019)
Bhikkhu Analayo, Satipatthana Meditation: A Practice Guide (2018)
John Blofeld, Gateway to Wisdom: Taoist and Buddhist Contemplative and Healing Yogas (2018)
Ratnaguna Hennessey, The Art of Reflection: A Guide to Thinking, Contemplation and Insight on the Buddhist Path (2018)
Hyun-soo Jeon, Samatha, Jhana, and Vipassana. Practice at the Pa-Auk Monastery: A Meditator's Experience, trans. HaNul Jun (2018)
Jack Kornfield & Joseph Goldstein, The Path of Insight Meditation (2018)
Jaime Kucinskas, The Mindful Elite: Mobilizing from the Inside Out (2018)
Lenart Skof & Petri Berndtson (eds.), Atmospheres of Breathing (2018)
Henry Vyner, The Healthy Mind: Mindfulness, True Self, and the Stream of Consciousness (2018)
Bhikkhu Analayo, Mindfully Facing Disease and Death: Compassionate Advice from Early Buddhist Texts (2017)
Keren Arbel, Early Buddhist Meditation: The Four Jhanas as the Actualization of Insight (2017)
Guy Armstrong, Emptiness: A Practical Introduction for Meditators (2017)
Peter Doran, A Political Economy of Attention, Mindfulness and Consumption: Reclaiming the Mindful Commons (2017)
Halvor Eifring (ed.), Meditation and Culture: The Interplay of Practice and Context (2017)
Paramabandhu Groves & Jed Shamel, Mindful Emotion: A Short Course in Kindness (2017)
Bhikkhu Phra Khantipalo, Calm and Insight: A Buddhist Manual for Meditators (2017)
Erik Braun, The Birth of Insight: Meditation, Modern Buddhism, and the Burmese Monk Ledi Sayadaw (2016)
Bob Chisholm & Jeff Harrison (eds.), The Wisdom of Not-Knowing: Essays on Psychotherapy, Buddhism, and Life Experience (2016)
Mahasi Sayadaw, Manual of Insight, trans. Steve Armstrong (2016)
Bhikkhu Analayo, Compassion and Emptiness in Early Buddhist Meditation (2015)
Richard P. Boyle, Realizing Awakened Consciousness: Interviews with Buddhist Teachers and a New Perspective on the Mind (2015)
Leigh Brasington, Right Concentration: A Practical Guide to the Jhanas (2015)
Bhikkhu Analayo, Perspectives on Satipatthana (2014)
Manu Bazzano (ed.), After Mindfulness: New Perspectives on Psychology and Meditation (2014)
Amanda Ie et al (eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness, 2 vols. (2014)
Sarah Shaw, The Spirit of Buddhist Meditation (2014)
Lama Dudjom Dorjee, Stillness, Insight, and Emptiness: Buddhist Meditation from the Ground Up (2013)
J. Mark G. Williams & Jon Kabat-Zinn (eds.), Mindfulness: Diverse Perspectives on Its Meaning, Origins and Applications (2013)
Jinananda, Meditating: A Buddhist View (2012)
Kamalashila, Buddhist Meditation: Tranquillity, Imagination and Insight (2012)
Joe Loizzo, Sustainable Happiness: The Mind Science of Well-Being, Altruism, and Inspiration (2012)
Sangharakshita, The Purpose and Practice of Buddhist Meditation: A Sourcebook of Teachings (2012)
Shaila Catherine, Wisdom Wide and Deep: A Practical Handbook for Mastering Jhana and Vipassana (2011)
Judith Simmer-Brown & Fran Grace (eds.), Meditation and the Classroom: Contemplative Pedagogy for Religious Studies (2011)
Cynthia Thatcher, Just Seeing: Insight Meditation and Sense-Perception (2011)
Bodhipaksa, Wildmind: A Step-by-Step Guide to Meditation (2010)
Arinna Weisman & Jean Smith, The Beginner's Guide to Insight Meditation (2010)
Thomas Cleary, Minding Mind: A Course in Basic Meditation (2009)
Bhante Henepola Gunaratana, Beyond Mindfulness in Plain English: An Introductory Guide to the Jhanas, ed. John Peddicord (2009)
Maitreyabandhu, Life with Full Attention: A Practical Course in Mindfulness (2009)
Stephen Snyder & Tina Rasmussen, Practicing the Jhanas: Traditional Concentration Meditation As Presented by the Ven. Pa Auk Sayadaw (2009)
Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation (2009)
Richard Shankman, The Experience of Samadhi: An In-Depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation (2008)
Sarah Shaw, Introduction to Buddhist Meditation (2008)
Ajahn Brahmavamso, Ajahn Nyanadhammo, & Dharma Dorje, Walking Meditation: Three Expositions (2007)
Gregory Kramer, Insight Dialogue: The Interpersonal Path to Freedom (2007)
Toni Packer, The Silent Question: Meditating in the Stillness of Not-Knowing (2007)
Paramananda, The Body: The Art of Meditation (2007)
Ajahn Brahm, Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond: A Meditator's Handbook (2006)
Paramananda, Change Your Mind: A Practical Guide to Buddhist Meditation (2006)
Sarah Shaw, Buddhist Meditation: An Anthology of Texts from the Pali Canon (2006)
Vessantara, The Heart: The Art of Meditation (2006)
Kathleen McDonald, How to Meditate: A Practical Guide (2005)
Vessantara, The Breath: The Art of Meditation (2005)
Bhikkhu Analayo, Satipatthana: The Direct Path to Realization (2004)
Frits Koster, Liberating Insight: Introduction to Buddhist Psychology and Insight Meditation (2004)
Nagabodhi, Metta: The Practice of Loving Kindness (2004)
Larry Rosenberg, Breath by Breath: The Liberating Practice of Insight Meditation (2004)
Sangharakshita, Living with Awareness: A Guide to the Satipatthana Sutta (2004)
Daniel Odier, Meditation Techniques of the Buddhist and Taoist Masters (2003)
John Daishin Buksbazen, Zen Meditation in Plain English (2002)
Bhante Gunaratana, Eight Mindful Steps to Happiness: Walking the Path of the Buddha (2001)
Lewis Richmond, Work as a Spiritual Practice: A Practical Buddhist Approach to Inner Growth and Satisfaction on the Job (2000)
Mitchell Ginsberg, The Far Shore: Vipassana, the Practice of Insight (1999)
A. Charles Muller (trans.), The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment: Korean Buddhism's Guide to Meditation (1999)
Chih-i, Stopping and Seeing: A Comprehensive Course in Buddhist Meditation trans. Thomas Cleary (1997)
Donald K. Swearer, Secrets of the Lotus: Studies in Buddhist Meditation (1997)
Bhante Henepola Gunaratana, Mindfulness in Plain English (1996)
Sayadaw U. Silananda, The Four Foundations of Mindfulness, ed. Ruth-Inge Heinze (1995)
Claude F. Whitmyer (ed.), Mindfulness and Meaningful Work: Explorations in Right Livelihood (1994)
Johannes Bronkhorst, The Two Traditions of Meditation in Ancient India (1993)
Joseph Goldstein, Insight Meditation: The Practice of Freedom (1993)
Amadeo Sole-Leris, Tranquillity and Insight: An Introduction to the Oldest Form of Buddhist Meditation (1992)
Charles Luk, Secrets of Chinese Meditation: Self-Cultivation by Mind Control As Taught in the Ch'an, Mahayana and Taoist Schools in China (1991)
Chögyam Trungpa, Meditation in Action (1991)
Geshe G. Lodro, Walking Through Walls: A Presentation of Tibetan Meditation (1990)
Chögyam Trungpa, The Myth of Freedom and the Way of Meditation (1988)
Joseph Goldstein, The Experience of Insight: A Simple and Direct Guide to Buddhist Meditation (1987)
Peter N. Gregory (ed.), Traditions of Meditation in Chinese Buddhism (1986)
Paul Griffiths, On Being Mindless: Buddhist Meditation and the Mind-Body Problem (1986)
Henepola Gunaratana, The Path of Serenity and Insight: An Explanation of the Buddhist Jhanas (1984)
Bhikkhu Nanamoli, Mindfulness of Breathing: Buddhist Texts from the Pāli Canon and Extracts from the Pali Commentaries (1982)
Nyanaponika Thera (ed. & trans.), The Heart of Buddhist Meditation (1973)
Bhikkhu Soma (ed. & trans.), The Way of Mindfulness: English Translation of the Satipatthana Sutta and Its Commentary (1967)
Edward Conze, Buddhist Meditation (1956)
Western society has never been more interested in interiority. Indeed, it seems more and more people are deliberately looking inward—toward the mind, the body, or both. Pagis’s book focuses on one increasingly popular channel for the introverted gaze: vipassana meditation, which has spread from Burma to more than forty countries and counting. Lacing her account with vivid anecdotes and personal stories, Pagis turns our attention not only to the practice of vipassana but to the communities that have sprung up around it. This work is also a social history of the westward diffusion of Eastern religious practices spurred on by the lingering effects of the British colonial presence in India. At the same time Pagis asks knotty questions about what happens when we continually turn inward, as she investigates the complex relations between physical selves, emotional selves, and our larger social worlds. Her book sheds new light on evergreen topics such as globalization, social psychology, and the place of the human body in the enduring process of self-awareness.
Mindful meditation is now embraced in virtually all corners of society today, from K-12 schools to Fortune 100 companies, and its virtues extolled by national and international media almost daily. It is thought to benefit our health and overall well-being, to counter stress, to help children pay attention, and to foster creativity, productivity and emotional intelligence. Yet in the 1960s and 1970s meditation was viewed as a marginal, counter-cultural practice, or a religious ritual for Asian immigrants. How did mindfulness become mainstream? Kucinskas reveals who is behind the mindfulness movement, and the engine they built to propel mindfulness into public consciousness. Drawing on over a hundred first-hand accounts with top scientists, religious leaders, educators, business people and investors, Kucinskas shows how this highly accomplished, affluent group in America transformed meditation into an appealing set of contemplative practices. Rather than relying on confrontation and protest to make their mark and improve society, the contemplatives sought a cultural revolution by building elite networks and advocating the benefits of meditation across professions. But this idealistic myopia came to reinforce some of the problems it originally aspired to solve. A critical look at this Buddhist-inspired movement, this book explores how elite movements can spread and draws larger lessons for other social, cultural, and religious movements across institutions and organizations.
This book offers a new interpretation of the relationship between 'insight practice' (satipatthana) and the attainment of the four jhanas (i.e., right samadhi ), a key problem in the study of Buddhist meditation. The author challenges the traditional Buddhist understanding of the four jhanas as states of absorption, and shows how these states are the actualization and embodiment of insight (vipassana). It proposes that the four jhanas and what we call 'vipassana' are integral dimensions of a single process that leads to awakening. This book demonstrates that the distinction between the 'practice of serenity' (samatha-bhavana) and the 'practice of insight' (vipassana-bhavana) – a fundamental distinction in Buddhist meditation theory – is not applicable to early Buddhist understanding of the meditative path. It seeks to show that the common interpretation of the jhanas as 'altered states of consciousness', absorptions that do not reveal anything about the nature of phenomena, is incompatible with the teachings of the Pali Nikayas. By carefully analyzing the descriptions of the four jhanas in the early Buddhist texts in Pali, their contexts, associations and meanings within the conceptual framework of early Buddhism, the relationship between this central element in the Buddhist path and 'insight meditation' becomes revealed in all its power. This book will be of interest to scholars of Buddhist studies, Asian philosophies and religions, as well as serious practitioners of insight meditation.
Dharma practice comprises a wide range of wise instructions and skillful means. As a result, meditators may be exposed to a diversity of approaches to the core teachings and the meditative path--and that can be confusing at times. In this clear and accessible exploration, Dharma teacher and longtime meditator Richard Shankman unravels the mix of differing, sometimes conflicting, views and traditional teachings on how samadhi (concentration) is understood and taught. In part one, Richard Shankman explores the range of teachings and views about samadhi in the Theravada Pali tradition, examines different approaches, and considers how they can inform and enrich our meditation practice. Part two consists of a series of interviews with prominent contemporary Theravada and vipassana (insight) Buddhist teachers. These discussions focus on the practical experience of samadhi, bringing the theoretical to life and offering a range of applications.
Stephen J. Davis, Monasticism: A Very Short Introduction (2018)
Susan Andrews et al (eds.), Rules of Engagement: Medieval Traditions of Buddhist Monastic Regulation (2017)
Bhikkhu Khantipalo, Banner of the Arahants: Buddhist Monks and Nuns from the Buddha's Time Till Now (2016)
Jeffrey Samuels, Attracting the Heart: Social Relations and the Aesthetics of Emotion in Sri Lankan Monastic Culture (2016)
Malcolm Voyce, Foucault, Buddhism and Disciplinary Rules (2016)
Bhikkhu Nyanatusita, Analysis of the Bhikkhu Patimokkha (2014)
Bhikkhu Nyanatusita (ed. & trans.), The Bhikkhu Patimokkha: A Word by Word Translation (2014)
Tim Ward, What the Buddha Never Taught (2013)
Jonathan A. Silk, Managing Monks: Administrators and Administrative Roles in Indian Buddhist Monasticism (2008)
Jotiya Dhirasekera, Buddhist Monastic Discipline: A Study of Its Origin and Development in Relation to the Sutta and Vinaya Pitakas (2007)
Li Rongxi & Albert A. Dalia (trans.), Lives of Great Monks and Nuns (2006)
Koichi Shinohara & Phyllis Granoff, Speaking of Monks: From Benares to Beijing (2006)
William Bodiford (ed.), Going Forth: Visions of Buddhist Vinaya (2005)
Pierre Pichard & Francois Lagirarde, The Buddhist Monastery: A Cross-Cultural Survey (2003)
Ann Heirman, Rules for Nuns According to the Dharmaguptakavinaya: "The Discipline in Four Parts" (2002)
Venerable Bhikshuni Wu Yin, Choosing Simplicity: A Commentary on the Bhikshuni Pratimoksha, ed. Bhikshuni Thubten Chodron, trans. Bhikshuni Jendy Shih (2001)
W. Pachow, A Comparative Study of the Pratimoksa: On the Basis of its Chinese, Tibetan, Sanskrit, and Pali Versions (2000)
Charles S. Prebish, Buddhist Monastic Discipline: The Sanskrit Pratimoksa Sutras of the Mahasamghikas and Mulasarvastivadins (1996)
Charles S. Prebish, A Survey of Vinaya Literature, Volume One (1996)
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Buddhist Monastic Code, 2 vols. (1994)
Charles Wei-hsun Fu & Sandra A. Wawrytko (eds.), Buddhist Behavioral Codes and the Modern World (1994)
Gunaratne Panabokke, History of the Buddhist Sangha in India and Sri Lanka (1993)
Sunanda Putuwar, The Buddhist Sangha: Paradigm of the Ideal Human Society (1991)
Mohan Wijayaratna, Buddhist Monastic Life, according to the Texts of the Theravada Tradition (1990)
Walpola Rahula, The Heritage of the Bhikkhu (1987)
Heinz Bechert & Richard Gombrich (eds.), The World of Buddhism: Buddhist Monks and Nuns in Society and Culture (1984)
John C. Holt, Discipline: The Canonical Buddhism of the Vinayapitaka (1983)
Nandasena ratnapala (ed. & trans.), the katikavatas: laws of the buddhist order of ceylon from the 12th century to the 18th century (1971).
Nalinaksha Dutt, Early Monastic Buddhism, 2 vols. (1960)
Sukumar Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism (1960)
Erich Frauwallner, The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature (1956)
Recent years have seen heightened interest in the ritual, juridical, and generally practical aspects of the Buddhist tradition. The contributions to this edited volume build on this trend while venturing beyond the established boundaries of discourse in specialized academic disciplines, presenting state-of-the-art research on the vinaya in all of its breadth and depth. They do so not only by tracing Buddhist textual traditions but also by showcasing the vast variety of practices that are the object of such regulations and throw a new light on the social implications such protocols have had in South, Central, and East Asia.
Vinaya, one of the three main categories of Buddhist scripture, functions not only as a type of canon law, but also as a founding charter for Buddhist institutional practice in East Asia. In its role as a scriptural charter, vinaya has justified widely dissimilar approaches to religious life as Buddhist orders in different times and places have interpreted it in contradictory ways. In the resulting tension between scripture and practice, certain kinds of ceremonial issues acquire profound social, psychological, doctrinal, and soteriological significance in Buddhism. This collection focuses on these issues over a wide sweep of history--from early fifth-century China to modern Japan--to provide readers with a rich overview of the intersection of doctrinal, ritual, and institutional concerns in the development of East Asian Buddhist practices. Despite the crucial importance of vinaya, especially for understanding Buddhism in East Asia, very little scholarship in Western languages exists on this fascinating topic. The essays presented here, written by senior scholars in the field, address how actual people responded to local social and cultural imperatives by reading scripture in innovative ways to give new life to tradition. They place real people, practices, and institutions at the center of each account, revealing both diversity and unity in Buddhist customs.
This work discusses the precepts and lifestyle of fully ordained nuns within the Buddhist tradition. The ordination vows act as guidelines to promote harmony both within the individual and within the community by regulating and thereby simplifying one's relationships to other sangha members and laypeople, as well as to the needs of daily life. Observing these precepts and practicing the Buddhadharma brings incredible benefit to oneself and others. Since the nuns' precepts include those for monks and have additional rules for nuns, this book is useful for anyone interested in monastic life. As a record of women's struggle not only to achieve a life of self-discipline, but also to create harmonious independent religious communities of women, this volume is a pioneering work.
This book provides a vivid and detailed picture of the daily life and religious practices of Buddhist monks and nuns in the classic period of Theravada Buddhism. The author describes the way in which the Buddha's disciples institutionalized and ritualized his teachings about food, dress, money, chastity, solitude, and discipleship. This tradition represents an ideal of religious life that has been followed in India and South Asia for more than two thousand years. The introduction by Steven Collins describes Theravada Buddhist literature, discusses the issue of the historical reliability of the texts, and offers extensive suggestions for further reading. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in Asian studies, religious studies, anthropology, and history.
Medicine & Health
C. Pierce Salguero, A Global History of Buddhism and Medicine (2022)
C. Pierce Salguero & Andrew Macomber (eds.), Buddhist Healing in Medieval China and Japan (2020)
C. Pierce Salguero (ed.), Buddhism and Medicine: An Anthology of Modern and Contemporary Sources (2019)
Katja Triplett, Buddhism and Medicine in Japan: A Topical Survey (500-1600 CE) of a Complex Relationship (2019)
Thomas N. Patton, The Buddha's Wizards: Magic, Protection, and Healing in Burmese Buddhism (2018)
C. Pierce Salguero, Buddhism and Medicine: An Anthology of Premodern Sources (2017)
C. Pierce Salguero, Traditional Thai Medicine: Buddhism, Animism, Yoga, Ayurveda (2016)
Jan Chozen Bays, Jizo Bodhisattva: Modern Healing & Traditional Buddhist Practice (2015)
Janet Gyatso, Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet (2015)
C. Pierce Salguero, Translating Buddhist Medicine in Medieval China (2014)
Andrew E. Goble, Confluences of Medicine in Medieval Japan: Buddhist Healing, Chinese Knowledge, Islamic Formulas, and Wounds of War (2011)
Paul Brenner, Buddha in the Waiting Room: Simple Truths about Health, Illness, and Healing (2007)
Michel Strickmann, Chinese Magical Medicine (2005)
Sharon Cameron, Beautiful Work: A Meditation on Pain (2000)
Raoul Birnbaum, The Healing Buddha (1980)
Pluralism & Tolerance: Buddhism & Other Religions
C.V. Jones (ed.), Buddhism and Its Religious Others: Historical Encounters and Representations (2022)
Yongho Francis Lee, Mysticism and Intellect in Medieval Christianity and Buddhism (2021)
Monica Sanford, Kalyanamitra: A Model for Buddhist Spiritual Care, Volume 1 (2021)
Douglas S. Duckworth, J. Abraham Vélez de Cea, & Elizabeth J. Harris (eds.), Buddhist Responses to Religious Diversity: Theravada and Tibetan Perspectives (2020)
Pehr Granqvist, Attachment in Religion and Spirituality: A Wider View (2020)
Harold Coward, Word, Chant, and Song: Spiritual Transformation in Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Sikhism (2019)
Peter Harvey, Buddhism and Monotheism (2019)
S. Mark Heim, Crucified Wisdom: Theological Reflection on Christ and the Bodhisattva (2018)
J. Abraham Velez de Cea, The Buddha and Religious Diversity (2017)
Kristin Beise Kiblinger, Buddhist Inclusivism: Attitudes Towards Religious Others (2017)
Anh Q. Tran (ed. & trans.), Gods, Heroes, and Ancestors: An Interreligious Encounter in Eighteenth-Century Vietnam (2017)
Gavin D'Costa & Ross Thompson (eds.), Buddhist-Christian Dual Belonging: Affirmations, Objections, Explorations (2016)
Hugh Nicholson, The Spirit of Contradiction in Christianity and Buddhism (2016)
Corinna Nicolaou, A None's Story: Searching for Meaning Inside Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam (2016)
John Raymaker, Bernard Lonergan's Third Way of the Heart and Mind: Bridging Some Buddhist-Christian-Muslim-Secularist Misunderstandings with a Global Secularity Ethics (2016)
Perry Schmidt-Leukel, Buddhism, Christianity and the Question of Creation: Karmic or Divine? (2016)
Alan Cole, Fetishizing Tradition: Desire and Reinvention in Buddhist and Christian Narratives (2015)
Gavin Flood, The Truth Within: A History of Inwardness in Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism (2015)
Jan van Bragt, Interreligious Affinities: Encounters with the Kyoto School and the Religions of Japan, ed. James W. Heisig et al (2014)
Donald S. Lopez, Jr. & Peggy McCracken, In Search of the Christian Buddha: How an Asian Sage Became a Medieval Saint (2014)
Paul Gwynne, Buddha, Jesus and Muhammad: A Comparative Study (2013)
Michael Pye & Robert Morgan (eds.), The Cardinal Meaning: Essays in Comparative Hermeneutics. Buddhism and Christianity (2013)
John Ross Carter, In the Company of Friends: Exploring Faith with Buddhists and Christians (2012)
Kari Storstein Haug, Interpreting Proverbs 11:18-31, Psalm 73, and Ecclesiastes 9:1-12 in Light of, and As a Response to, Thai Buddhist Interpretations (2012)
Peter D. Hershock, Valuing Diversity: Buddhist Reflection on Realizing a More Equitable Global Future (2012)
Kazuo Muto, Christianity and the Notion of Nothingness: Contributions to Buddhist-Christian Dialogue from the Kyoto School, ed. Martin Repp, trans. Jan van Bragt (2012)
Perry Schmidt-Leukel (ed.), Buddhism and Religious Diversity: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies (2012)
Amos Yong, Cosmic Breath: Spirit and Nature in the Christianity-Buddhism-Science Trialogue (2012)
Amos Yong, Pneumatology and the Christian-Buddhist Dialogue (2012)
Rose Drew, Buddhist and Christian? An Exploration of Dual Belonging (2011)
Daniel Dubuisson, Wisdoms of Humanity: Buddhism, Paganism, and Christianity (2011)
Eileen Rizo-Patron & Richard Kearney (eds.), Traversing the Heart: Journeys of the Inter-religious Imagination (2010)
Jin Baek, Nothingness: Tadao Ando's Christian Sacred Space (2009)
B. Alan Wallace, Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, & Christianity (2009)
Winston L. King, Buddhism and Christianity: Some Bridges of Understanding (2008)
Paul O. Ingram, Buddhist-Christian Dialogue in an Age of Science (2007)
Rita M. Gross & Terry C. Muck (eds.), Christians Talk about Buddhist Meditation, Buddhists Talk about Christian Prayer (2003)
John Raymaker, Empowering the Lonely Crowd: Pope John Paul II, Lonergan, and Japanese Buddhism (2003)
John Raymaker, A Buddhist-Christian Logic of the Heart: Nishida's Kyoto School and Lonergan's "Spiritual Genome" as World Bridge (2002)
J.P. Williams, Denying Divinity: Apophasis in the Patristic Christian and Soto Zen Buddhist Traditions (2001)
Rita M. Gross & Terry C. Muck (eds.), Buddhists Talk about Jesus, Christians Talk about the Buddha (2000)
Sallie B. King & Paul O. Ingram (eds.), The Sound of Liberating Truth: Buddhist-Christian Dialogues in Honor of Frederick J. Streng (1999)
Fritz Buri, The Buddha-Christ As the Lord of the True Self: The Religious Philosophy of the Kyoto School and Christianity, trans. Harold H. Oliver (1997)
Robert R. Magliola, On Deconstructing Life-Worlds: Buddhism, Christianity, Culture (1997)
Donald W. Mitchell & James Wiseman, O.S.B., eds., The Gethsemani Encounter: A Dialogue on the Spiritual Life by Buddhist and Christian Monastics (1997)
Denise Lardner Carmody & John Tully Carmody, In the Path of the Masters: Understanding the Spirituality of Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, and Muhammad (1996)
John Tully Carmody & Denise Lardner Carmody, Serene Compassion: A Christian Appreciation of Buddhist Holiness (1996)
David Loy (ed.), Healing Deconstruction: Postmodern Thought in Buddhism and Christianity (1996)
Masao Abe, Buddhism and Interfaith Dialogue, ed. Steven Heine (1995)
Russell H. Bowers, Someone or Nothing? Nishitani's "Religion and Nothingness" as a Foundation for Christian-Buddhist Dialogue (1995)
John b. cobb, jr., & christopher a. ives (eds.), the emptying god: a buddhist-jewish-christian conversation (1990).
Donald S. Lopez & Steven C. Rockefeller (eds.), The Christ and the Bodhisattva (1987)
Hajime Nakamura, Buddhism in Comparative Light (1986)
Hans waldenfels, absolute nothingness: foundations for a buddhist-christian dialogue, trans. james w. heisig (1980).
Lynn A. De Silva, The Problem of the Self in Buddhism and Christianity (1979)
D.T. Suzuki, Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist (1976)
James W. Boyd, Satan and Māra: Christian and Buddhist Symbols of Evil (1975)
J. Estlin Carpenter, Buddhism and Christianity: A Contrast and Parallel (1922)
Though a minority religion in Vietnam, Christianity has been a significant presence in the country since its arrival in the sixteenth century. In this volume, Tran offers the first English translation of the recently discovered 1752 manuscript Tam Giao Chu Vong (The Errors of the Three Religions). Structured as a dialogue between a Christian priest and a Confucian scholar, this anonymously authored manuscript paints a rich picture of the three traditional Vietnamese religions: Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. The work explains and evaluates several religious beliefs, customs, and rituals of eighteenth-century Vietnam, many of which are still in practice today. In addition, it contains a trove of information on the challenges and struggles that Vietnamese Christian converts had to face in following the new faith.
The cognitive science of religion has shown that abstract religious concepts within many established religious traditions often fail to correspond to what the majority of their adherents actually believe. Yet the cognitive approach to religion is largely silent on the question of how the doctrinal views developed in the first place. Nicholson aims to fill this gap by arguing that such doctrines can be understood as developing out of social identity processes. He focuses on the historical development of the Christian doctrine of consubstantiality, the claim that the Son is of the same substance as the Father, and the Buddhist doctrine of no-self, the claim that the personality is reducible to its impersonal physical and psychological constituents. Nicholson argues that that these doctrines were each the products of intra- and inter-religious rivalry, in which one faction tried to get the upper hand over its ingroup rivals by maximizing the contrast with the dominant outgroup. Thus the theologians of the fourth century developed the concept of consubstantiality in the context of an effort to maximize, against their rivals, the contrast with Christianity's archetypal "other," Judaism. Similarly, the no-self doctrine stemmed from an effort to maximize, against the so-called Personalist schools of Buddhism, the contrast with Brahmanical Hinduism with its doctrine of an unchanging and eternal self. In this way, Nicholson shows how religious traditions can back themselves into doctrinal positions that they must retrospectively justify.
Diversity matters. Whether in the context of ecosystems, education, the workplace, or politics, diversity is now recognized as a fact and as something to be positively affirmed. But what is the value of diversity? What explains its increasing significance? This book is a groundbreaking response to these questions and to the contemporary global dynamics that make them so salient. Peter D. Hershock examines the changes of the last century to show how the successes of Western-style modernity and industrially-powered markets have, ironically, coupled progressive integration and interdependence with the proliferation of political, economic, social, cultural, and environmental differences. Global predicaments like climate change and persistent wealth inequalities compel recognition that we are in the midst of an era-defining shift from the primacy of the technical to that of the ethical. Yet, neither modern liberalism nor its postmodern critiques have offered the resources needed to address such challenges. Making use of Buddhist and ecological insights, Hershock's book develops a qualitatively rich conception of diversity as an emerging value and global relational commons, forwarding an ethics of interdependence and responsive virtuosity that opens prospects for a paradigm shift in our pursuits of equity, freedom, and democratic justice.
Based around an interview with Tadao Ando, this book explores the influence of the Buddhist concept of nothingness on Ando’s Christian architecture, and sheds new light on the cultural significance of the buildings of one of the world’s leading contemporary architects. Specifically, this book situates Ando’s churches, particularly his world-renowned Church of the Light (1989), within the legacy of nothingness expounded by Kitaro Nishida (1870-1945), the father of the Kyoto Philosophical School. Linking Ando’s Christian architecture with a philosophy originating in Mahayana Buddhism illuminates the relationship between the two religious systems, as well as tying Ando’s architecture to the influence of Nishida on post-war Japanese art and culture.
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Mark Epstein, The Zen of Therapy: Uncovering a Hidden Kindness in Life (2022)
John Davis, The Diamond Approach: An Introduction to the Teachings of A.H. Almaas (2021)
Hyunsoo Jeon, Buddhist Psychotherapy: Wisdom from Early Buddhist Teaching (2021)
Arnold Kozak, The Buddha Was a Psychologist: A Rational Approach to Buddhist Teachings (2021)
Joseph Bobrow, Zen and Psychotherapy: Partners in Liberation (2020)
Michal Barnea-Astrog, Psychoanalytic and Buddhist Reflections on Gentleness: Sensitivity, Fear, and the Drive Towards Truth (2019)
Ira Helderman, Prescribing the Dharma: Psychotherapists, Buddhist Traditions, and Defining Religion (2019)
Wakoh Shannon Hickey, Mind Cure: From Meditation to Medicine (2019)
Itai Ivtzan (ed.), Handbook of Mindfulness-Based Programmes: Mindfulness Interventions from Education to Health and Therapy (2019)
Christian U. Krägeloh et al, Mindfulness-Based Intervention Research: Characteristics, Approaches, and Developments (2019)
Paul C. Cooper, Zen Insight, Psychoanalytic Action (2018)
Yorai Sella, From Dualism to Oneness in Psychoanalysis: A Zen Perspective on the Mind-Body Question (2018)
Manu Bazzano, Zen and Therapy: Heretical Perspectives (2017)
Pilar Jennings, To Heal a Wounded Heart: The Transformative Power of Buddhism and Psychotherapy in Action (2017)
Peg LeVine, Classic Morita Therapy: Consciousness, Zen, Justice and Trauma (2017)
Joseph Loizzo et al (eds.), Advances in Contemplative Psychotherapy: Accelerating Healing and Transformation (2017)
Padmasiri de Silva, Emotions and the Body in Buddhist Contemplative Practice and Mindfulness-Based Therapy: Pathways of Somatic Intelligence (2017)
Itai Ivtzan & Tim Lomas (eds.), Mindfulness in Positive Psychology: The Science of Meditation and Well-Being (2016)
Richard W. Sears, The Sense of Self: Perspectives from Science and Zen Buddhism (2016)
Erik van den Brink & Frits Koster, Mindfulness-Based Compassionate Living: A New Training Programme to Deepen Mindfulness with Heartfulness (2015)
Mark Epstein, Going to Pieces Without Falling Apart: A Buddhist Perspective on Wholeness (2015)
Padmasiri De Silva, An Introduction to Buddhist Psychology and Counselling: Pathways of Mindfulness-Based Therapies (2014)
Anthony Molino (ed.), Crossroads in Psychoanalysis, Buddhism, and Mindfulness: The Word and the Breath (2013)
Jeffrey B. Rubin, Psychotherapy and Buddhism: Toward an Integration (2013)
Barry Magid, Ordinary Mind: Exploring the Common Ground of Zen and Psychoanalysis (2012)
Jeremy D. Safran (ed.), Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: An Unfolding Dialogue (2012)
B. Alan Wallace, The Taboo of Subjectivity: Toward a New Science of Consciousness (2011)
Maurits G.T. Kwee (ed.), New Horizons in Buddhist Psychology: Relational Buddhism for Collaborative Practitioners (2010)
Andrew Olendzki, Unlimiting Mind: The Radically Experiential Psychology of Buddhism (2010)
Anne Maiden Brown et al, The Tibetan Art of Parenting: From Before Conception Through Early Childhood (2009)
Paul C. Cooper, The Zen Impulse and the Psychoanalytic Encounter (2009)
Marvin Levine, The Positive Psychology of Buddhism and Yoga (2009)
Dale Mathers et al (eds.), Self and No-Self: Continuing the Dialogue Between Buddhism and Psychotherapy (2009)
Mark Epstein, Psychotherapy Without the Self: A Buddhist Perspective (2008)
Maurits Kwee et al (eds.), Horizons in Buddhist Psychology (2006)
Robert Langan & Robert Coles, Minding What Matters: Psychotherapy and the Buddha Within (2006)
Dinesh Kumar Nauriyal, Michael S. Drummond, & Y.B. Lal (eds.), Buddhist Thought and Applied Psychological Research: Transcending the Boundaries (2006)
Padmasiri de Silva, An Introduction to Buddhist Psychology, 4th ed. (2005)
Harvey B. Aronson, Buddhist Practice on Western Ground: Reconciling Eastern Ideals and Western Psychology (2004)
Seth Robert Segall (ed.), Encountering Buddhism: Western Psychology and Buddhist Teachings (2003)
David Brazier, The Feeling Buddha: A Buddhist Psychology of Character, Adversity, and Passion (2002)
Radmila Moacanin, The Essence of Jung's Psychology and Tibetan Buddhism: Western and Eastern Paths to the Heart (2002)
Mark Epstein, Going on Being: Buddhism and the Way of Change: A Positive Psychology for the West (2001)
John Welwood, Toward a Psychology of Awakening: Buddhism, Psychotherapy, and the Path of Personal and Spiritual Transformation (2000)
Gay Watson, The Resonance of Emptiness: A Buddhist Inspiration for a Contemporary Psychotherapy (1998)
David Brazier, Zen Therapy: Transcending the Sorrows of the Human Mind (1997)
Christopher deCharms, Two Views of Mind: Abhidharma and Brain Science (1997)
Mark Epstein, Thoughts Without a Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective (1995)
John R. Suler, Contemporary Psychoanalysis and Eastern Thought (1993)
Nathan Katz (ed.), Buddhist and Western Psychology (1983)
Mindfulness and yoga are widely said to improve mental and physical health, and booming industries have emerged to teach them as secular techniques. This movement is typically traced to the 1970s, but it actually began a century earlier. Hickey shows that most of those who first advocated meditation for healing were women: leaders of the "Mind Cure" movement, which emerged during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Instructed by Buddhist and Hindu missionaries, many of these women believed that by transforming consciousness, they could also transform oppressive conditions in which they lived. For women - and many African-American men - "Mind Cure" meant not just happiness, but liberation in concrete political, economic, and legal terms. In response to the perceived threat posed by this movement, white male doctors and clergy with elite academic credentials began to channel key Mind Cure methods into "scientific" psychology and medicine. As mental therapeutics became medicalized and commodified, the religious roots of meditation, like the social-justice agendas of early Mind Curers, fell by the wayside. Although characterized as "universal," mindfulness has very specific historical and cultural roots, and is now largely marketed by and accessible to affluent white people. Hickey examines religious dimensions of the Mindfulness movement and clinical research about its effectiveness. By treating stress-related illness individualistically, she argues, the contemporary movement obscures the roles religious communities can play in fostering civil society and personal well-being, and diverts attention from systemic factors fueling stress-related illness, including racism, sexism, and poverty.
Drawing from original source material, contemporary scholarship, and Wilfred Bion’s psychoanalytic writings, this book introduces the Zen notion of gūjin, or total exertion, and elaborates a realizational perspective that integrates Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis. Developed by the thirteenth-century Zen teacher and founder of the Japanese Soto Zen school, Eihei Dogen, gūjin finds expression and is referenced in various contemporary scholarly and religious commentaries. This book explains this pivotal Zen concept and addresses themes by drawing from translated source material, academic scholarship, traditional Zen kōans and teaching stories, extensive commentarial literature, interpretive writings by contemporary Soto Zen teachers, psychoanalytic theory, clinical material, and poetry, as well as the author’s thirty years of personal experience as a psychoanalyst, supervisor, psychoanalytic educator, ordained Soto Zen priest, and transmitted Soto Zen teacher. From a realizational perspective that integrates Zen and psychoanalytic concepts, the book extends the scope and increases the effectiveness of clinical work for the psychotherapist, and facilitates deepened experiences for the meditation practitioner.
This collection brings together the latest thinking in these two important disciplines. Positive psychology, the science of well-being and strengths, is the fastest growing branch of psychology, offering an optimal home for the research and application of mindfulness. As we contemplate mindfulness in the context of positive psychology, meaningful insights are being revealed in relation to our mental and physical health. The book features chapters from leading figures from mindfulness and positive psychology, offering an exciting combination of topics. Mindfulness is explored in relation to flow, meaning, parenthood, performance, sports, obesity, depression, pregnancy, spirituality, happiness, mortality, and many other ground-breaking topics. This is an invitation to rethink about mindfulness in ways that truly expands our understanding of well-being. The work will appeal to a readership of students and practitioners, as well as those interested in mindfulness, positive psychology, or other relevant areas such as education, healthcare, clinical psychology, counselling psychology, occupational psychology, and coaching. The contributors explore cutting edge theories, research, and practical exercises, which will be relevant to all people interested in this area, and particularly those who wish to enhance their well-being via mindfulness.
Immersed in Buddhist psychology prior to studying Western psychiatry, Dr. Mark Epstein first viewed Western therapeutic approaches through the lens of the East. This posed something of a challenge. Although both systems promise liberation through self-awareness, the central tenet of Buddha's wisdom is the notion of no-self, while the central focus of Western psychotherapy is the self. This book, which includes writings from the past twenty-five years, wrestles with the complex relationship between Buddhism and psychotherapy and offers nuanced reflections on therapy, meditation, and psychological and spiritual development. A best-selling author and popular speaker, Epstein has long been at the forefront of the effort to introduce Buddhist psychology to the West. His unique background enables him to serve as a bridge between the two traditions, which he has found to be more compatible than at first thought. Engaging with the teachings of the Buddha as well as those of Freud and Winnicott, he offers a compelling look at desire, anger, and insight and helps reinterpret the Buddha's Four Noble Truths and central concepts such as egolessness and emptiness in the psychoanalytic language of our time.
Philosophical Psychology & Philosophy of Mind
John Peacock & Martine Batchelor (eds.), The Definition, Practice and Psychology of Vedana: Knowing How It Feels (2019)
Philip J. Ivanhoe et al (eds.), The Oneness Hypothesis: Beyond the Boundary of Self (2018)
Rick Repetti, Buddhism, Meditation, and Free Will: A Theory of Mental Freedom (2018)
Padmasiri de Silva, The Psychology of Emotions and Humour in Buddhism (2018)
Gert Hofmann & Snježana Zorić (eds.), Presence of the Body: Awareness in and beyond Experience (2016)
Irina Kuznetsova et al (eds.), Hindu and Buddhist Ideas in Dialogue: Self and No-Self (2016)
Rick Repetti (ed.), Buddhist Perspectives on Free Will: Agentless Agency (2016)
Mark Siderits, Personal Identity and Buddhist Philosophy: Empty Persons, 2nd ed. (2016)
Christian Coseru, Perceiving Reality: Consciousness, Intentionality, and Cognition in Buddhist Philosophy (2015)
Zhihua Yao, The Buddhist Theory of Self-Cognition (2014)
John Pickering, The Authority of Experience: Essays on Buddhism and Psychology (2013)
Miri Albahari, Analytical Buddhism: The Two-Tiered Illusion of Self (2006)
Stephanie Kaza (ed.), Hooked! Buddhist Writings on Greed, Desire, and the Urge to Consume (2005)
Joan Stambaugh, The Formless Self (1999)
R. S. Khare (ed.), The Eternal Food: Gastronomic Ideas and Experiences of Hindus and Buddhists (1992)
David J. Kalupahana, Principles of Buddhist Psychology (1987)
Yasuo Yuasa, The Body: Toward an Eastern Mind-Body Theory, ed. & trans. Thomas P. Kasulis & Shigenori Nagatomo (1987)
E.R. Sarachchandra, Buddhist Psychology of Perception (1958)
The idea that the self is inextricably intertwined with the rest of the world―the “oneness hypothesis”―can be found in many of the world’s philosophical and religious traditions. Oneness provides ways to imagine and achieve a more expansive conception of the self as fundamentally connected with other people, creatures, and things. Such views present profound challenges to Western hyperindividualism and its excessive concern with self-interest and tendency toward self-centered behavior. This anthology presents a wide-ranging, interdisciplinary exploration of the nature and implications of the oneness hypothesis. While fundamentally inspired by East and South Asian traditions, in which such a view is often critical to their philosophical approach, this collection also draws upon religious studies, psychology, and Western philosophy, as well as sociology, evolutionary theory, and cognitive neuroscience. Contributors trace the oneness hypothesis through the works of East Asian and Western schools, including Confucianism, Mohism, Daoism, Buddhism, and Platonism and such thinkers as Zhuangzi, Kant, James, and Dewey. They intervene in debates over ethics, cultural difference, identity, group solidarity, and the positive and negative implications of metaphors of organic unity. Challenging dominant views that presume that the proper scope of the mind stops at the boundaries of skin and skull, this work shows that a more relational conception of the self is not only consistent with contemporary science but has the potential to lead to greater happiness and well-being for both individuals and the larger wholes of which they are parts.
Since the publication of Mark Siderits' important book in 2003, much has changed in the field of Buddhist philosophy. There has been unprecedented growth in analytic metaphysics, and a considerable amount of new work on Indian theories of the self and personal identity has emerged. Fully revised and updated, and drawing on these changes as well as on developments in the author's own thinking, the second edition explores the conversation between Buddhist and Western Philosophy showing how concepts and tools drawn from one philosophical tradition can help solve problems arising in another. Siderits discusses afresh areas involved in the philosophical investigation of persons, including vagueness and its implications for personal identity, recent attempts by scholars of Buddhist philosophy to defend the attribution of an emergentist account of personhood to at least some Buddhists, and whether a distinctively Buddhist antirealism can avoid problems that beset other forms of ontological anti-foundationalism.
What turns the continuous flow of experience into perceptually distinct objects? Can our verbal descriptions unambiguously capture what it is like to see, hear, or feel? How might we reason about the testimony that perception alone discloses? Coseru proposes a rigorous and highly original way to answer these questions by developing a framework for understanding perception as a mode of apprehension that is intentionally constituted, pragmatically oriented, and causally effective. By engaging with recent discussions in phenomenology and analytic philosophy of mind, but also by drawing on the work of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty, Coseru offers a sustained argument that Buddhist philosophers, in particular those who follow the tradition of inquiry initiated by Dignaga and Dharmakirti, have much to offer when it comes to explaining why epistemological disputes about the evidential role of perceptual experience cannot satisfactorily be resolved without taking into account the structure of our cognitive awareness. This work examines the function of perception and its relation to attention, language, and discursive thought, and provides new ways of conceptualizing the Buddhist defense of the reflexivity thesis of consciousness--namely, that each cognitive event is to be understood as involving a pre-reflective implicit awareness of its own occurrence. Coseru advances an innovative approach to Buddhist philosophy of mind in the form of phenomenological naturalism, and moves beyond comparative approaches to philosophy by emphasizing the continuity of concerns between Buddhist and Western philosophical accounts of the nature of perceptual content and the character of perceptual consciousness.
Gathering and interpreting material that is not readily available elsewhere, this book discusses the thought of the Japanese Buddhist philosophers Dogen, Hisamatsu, and Nishitani. Stambaugh develops ideas about the self culminating in the concept of the Formless Self as formulated by Hisamatsu in his book The Fullness of Nothingness and the essay "The Characteristics of Oriental Nothingness," and further explicated by Nishitani in his book Religion and Nothingness. These works show that Oriental nothingness has nothing to do with the 19th- and 20th-century Western concept of nihilism; rather, it is a positive phenomenon: enabling things to be.
Science: Mind & Universe
Thupten Jinpa (ed.), Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics, Volume 2: The Mind, trans. Dechen Rochard & John D. Dunne (2020)
David Presti et al, Mind Beyond Brain: Buddhism, Science, and the Paranormal (2019)
Robert Wright, Why Buddhism Is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment (2018)
Dusana Dorjee, Neuroscience and Psychology of Meditation in Everyday Life: Searching for the Essence of Mind (2017)
Arri Eisen & Yungdrung Konchok, The Enlightened Gene: Biology, Buddhism, and the Convergence that Explains the World (2017)
Wendy Hasenkamp & Janna R. White (eds.), The Monastery and the Microscope: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on Mind, Mindfulness, and the Nature of Reality (2017)
Thupten Jinpa (ed.), Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics, Volume 1: The Physical World (2017)
David L. McMahan & Erik Braun, Meditation, Buddhism, and Science (2017)
Matthieu Ricard & Wolf Singer, Beyond the Self: Conversations Between Buddhism and Neuroscience (2017)
Francisca Cho & Richard Squier, Religion and Science in the Mirror of Buddhism (2015)
Erik J. Hammerstrom, The Science of Chinese Buddhism: Early Twentieth-Century Engagements (2015)
Evan Thompson, Waking, Dreaming, Being: Self and Consciousness in Neuroscience, Meditation, and Philosophy (2014)
David P. Barash, Buddhist Biology: Ancient Eastern Wisdom Meets Modern Western Science (2013)
Dusana Dorjee, Mind, Brain and the Path to Happiness: A Guide to Buddhist Mind Training and the Neuroscience of Meditation (2013)
Owen Flanagan, The Bodhisattva's Brain: Buddhism Naturalized (2013)
B. Alan Wallace, Meditations of a Buddhist Skeptic: A Manifesto for the Mind Sciences and Contemplative Practice (2013)
Donald S. Lopez, Jr., The Scientific Buddha: His Short and Happy Life (2012)
Donald S. Lopez, Jr., Buddhism and Science: A Guide for the Perplexed (2011)
Vic Mansfield, Tibetan Buddhism and Modern Physics: Toward a Union of Love and Knowledge (2008)
B. Alan Wallace, Hidden Dimensions: The Unification of Physics and Consciousness (2007)
B. Alan Wallace, Contemplative Science: Where Buddhism and Neuroscience Converge (2006)
His Holiness the Dalai Lama, The New Physics and Cosmology: Dialogues with the Dalai Lama, ed. Arthur Zajonc & Zara Houshmand (2004)
B. Alan Wallace, Choosing Reality: A Buddhist View of Physics and the Mind (2003)
B. Alan Wallace (ed.), Buddhism and Science: Breaking New Ground (2003)
Richard J. Davidson & Anne Harrington (eds.), Visions of Compassion: Western Scientists and Tibetan Buddhists Examine Human Nature (2001)
Matthieu Ricard & Trinh Xuan Thuan, The Quantum and the Lotus: A Journey to the Frontiers Where Science and Buddhism Meet (2001)
Daniel Goleman & Robert A.F. Thurman (eds.), MindScience: An East-West Dialogue (1999)
Buddhadasa P. Kirthisinghe, Buddhism and Science (1999)
Robin Cooper, The Evolving Mind: Buddhism, Biology, and Consciousness (1996)
Joanna Macy, Mutual Causality in Buddhism and General Systems Theory: The Dharma of Natural Systems (1995)
Luang suriyabongs, buddhism in the light of modern scientific ideas, rev. ed. (1960).
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9 Fresh Topics For Creating A Great Essay On Buddhism
Essay topics collection was provided by Thesis Helpers
Buddhism is world religion with as many as 530 million followers today. Thatâs about 8% of the worldâs population. Though it is practiced throughout the world, China has the most followers. It has such a rich history with many sub-beliefs and sects that it makes for a great subject within religious, social, political, philosophical and historical studies. Here are 9 fresh topics you can use for creating a one of a kind essay or to get some inspiration to develop ideas of your own:
- How Buddhism has influenced Asian culture and ways of life. How different do you think Asian culture would be without the influence of religion? What impact will Western religions or other religions of the world have on the Asian way of life as we know it today?
- How Buddhism impacted China and Tibet relations. Though China allows personal religious practices, it does not allow for religious organizations to profit from people. How did this play into Chinaâs occupation of Tibet?
- Buddhist impact on Asian aesthetics. How has the religion affected the way Asian aesthetics have developed throughout history? Do you think that some ideals concerning aesthetics are exaggerated?
- The value of meditation in Buddhist practices. How has meditation which finds its roots in this religion become a part of so many aspects of differing lives around the world? Do you believe that meditation should be practiced or understood by others?
- How Zen Buddhists have reached the Western world. Some sects of the religion have had a tremendous influence on other parts of the world and have reached the Western world specifically. How did this occur?
- Technology and practices of traditional Buddhists. Technology has made the teachings of Buddhism much more accessible to people around the world. But is use of technology counter-intuitive to what the religion stands for?
- Compare the differences and similarities of Buddhism and Judaism. Historically, there are many similarities between the two religions. However, religious leaders today donât believe the two have very much in common.
- How do Buddhists view feminist values and movements? Though equality is promoted the rise of feminist values is only a recent phenomenon. What struggles have women faced to achieve equality within the religion?
- How science plays into Buddhist values. By its own definition, the religion is also a kind of science. Explore the way the two can co-exist and be one in the same?
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Buddhism Research Paper
View sample Buddhism research paper. Browse other research paper examples and check the list of religion research paper topics for more inspiration. If you need a religion research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A! Feel free to contact our custom writing service for professional assistance. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates.
More than two millennia ago in India, Siddhartha Gautama became “the Buddha” and began to teach that one can only escape suffering and sorrow by living along a righteous path that ends with the extinction of desire and ignorance. The Buddha’s teachings lie at the core of what has become one of the world’s largest religions.
Buddhism is the world’s fourth-largest religion after Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism. Buddhism is approximately twenty-five hundred years old and has influenced cultures, events, and thought for generations. It is devoted to the improvement and eventual enlightenment of people, primarily through their own efforts.
The Indian philosopher Siddhartha Gautama founded Buddhism. The traditional dates of his life are 566 to 486 BCE, although recent studies suggest that Gautama was born as much as a century later. Gautama became known as “the Buddha” (the Enlightened One) after achieving enlightenment. He was born a prince of the Sakya clan in a small Indian kingdom in what is now Nepal. He had every luxury of the day and on the surface an apparently satisfying life. He married, had a son, and was destined to inherit his father’s kingdom. However, at the age of twenty-nine he became dissatisfied with his life of ease after being exposed to the true lot of humankind: suffering, old age, disease, and death. His father had protected him from these things because of a prophecy that Siddhartha would become either a great king or a great spiritual leader. His father’s hopes for a powerful successor were dashed when Siddhartha walked away from this life of ease and became an ascetic, a wandering holy man.
For six years he studied and learned from various gurus and holy men while depriving himself of all but the most meager nourishment. Siddhartha discovered that the extremes of self-deprivation were no better than the extremes of luxury and self-indulgence, so he sought the “Middle Way,” another name for Buddhism. Gautama found enlightenment while meditating under a bodhi tree. The Buddha achieved nirvana—the extinction of all desire and ignorance—and proceeded to teach others how to achieve the same state for the next forty-five years. Through discussions, parables, teaching, and living, the Buddha taught the “path of truth or righteousness” (Dhammapada). The scripture (sutta), “The Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness,” contains a succinct exposition of the major points that the Buddha taught.
The Buddha preached “the Four Noble Truths” that define the existence of humankind: (1) Life is sorrow or suffering, (2) this suffering is caused by our selfish craving and desires, (3) we can remove sorrow by removing our desires, and (4) the removal of our desires is achieved by following the Noble Eightfold Path. The Noble Eightfold Path defines the “correct” behavior as right conduct, right effort, right speech, right views, right purpose or aspiration, right livelihood, right mindfulness, and right contemplation or meditation. The Buddha had few prohibitions but listed “five precepts” that good Buddhists should generally adhere to: not to kill, not to steal, not to lie, not to imbibe intoxicants, and not to be unchaste or unfaithful.
The Buddha taught that skandas (experiential data) create our existence from moment to moment and that only karma (the law of cause and effect) operates through our experience and is never lost. However, everything is changeable and impermanent. The Buddha made few concrete statements about the afterlife or the nature of “god”—realizing that the Middle Way can be taught but that each person must experience dharma—the realization of nirvana. His final admonition to his followers was to “work out your salvation with diligence” (Buddhist suttas 2000, 114).
After the Buddha—Growth in India
The Buddha was a practical teacher who knew that people need instruction, and he established the sangha (community of Buddhist monks and nuns) to carry on his work and the work of their own salvation. The Buddha instructed the sangha that it could change or delete any of the lesser rules after his passing if the sangha saw fit. Ultimately, the Buddha urged his followers to be “a lamp unto themselves.” Buddhism provides a system that demonstrates where we err and how to correct our errors not by miracles but rather by hard work and contemplation.
One of the most noted people who helped to expand Buddhism was the Mauryan ruler Asoka, who ruled from 272 to 231 BCE. The Maurya Empire (c. 324–200 BCE) grew from the state of Magadha after the time of the Buddha and rapidly expanded after Alexander of Macedon invaded India in the 320s bce, creating the first really unified kingdom in India. Asoka became a convert to Buddhism and helped to expand it by providing for missionaries and monks, so that Buddhism became a world religion while Hinduism remained confined to India. He is often compared with Roman emperor Constantine in the West, whose conversion to Christianity in 312 CE helped that religion to grow. Inscriptions on pillars and rocks throughout Asoka’s realm encouraged the citizens of the empire to follow the dharma, limit the killing and cruelty to animals, and live a righteous life. Like Christianity, Buddhism may also have provided Asoka and the Mauryans with a code of conduct and a way to help manage, enlarge, and consolidate the empire. Buddhism also benefited from the patronage of a king who helped it to reach beyond the borders of India.
Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Sects
The Maha-Parinibbana Sutta (Book of the Great Decease) concerns the final days and death of the Buddha and is important because the Buddha did not consider himself to be a deity. It illustrates the relationship between the Buddha and Ananda, a cousin of the Buddha who was a disciple and his personal servant. A warm, trusting relationship between the two shines through the text. The first Council of Buddhism met to organize and retain the teachings of the Buddha several months after his death. The Buddhist Suttas, probably recorded by the first or second century BCE, is the canon of the Buddhist faith.
However, by the second and first centuries BCE Buddhism had already begun to diverge into schools of thought that evolved into the major sects of Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. The Theravada claimed to adhere closely to the original teachings of the Buddha and evolved along more monastic lines to spread through Southeast Asia to Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Cambodia. Theravada is also known as “Hinayana,” which means “lesser vehicle.” Mahayana (greater vehicle) Buddhism became the more adaptive Buddhism. With an emphasis on compassion and flexibility, it meshed with the cultures it encountered to spread to China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Mahayanists also developed the idea of the bodhisattva (a being who compassionately refrains from entering nirvana in order to save others and is worshipped as a deity). Vajrayana (diamond vehicle) Buddhism is also known as “tantric Buddhism” and spread to Central Asia, primarily Tibet.
The Silk Roads and the Spread of Buddhism in Asia
A network of trade routes called the Silk Roads made travel possible from China to the Mediterranean and to India from about the second century CE to approximately the fifteenth century, connecting the world in ways it had not been before. Religions in particular found their way to new lands and different cultures via the Silk Roads. Buddhism originated in India and spread to the Kushan areas, part of what is today Pakistan and Afghanistan, by the first century CE. Buddhism developed a number of sects, built many monasteries, and became a consumer of many of the luxuries of the day, especially silk. Buddhist monasteries often provided solace for weary travelers, and Buddhist monks, nuns, and their devotees acquired massive quantities of silk for ceremonial functions. A symbiotic relationship existed whereby the growth of Buddhist monasteries increased demand for silk while also supporting its trade and movement.
The earliest schools of Buddhism to spread along the Silk Roads were the Mahasanghikas, Dharmaguptakas, and Sarvastivadins, eventually to be subsumed by the Mahayana sect. As Buddhism spread to Central Asia and China, pilgrims began to seek the origins of Buddhism, visiting its holy sites and bringing home its sacred texts. The travels of fifty-four Buddhists, starting as early as 260 CE, are documented in Chinese sources.
Xuanzang, also known as Hsuan-tsang, was a Chinese Buddhist monk; like many others he sought a more in-depth understanding of his faith by seeking out original documents and visiting places where the faith began in India. Xuanzang began his 16,000- kilometer journey in 629 CE and returned in 645. As Xuanzang began his journey, the Tang dynasty (618–907 CE) emperor, Taizong, was beginning to restore China and make it a powerful force in Central Asia.
Xuanzang encountered Buddhist stupas (usually dome-shaped structures serving as Buddhist shrines) at Balkh and two large Buddhist figures at Bamian in Afghanistan. Although many areas of former Buddhist expansion were in decline, Xuanzang found in Kashmir one hundred Buddhist monasteries and five thousand monks. Welcomed in India at Nalanda by thousands, Xuanzang found a place of intellectual ferment. Cave paintings at Dunhuang record the triumphant passage of Xuanzang back to China; Xuanzang finished The Record of the Western Regions in 646 to document his journey. Gaozong, Taizong’s son and successor, built the Big Wild Goose Pagoda at Xuanzang’s urging to house relics and Buddhist scriptures.
A chaotic period of religious exchange and development began with the rise of the Mongols during the 1100s and 1200s. The Silk Roads’ pivotal role in cultural and religious exchange eventually declined with the advent of the Age of Exploration during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Additionally, Muslim control of long-distance trade routes helped to enhance the Islamization of Central Asia. Central Asian peoples apparently therefore accommodated themselves to those people who were the major participants in their trade connections. Trade led to cultural exchange; thus trade was an important factor in spreading the world’s great religions.
Buddhism in China and Japan
Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam spread in various areas, but to truly make a home in foreign lands these faiths often accommodated themselves to the local culture and modified or even changed some of their values or traditions. In China Buddhists spreading the faith emphasized the compassionate aspects of the faith rather than the disciplined aspects of Theravada Buddhism, and Nestorian Christians used Daoist (relating to a religion developed from Daoist philosophy and folk and Buddhist religion) or Buddhist terms, calling the books of the Bible “sutras” (precepts summarizing Vedic teaching).
Buddhism reached China by the first century CE, and a number of Mahayana sects developed there, including Tiantai, Huayan, Pure Land, and Chan. Pure Land developed as a way to reach the general population without its members having to grasp all the intricate philosophical teachings of Buddhism. Followers of Pure Land simply were to call or chant the name of Amitabha Buddha for salvation in paradise or the Pure Land.
The Indian monk Bodhidhanna is reputed to have brought Chan Buddhism to China during the sixth century CE. The word Chan (Zen in Japanese) derives from the Sanskrit word dhyana and means “meditation,” so Chan is meditation Buddhism. Towering figures such as Huineng (638–713) and Zhaozhou (778–897) strengthened Chan so that by the ninth century major schools of Chan called “Linji” and “Caodong” had developed and would later be exported to Japan as the Zen sects of Rinzai and Soto.
Buddhism had already arrived in Japan from China and Korea during the 500s CE. During the Kamakura period of Japanese history, from 1185 to 1333, Buddhism experienced dramatic growth and reinvigoration. Energetic and charismatic figures such as Nichiren (1222–1282) founded new sects. The medieval period has been characterized as one of the most religious times in Japanese history.
Buddhism had evolved in China to the point that, during the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279), Chan or Zen dominated Buddhist teachings. Scholars usually credit Myozen Eisai (1141–1215) for introducing Rinzai Zen and Dogen Kigen (1200–1253) for introducing Soto Zen. The Rinzai sect emphasizes koan (spiritual exercise) as its prime tool for achieving understanding and enlightenment, whereas the Soto sect emphasizes zazen (sitting meditation). Both Eisai and Dogen studied in China under Chan masters, receiving recognition of their enlightenment—an official document of lineage is important in Zen and helps to provide credentials to teach upon one’s return home. During the twentieth century, appreciation of Dogen’s work grew, and today Dogen is perceived as one of Japan’s greatest geniuses and the most noted Zen figure in Japan.
With the influx of Chinese masters during the 1200s and 1300s, Japanese Zen more closely resembled its Chinese Chan counterpart. In fact, the Five Mountains system of temple organization, which arose during the late 1300s, was based on the Chinese model. The ironic aspect of Zen growth is that Zen had few real practitioners. Its primary role initially was transmitting Chinese culture to Japan. The Japanese and Chinese masters achieved influence and success because of their access to Chinese culture during the Song dynasty (960–1279).
Buddhism and the West
Much of the early Western exposure to Buddhism came through the Japanese. Eight people, including three Buddhist priests, represented Japanese Buddhism at the World Parliament of Religions in 1893, held in Chicago. The writings of D. T. Suzuki helped to open Western eyes to Buddhism and began to popularize Zen Buddhism. During the last half of the twentieth century, new patterns of immigration and many U.S. and European citizens who turned to non-Western faiths helped Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, and Daoism have an impact on Western culture. Older and recent emigrants from Asia—Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, and Tibetans—have played a large role in establishing a Buddhist foothold in the West and exposing Westerners (Euro-Americans) to the traditions of Asia.
Buddhism’s rise in the United States can be attributed to people’s search for answers and the rapid changes brought about by a modern and consumer-driven society. Buddhism’s rise is also because of dedicated teachers, such as Sylvia Boorstein, Chogyam Trungpa, and Jon Kabat-Zinn, who have helped to popularize the faith. The Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh has had an important influence on U.S. Buddhism. The Dalai Lama (the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism) also has promoted a more engaged Buddhism with his pleas for Tibetan freedom from China. The Tibetan diaspora (scattering) has opened up access to teachers and lamas (monks) who, until the Chinese occupied Tibet in 1959, were little known outside their own country. The Dalai Lama himself has come to symbolize for many the face of Buddhism shown to the world. His character and compassion in the face of difficulties for his own people exemplify for many the best attributes of the Buddhist life.
Shunryu Suzuki was a Japanese Zen priest who came to the United States in 1959 and settled at a small temple in San Francisco. He is credited with establishing the first Zen monastery in the United States at Tassajara, California, in 1967. The Three Pillars of Zen (1965) by Philip Kapleau was one of the first books in English that discussed the practice of Zen Buddhism. The book has had an impact far beyond the students of Kapleau because many people in the United States lacked access to a Buddhist teacher but were shown how to begin meditating and practice on their own by Kapleau’s book. Much of the Buddhist faith in Asia is centered on the sangha, whereas in the United States no real sangha exists.
Buddhism and Change
Buddhism flowered in the West during the last three decades of the twentieth century, and Zen became a cottage industry. What attracted Westerners, particularly well-educated and professional people, to the faith? The beliefs of Buddhism “are more compatible with a secular scientific worldview than those of the more established Western religions” (Coleman 2001, 205).
In a world that grows smaller each day, the Internet has provided a link to the Buddhist communities of the world and has begun to house the vast amount of Buddhist scriptural writing. The Internet may hold hope for many who practice alone or who are in ill health to have access to qualified teachers. Nonetheless, Buddhism is uniquely suited to isolated practice and meditation. Whether Buddhism will continue to broaden its appeal in the West is difficult to say. Even in Asia monasteries and monkhood are difficult choices in an ever-broadening world consumer culture. Buddhism, like many of the great faiths of the world, has found ways to adapt and survive for centuries. Buddhism continues as a way, the Middle Way, to work toward peace, compassion, and enlightenment. Yet, we have only to look back to the Buddha’s own words to find the future of Buddhism. The Buddha said that the only really permanent thing in this world is change.
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- Wriggins, S. (1996). Xuanzang: A Buddhist pilgrim on the Silk Road. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
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Buddhism Changing and Adapting to
Thus to some, Chinese acceptance of Buddhism was surprising given that "China was already a very old civilization, with a written language, a well-organized government system and educational system, with two well-established philosophical and religious traditions -- the Confucian and Daoist Traditions -- sophisticated literature, poetry, art & #8230; so we had here a very highly developed highly literate civilization, and Buddhism came from outside via missionaries" (Garfield 2010). Acceptance by the elite and the splintering of Buddhism into many different sects in China -- combined with syncretism with local deities, proved to be effective. However, its outreach, even in ideological climates which might seem less-than-harmonious suggests that Buddhism stands apart from the insistence upon 'purity' of dogma characteristic of so many Western religions, which demand that the adherent choose between that religion and all others. There is no 'jealous God' in Buddhism, and since the ultimate goal is liberation…
Encyclopedia of Religion. Lindsay Jones (Ed.) Macmillan Reference, 2004.
Garfield, J. 2010 Buddhism in the West. Tibetan Buddhism in the West. Available:
http://info-buddhism.com/Buddhism_in_the_West_Jay_Garfield.html [12 Jun 2013]
Growth and the spread of Buddhism. 2002. The British Museum. Available:
Buddhism as a Religion Occupies
An examination of the many issues like the left-right divisions in the monastic order, Buddhist social activism, the rise of organized lay movements as well as the Buddhist founded and inspired forms of political activity indicates that indeed politics has a great influence on Buddhism (Harris 1). How cultural and social forces shaped Buddhism in China A review of literature indicates that cultural and social forces shaped Buddhism in China. The vice versa is also true. The adoption of Buddhism in China is noted to have been accelerated the social and political duress that was affecting China. Buddhism was initially an alien concept in China with its origin being traced to India. By the time the concept was taking root among the Chinese population during the Tang dynasty, the concept was quickly losing its appeal in India.It is correct to say that the concept of Buddhism was at the right…
Buddhism and Shamanism Within Mongolian Culture What
Buddhism and Shamanism Within Mongolian Culture What origins relationships Buddhism Shamanism Mongolian culture? Show origins, evolved time, affected 50-year Socialist period, role plays modern day Mongolia. This applies country proper necessarily semi-autonomous area China referred -Mongolia. Origin of Buddhism Buddhism in Mongolia began as a result of its characteristics that it derives from Tibetan Buddhism which is of the Gelugpa School. In the past, Mongols worshipped heaven which was referred to as the eternal blue sky. The Mongol ancestors then followed the Northern Asian practices of Shamanism which were ancient. In Shamanism, human negotiators went into a state of trance and spoke to a numberless infinity of spirits which were accountable to the situations which involved luck or misfortune. The human intermediaries also spoke on behalf of the Mongols Davids, 1900() The emperor of the Yuan Dynasty converted back to Tibetan Buddhism in the 14th and 15th centuries. However, the…
Boyle, J.A. (1972). Turkish and Mongol Shamanism in the Middle Ages. Folklore, 83(3), 177-193.
Bradsher, H.S. (1972). The Sovietization of Mongolia. Foreign Affairs, 50(3), 545-553.
Buyandelgeriyn, M. (2007). Dealing with Uncertainty: Shamans, Marginal Capitalism, and the Remaking of History in Postsocialist Mongolia. American Ethnologist, 34(1), 127-147.
Davids, T.W.R. (1900). Buddhism. The North American Review, 171(527), 517-527.
Buddhism vs Islam
Buddhism vs. Islam hat is the purpose of life? Life holds different meaning for people across the world; such different perceptions on life are framed by religious beliefs. Such meanings and significance be divided into two groups. There are people for whom the significance lies within the world we live in and then there are those who would like to believe in life after death and the entire notion of heaven (Shun 1995, 240). Those belonging to the first category can be further divided into three groups: those who perceive life in terms of family, those who belief life is all about love for country and lastly those for whom life is about mankind. The latter concept appears in religion; it is used by almost all religions to signify the meaning of life (Shun 1995, 242). Taking the latter notion into account, the paper investigates and draws on teachings and…
Hardy, Julia. (2012). Patheos Library-Human nature and the purpose of existence. n.d. http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence?offset=1&max=1 (accessed 06-14, 2012).
Inc., Quran Explorer. Quran Explorer. (2006). http://www.quranexplorer.com/Search / (accessed 06-14, 2012).
Scott, David.(1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons." pg. 141-155.
Shun, Yin. (1995). "Teachings in chinese buddhism." 06 1995. http://www.buddhanet.net/ebooks_ms.htm (accessed 06-14, 2012).
Buddhism Human Beings Perhaps Above All Else
Buddhism Human beings, perhaps above all else, are storytellers. Humans value their stories highly and have extensive traditions of passing down the most captivating and popular stories through the generations. One such story that has lasted the test of time is the story of Buddha. His life and teaching grew into a philosophy and/or religion called Buddhism. There is a substantial quantity of writings on Buddha regarding his extended existential dialogues with disciples and colleagues. Buddha, is some ways similarly to the Ancient Greeks, saw the utility in discussion as a way to address and solve dilemmas of the human condition. Of the various aspects that construct Buddhism, the paper will focus only ethics, the nature of self, ultimate reality, and death. While all of these are aspects of Buddhism, they are all connected by their perspective and how one should integrate these ideas into one's everyday existence and over…
Buddha Dharma Education Association. (2012) Buddhist Ethics. Available from http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/budethics.htm . 2012 June 22.
Hardy, J. (2012) Ultimate Reality and Divine Beings. Patheos Library, Available from http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Ultimate-Reality-and-Divine-Beings . 2012 June 22.
Piyadassi, M. (1982) The Buddha, His Life, and His Teachings. Buddha Dharma Association, Inc. The Wheel Publication, The Buddhist Publication Society 5. Retrieved from http://www.buddhistelibrary.org/en/displayimage.php?album=15&pid=49#top_display_media .
Seidel, E.C. (2012) Influence of Buddhism on Popular Culture. Available from http://www.eseidel.com/lu/matrix.html .
Buddhism Is a Worldwide Religion Started Over
uddhism is a worldwide religion started over 2,500 years ago by Siddhartha Gautama, called "The uddha," in India (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). Since then it has grown and spread across the globe and now 300 million people profess to be uddhist (Grow, 1996). uddhism, like Protestantism, is actually a group of related religions that have some similarities and some differences (Grow, 1996). However, just as all Christians trace their beliefs back to the life and teachings of Christ, all uddhists trace their beliefs back to Siddhartha Gautama. One of the most significant differences between uddhist beliefs and other religions is that in uddhism, the basic perception of the world around us changes. uddhism characteristically describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity or substance (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). uddhist beliefs are organized into related groups of concepts. The basic doctrines of early uddhism, which remain common to all uddhism,…
Columbia Encyclopedia. "Buddhism." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: columbia University Press, 2004.
(Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004)
Grow, Gerard. 1996. "Buddhism -- A Brief Introduction for Westerners." Accessed via the Internet 2/15/04.
Buddhism and Christianity Presenting the
Charity, it may be said, therefore, is the initial step in establishing any relationship with a person of another faith. The barriers that one may face when attempting, however, to present the Gospel to a person of the Buddhist worldview may be found in the fact that Buddhism itself is not a religion. It is, rather, a kind of philosophy that enables one to remove oneself from the things in life which cause one to desire permanence -- or, rather, the infinite in the finite world. This, of course, could also be turned into an advantage when presenting the Gospel -- which contains the Infinite in the finite world in the Person of Jesus Christ Who is called the Beginning and the End -- the Alpha and the Omega. Christ is a religious solution to the problem of pain, which the Buddhist practices overcoming through adherence to the Buddhist Scriptures…
Sheen, Fulton. (2008). Life of Christ. NY: Doubleday.
Van Voorst, R.E. (2008). Anthology of World Scriptures. Belmont, CA: Thomson
Buddhism The Concept of Life
It is through the process of death and rebirth that the knowledge is gained which will finally liberate the individual being from the central cause of all suffering itself - the cycle of death and birth. Essentially, it is only through knowledge that this can be achieved in most uddhist schools of thought. The rationale behind the importance of reincarnation as a process that is required to escape the centrality of suffering is discussed by Keown as follows. "... The uddha was pointing out that human nature cannot provide a foundation for permanent happiness.... Suffering is thus engrained in the very fabric of our being.... until the condition is recognized there can be no hope of a cure. Keown 47) 2.4. The development of the types of uddhism The early more conservative and doctrinaire form of uddhism was known as Theravada uddhism. Theravada uddhism literally translated means Old (Thera) Way…
Akira, Hirakawa. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana. Trans. Groner, Paul. Ed. Paul Groner. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
Becker, Carl B. Breaking the Circle Death and the Afterlife in Buddhism. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.
BRIEF INTRODUCTION to BASIC CONCEPTS of "TIBETAN" BUDDHISM. August 1, 2005. http://dl.lib.brown.edu/BuddhistTempleArt/buddhism.html
Buddhism. August 3, 2005. http://www.kat.gr/kat/history/Rel/Bud/Buddhism.htm
Buddhism and Daoism There Are
In an English concept of second nature performance of an action, no thought only the action is performed. The similar concept of u in Daoism, which is being or the ultimate understanding of what being is, is also represented in Buddhism by Atman, the inner or greater self. Taoist thought in China had been exercised for a long time over the relation of non-being to being, (chen-ju) non-activity to activity. Buddhists also had been concerned with similar problems: the relation of the Absolute being (chen-ju) to the temporal of nirvana to Samsara. The exponents of Madhyamika believed that it was impossible to describe the nature of ultimate reality. Seek to define the infinite and it no longer remains infinite. Seng-chao (384-414), who was closely associated with Kumarajiva, was the first great teacher of San Lun, combining the Madhyamika philosophy with neo-Taoist thought. (Smith 127-128) During the latter period of the…
Aubin, Francoise. "China: A down-to-earth hereafter." UNESCO Courier, 51.3 1998: 10
Hodous, Lewis. Buddhism and Buddhists in China. New York: Macmillan, 1924.
Ikeda, Daisaku. The Flower of Chinese Buddhism. Trans. Burton Watson. New York: Weatherhill, 1986.
Kohn, Livia, and Michael Lafargue, eds. Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998.
Buddhism the Facts of Buddhism
The "collective harming and killing committed by governments...and harming or killing being of the natural world through soil depletion, clear-cutting, lab testing and poisons," Rothberg writes (274), is a violation of the 1st Precept as practiced by those of Theravadan Buddhist faith. And so, a person of Theravadan Buddhist beliefs would have a right, within the context of being in discussion in the temple, to criticize the Bush Administration for its role in the invasion of Iraq, the occupation of Iraq, and the ongoing tyranny in Iraq. Certainly, the "collective harming and killing" of innocent citizens in Iraq by U.S. forces - sent there by the executive branch under Bush - is an anathema to the 1st Precept of Buddhism. One can clearly see why this form of Buddhism would resonate with modern, progressive esterners; because, in a democratic society where the citizens vote to elect leaders to represent them,…
Coleman, James William. The New Buddhism: The Western Transformation of an Ancient
Tradition. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Rothberg, Donald. "Responding to the Cries of the World: Socially Engaged Buddhism in North
America." The Faces of Buddhism in America. Eds. Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K.
Buddhism and Christianity it Is
This also means that it is the Sovereign God and not just Lady Luck that is the Lord of Israel. Since God is sovereign by nature, it means that His sovereignty even extends to the allocation of Gods to tribals and to pagans, and this also means that God did not simply hand over His very representation of Himself as the Father and as the Son and as the Spirit to Lady Luck, and then relax, nor did He give over to chance or to Providence the form of government for the nation that He had chosen to bless by spreading His teachings and wisdom among the people of that region. Krister Stendal, the former Dean of Harvard Divinity School, made a comment wherein he said that God had chosen manly and masculine metaphors with which to describe Him, and that this was by mere accident and chance. However, in…
Buddhism and gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/KS4/Social%20Harmony/buddhismequality.htm. Accessed on 24 March, 2005
Christianity IV Century. Retrieved at http://library.thinkquest.org/29369/Christianity/Christianity.html. Accessed on 24 March, 2005
Decline and fall of Buddhism: A tragedy in Ancient India. Retrieved at http://www.ambedkar.org/books/dob7.htm . Accessed on 24 March, 2005
King, Karen. Women in Ancient Christianity, the new Discoveries. Retrieved at
Buddhism in James Ure's Opinion
12. The life of Buddha is generally illustrated in three stages. In order to attain a spiritual condition similar to Buddha, one would have to refrain from everything that is evil, to do good, and to purify the mind. 13. Psychoactive plants are often related to in Buddhism and some even claim that Siddhartha used hemp for several years before he came forth with his convictions and developing into the Buddha. 14. The Good Friday Experiment was a study directed by alter N. Pahnke with the purpose of finding out if psychoactive substances could produce philosophical theological thinking in religious individuals. The drug he used was psilocybin and the subjects tested reported that they experienced intense religious feelings, making Pahnke's experimentation a success. 15. Roland R. Griffiths conducted a similar experiment in 2006 and it is considered to be a follow-up to Pahnke's study. 16. Huston Smith promoted the belief…
1. Badiner, Alan Hunt & Grey, Alex, "Zig zag zen: Buddhism and psychedelics," Chronicle Books, 2002.
2. Dass, Ram & Metzner, Ralph, "Birth of a Psychedelic Culture:
Conversations about Leary, the Harvard Experiments, Millbrook and the Sixties."
3. Kent, James L. "Psychedelic Information Theory: Shamanism in the Age of Reason." PIT Press, Seattle, 2010.
Buddhism History of Buddhism the
Major Doctrines There are three major recognized doctrines in uddhism: Theravada ("The Speech of the Elders"), Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"), and Vajrayana ("The Diamond Vehicle"). Theravada was the initial teaching of the elderly disciples and is believed to be the most conservative of all doctrines, keeping the closest with uddha's own teachings and traditions. The Mahayana stemmed from the liberal sect that broke away in the incipient phases of uddhism. The teachings of this sect showed that all levels of uddhist enlightenment were readily available for other uddhist believers, including some phases that were believed to have been reached only by uddha himself, such as the uddhahood. Following this and through the removal of Gautama's exceptionality, it was clear through Mahayana, that there were more uddhas in the world, all having reached a similar level of enlightenment and referred to as odhisattvas. The ways that the principles and paths for…
1. Boeree, George.1999. The History of Buddhism. On the Internet at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhahist.html.Last retrieved on September 24, 2008
2. Lama Surya Das. 1998. Awakening the Buddha Within: Tibetan Wisdom for the Western World. Doubleday.
3. Buddhism - the Buddha and the Fundamental Doctrines of Buddhism, Formation of Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhist Doctrines and Traditions. On the Internet at http://science.jrank.org/pages/7533/Buddhism.html.Last retrieved on September 24, 2008
4. Ross, Kelley. 2007. The Basic Teachings of Buddhism. On the Internet at http://www.friesian.com/buddhism.htm.Last retrieved on September 24, 2008
Buddhism Directly Evolved From the Vedic Aryan
Buddhism directly evolved from the Vedic Aryan religions. The Gautama Buddha was born into a Brahmin caste family that practiced Vedic ritual and tradition. Siddhartha Gautama's teachings strongly reflect Vedic teachings regarding cosmology, morality, and culture. Although there are significant and widespread differences between the Vedic Aryan religious traditions, Buddhism reflects its roots. Some key differences between Buddhism and its Vedic counterparts include the espousal of the caste system; asceticism; theology; and forms of worship. The legend of Gautama Buddha's enlightenment reflects the ways that Buddhism diverged from its Hindu origins. According to the story, the young prince Gautama became severely disillusioned with his father's Brahmanism. His focus shifted toward a study of the human mind: Buddhism remains more solidly grounded in an individualistic, almost scientific pursuit of enlightenment while Hinduism retains its bhakti, or devotional elements. The Buddhist pantheon, or lack thereof, also reflects its branching away from the…
Buddhism I Have Admittedly Led a Pretty
Buddhism I have admittedly led a pretty sheltered life in terms of interactions with people from other cultures. I am not a Buddhist and so I do not have any first-hand experiences with the religious practices associated with Buddhism. Before this course, and before my experience, I knew some things about Buddhism, but only as much as most people know. For example, I knew that Buddhism is primarily associated with Asian culture, that Buddhists tend towards nonviolence and that they hope to achieve inner peace by positive actions. Buddhists are stereotyped as the idea of the monk in robes with shaved heads, but that is only a very small faction of the people who believe in Buddhism. Also, I knew beforehand that Buddhists were associated with nature and that they had many specific customs which were specialized to their own religion. Now that I have attended this religious event and…
Carus, Paul (1909). The Gospel of Buddha: Compiled from Ancient Records.
Dhammananda, K.S. (2002). What Buddhists believe. Buddhist Missionary Society of Malaysia.
Gach, G. (2010). To be continued: an editorial introduction to the future of Buddhism.
Buddhism and Kant
Buddhism and Kant The Philosophies of Buddhism and Immanuel Kant: An Examination and Comparison of Similar Beliefs Major world religions and the philosophies that accompany them are quite numerous. With the help of the internet, anyone can research and find what certain philosophies state and how various religions correlate to one's own beliefs. In this way, he or she can adopt new beliefs, or strengthen existing ones. The study of philosophy, from Plato to Kierkegaard, from Buddha to Mao and from the temples of tribes in Africa, is a very complex and interesting field. In this paper, I will examine two philosophies: Buddhism and Kantianism. These philosophies are important, for both the aims that they promote and for their close links and similarities that are adopted by hundreds of thousands, and I will attempt to prove them both as important and similar in the central argument of this paper. Buddhism:…
-helping others and -strengthening one's own views. [6: Retrieved from: http://web.singnet.com.sg/~alankhoo/Precepts.htm]
Within these principles, one must constantly strive to be good, which may be difficult, but this is what Kant and Buddhism teach society, and although difficult to put these principles into application today, it is not impossible, for many people can do so, if only they take some time from the fast paced, moving life of today.
Buddhism - Buddhism in Chinese History Arthur
Buddhism - Buddhism in Chinese History (Arthur F. Wright) What were the political, social and cultural conditions that permitted the spread of Buddhism in the Chinese World? On page 17-19, the author indicates that there were social and political changes occurring in China that opened the door to the spread of Buddhism. For example (17), in A.D. 27-ca. 97, Imperial Confucianism, "which seemed to serve so well the needs of the monarchy and the elite," carried with it "several weaknesses which ultimately proved fatal." One weakness was the fact that "analogical reasoning" had been pushed so far it attracted the "criticism of skeptics and naturalists and thus brought the whole highly articulated structure into doubt." Meantime, the author explains that while Imperial Confucianism was under attack (Wang Ch'ung had initiated this "process of erosion" of Imperial Confucianism), so too was Han dynasty Confucianism, which gave citizens of China during that…
Wright, Arthur F. (1959). Buddhism in Chinese History. Stanford, California: Stanford
Buddhism and Islam Perspectives on
V. Conclusion Both Islam and Buddhism are great traditions that have contributed much to both history and religious development. In terms of morality, both religions make significant contributions. Buddhism teaches the learner that actions have consequences, and it is important to think about actions and consequences with one's own intellect in order to determine what actions should be taken. Islam, on the other hand, teaches that societal rights and wrongs are important, that morality cannot be changed from one generation to the next, and that a supreme being is the creator of morality. Both of these philosophies shine an interesting light on the topic of morality. They are excellent instigators of conversation and debate on the topic. For a modern society, however, Buddhism's version of morality seems to be the one that is more universally applicable. As Buddhism allows for religious changes over time, many would feel more convicted by…
Armstrong, Karen. (2000). Islam: A Short History. New York: Random House.
Buddhanet. (nd). Buddhist Ethics. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/budethics.htm
Budhanet. (nd). Buddhist Pilgrimage. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/buddha.htm
Maududi, Syed. (nd). The Moral System of Islam. Retrieved November 26, 2008, at http://islam101.org/introductory-mainmenu-33/13-introductory/17-the-moral-system-of-islam-by-syed-maududi.html
Buddhism in the Cinema Seven
Then, the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, realizing the impermanence of human existence, and the falseness of a notion of fixed selfhood. Harrer achieved a kind of Enlightenment after experiencing the generosity of the Tibetan community where the Dalai Lama dwelled. The film shows how the Austrian Harrer was effectively stripped of his secure sense of national identity after he was nearly conquered by the avalanche and met the Dali Lama. Once Harrer cared little for politics, and the politics he did advocate was divisive, hateful, and nationalistic. Harrer escaped from a PO camp run by the British, who found him after his accident, but by the end of the film he bears the British no resentment: he no longer identifies as part of any nation by at the film's conclusion. Like Buddhism is an international religion, so is Harrer's new, complex and more generous sense of identity. The Buddha was born…
Seven Years in Tibet. Directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud. 1997.
Buddhism Images of the Buddha
On top of the Chinese Buddha's head is a formation that, though it appears like a bowl, is really a rendition of the usnisa: the crown chakra. The usnisa all but disappeared in Japanese Buddhas, evident in the relatively flat-topped Kamakura Buddha. The Kamakura Buddha thus illustrates how Japanese culture simplified the image of Buddha. The Chinese bronze statue, and many other Chinese Buddha images, are comparatively ornate when viewed alongside similar Japanese Buddhas. In the Chinese statue, Buddha sits on a platform flanked by two guardian beasts like lions or dogs. Such imagery is rare in Japanese renditions of Buddha. The Kamakura Buddha sits only on the stone platform built for the statue; there is no bronze carved platform whatsoever. This possibly indicates the Buddha's absolute simplicity and grounding. Moreover, the Kamakura Buddha looks stunningly solid. Wide shoulders, paralleled by the folded legs, give an aura of strength and…
Ebrey, P.B. "Buddhism." A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization. Retrieved Oct 11, 2007 at http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/bud/5budhism.htm
Buddhism Reflection on Origins
Buddhism: Background, Origins, and Pillars The life of Buddha is directly connected to the teachings of Buddha and reflect some of the main pillars of Buddhism. “Siddhartha Gautama, who would one day become known as Buddha (‘enlightened one’ or ‘the awakened’), lived in Nepal during the 6th to 4th century B.C” (biography.com). There are other religious figures that have made tremendous impacts on society, religion and the belief system of enormous groups of people; with many of these people, there is a lack of clarity regarding whether or not they actually lived. This is not the case with Buddha: most experts agree that he did live on earth for a period of time, though the exact milestones and experiences he had on earth remain under a certain amount of contention. “According to the most widely known story of his life, after experimenting with different teachings for years, and finding none…
The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
Interview about ReligionBuddhism is a way of life that spread from the East into the West and gained popularity in the US in the latter half of the 20th century. Some argue that it is not actually a religion since it does not admit of the existence of any God. However, its focus on meditation and the goal being to reach a state of no-self has made many see it as an important part of their life, if not a religious experience or way (Giles, 1993). I chose my conversation partner from work because I knew he had a different belief from my own.My conversations partners beliefs were not characterized by explicit faith in the story of the Buddha but rather in a pragmatic appreciation of what Buddhism offers one in a materialistic society where consumerism dominates and the rat race can make people chase after empty dreams that only…
Giles, J. (1993). The no-self theory: Hume, Buddhism, and personal identity. Philosophy East and West, 43(2), 175-200.
Loy, D. (1982). Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same?. International Philosophical Quarterly, 22(1), 65-74.
Dalai Lama's Freedom in Exile
Introduction This is a review of Freedom in Exile, the fourteenth autobiography known as The Autobiography of Dalai Lama. The account of The Dalai Lama was published in 1991. It is an account of his life from the point when he was born in 1935 in a village called Takster Dokham, when he was recognized as the 14 Dalai Lama at a tender age of two, movement to Central Tibet, the occupation of the PRC in the 1950s, when he went into exile in Indiana in 1959 and the life he led in exile. The autobiography gives the reader an exciting and often surprising account of the Monks life and his philosophies while in exile. It reveals that the monk’s life was far from being simple. Analytical review In his preamble to the autobiography called Freedom in Exile; The Autobiography of Dalai Lama, he makes clear the motivation to offer…
Buddhism Is Distinct From Most
Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides. Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…
Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).
Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/
Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.
Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx
Buddhism Religion and Philosophy Founded in India
Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan. A third school, the Vajrayana, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism ("Buddhism"). Buddhism is a blend of philosophy, religious belief and educational principles that focuses on personal spiritual development. Although the distinction may be somewhat blurred, strictly speaking, Buddhists do not worship gods or deities, and the Golden Buddha's people pray to are supposed to be merely aids…
"Buddhism." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2009): 1. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.
"BUDDHISM." The Essentials of Philosophy and Ethics. Abingdon: Hodder Education, 2006. Credo Reference. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.
Jacobson, Doranne. "Buddhism and meditation." Calliope 5.4 (1995): 40. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.
Van Biema, David, Jeanne McDowell, and Richard N. Ostling. "Buddhism in America. (cover story)." Time International (South Pacific Edition) 49 (1997): 50. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.
Buddhism vs Hinduism Describe Essential Teachings Buddha
BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can we explain the appeal of Buddhism? Both Buddhism and Hinduism share many similar features. Both possess the doctrine of karma, or the notion that one's actions in this life affect what transpires later on. However, while Hinduism preaches the doctrine of anatma, or self, Buddhism preaches the doctrine of non-self (Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism, 2012, difference between.net). The first noble truth of Buddhism is that there is suffering and the second noble truth of the Buddha is that the cause of suffering is our delusion that we possess a self. For Hindus, the self is a static, unchanging and eternal thing. For Buddhism, what we believe to be the self is merely a conglomeration of the five aggregates: matter, sensation,…
Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism. (2012). difference between.net. Retrieved:
Eng, Tan Swee. (2006). Differences between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism. A Basic
Buddhism Guide. Retrieved: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/snapshot02.htm
Buddhism as a Counterweight to
Columbus reveled in making distinctions between his own culture and 'the other,' in a way that prioritized his own culture, even though ironically he went in search of a non-estern civilization's Indian bounty of spices. Columbus' eradication of another civilization is the most extreme form of estern civilization's prioritization of distinction, in contrast to Buddhism's stress upon the collapse of such distinction. The most obvious negative legacy of Columbus, for all of his striving and inquiry, is the current racial divisions of our own society and the damaged material and cultural state of Native Americans. Although a change of attitude cannot heal these distinctions alone, adopting at least some of the Buddhist spirit of the acceptance of the 'Other' as one with the self or 'non-self' might be an important first step in creating common ground in our nation. Our nation was founded not simply in democracy, but upon European…
Ancient Chinese Explorers: Part 2." NOVA. PBS.org. Jan 2001. 14 Dec 2007.
Buddhism the Foundations and Travels
(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696) The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on political history. It is perhaps unjust to maintain that India had no sense of history whatever, but what interest she had in her own past was generally concentrated on the fabulous kings of a legendary golden age, rather than the great empires which had risen and fallen in historical times. (Basham, 1954, p. 44) Literature and art reflected the lives of the ruling class along side those historical narratives of Buddha, as can be seen in the first example. Medieval revivals also attempted to rejoin these depictions through restorative works that demanded the attention of many to the idea of a foreign king effectively expressing the Sinhalese culture. (Holt, 1996, p. 41) the tradition is long standing in the region and…
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama Known as the Shakyamuni
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Shakyamuni Buddha, grew up a prince in India. As the Brahmin teachings of his family and homeland failed to provide Siddhartha with spiritual nourishment, he pursued a path to enlightenment on his own. Thus around 650 BCE Buddhism was born. ith no deity or creation story, Buddhism appears to be more of a philosophy of living than a fundamental religion, although different sects of Buddhism espouse various beliefs in supernatural beings and dogma. Buddhists generally accept scientific explanations of the creation of life. The central tenets of Buddhism are summarized in the Four Noble Truths: Suffering is inevitable; suffering is caused by desire and attachment to desire; to eliminate suffering, eliminate desire; in order to do so, follow the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold Path includes Right Views, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Contemplation. Buddhism is…
Boeree, C. George. "Buddhist Morality." An Introduction to Buddhism. 2000. 3 July 2003. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/buddhamorals.html
Buddhism Basics." 3 July 2003. http://pages.prodigy.net/vancole/Basics.htm
Buddhism Is One of the World's Major
Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much as a faith, because of its non-theocratic nature. Although the Buddha is revered as a historical figure, and many Buddhist traditions invest his persona with a kind of miraculous power, it is not necessary to believe in a god or gods to be a Buddhist. Buddhism could be defined as a way of coping with some of the perplexing problems that all religions grapple with to some degree: injustice and suffering. In contrast to the caste system of India, which stressed how karma could determine the cycle of one's birth or rebirth, Buddhism stressed the adherent's need to escape from the endless karmic cycle and to find a sense of peace and detachment called Nirvana. The first noble truth of Buddhism…
Sumedho, Ajahn. (2012). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved:
Buddhism Emerged in India Around 2500 B C
Buddhism emerged in India around 2500 B.C. At a time when conditions were critical in the area as a result of significant social and religious conflicts. Even with the fact that this culture contradicted a great deal of traditions in India during the period, it received wide-spread appreciation. The fact that it was initially not as well-organized as other religions that it interacted with did not stop it from pervading the Indian society. The sense of self is a very important concept in Buddhism, as the religious ideology promotes it as being a constantly changing idea. Buddhist teachers emphasize the need to acknowledge that it would be wrong for someone to consider his identity as being equivalent to a particular value all the time. Identity changes over the years and ideas that seemed intriguing in the past might seem less impressive in the present. Buddhism addresses life as a trial…
Bainton, R.H. (2000). "Christianity." Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Renard, J. (2002). "101 Questions and Answers on Buddhism." Random House Value Publishing.
Buddhism Japanese vs Chinese Buddha
D.). Rather than standing alone and interacting with the gazer, this Buddha holds back and is flanked by attendants, creating his own scene in the context of the relief. The Buddha's divinity, rather than his humanness is stressed in the design. The Buddha's hand is in a gesture of reassurance, conveyed from on high, as he sits upon an elevated platform. Three seated Buddhas in the halo symbolize the deity's eternal nature, a concept that gained importance in China in the fifth century a.D" ("Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas," Early 6th century a.D.). Rather than being of the moment, and simplicity, the unique and eternal nature of the divine Buddha is stressed. The man's extraordinary, rather than ordinary qualities are at the forefront of the work. The limestone work is also embedded with scenes of the life of the historical Buddha and fantastical legends about his many incarnations over the…
Schumacher, Mark. "Overview of Zen Buddhism and Its Influence on Japanese Art."
21 Feb 2007] http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/zen_art_tour.shtml
Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas." Early 6th century a.D. [21 Feb 2007] http://www.worcesterart.org/Collection/Chinese/1934.34.html
Shaka Nyorai: Historical Buddha Enlightened One." [21 Feb 2007] http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shaka.shtml
Buddhism Compare and Contrast Siddhartha Gautama's Buddha's
uddhism Compare and contrast Siddhartha Gautama's (uddha's) "going forth" into the monastic life with that of Maechi Wabi, based on the reading of "Journey of One uddhist Nun." In his account of the story of uddha, Jonathan Landaw writes "As Siddhartha stood alone in the forest, ready to begin his great adventure, he thought, "From today onwards I am no longer a prince. Therefore, it is not right that I continue to look and dress like one." (Story, p 14). So began Siddhartha's journey of knowledge and enlightenment which would lead him to learning "the way to end all suffering" and becoming a uddha. Like, Siddhartha, the uddhist nun, Maechi Wabi, also began her journey into uddhism from a background that otherwise would not shun, and not expect her to change her way of life so drastically. As a woman, Wabi's decision to become a nun was not initially acceptable…
Brown, S. The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even
Against the Wind
State University of New York Press, 2001
Gyatso, T. Dalai Lama My Land and My People
Buddhism Takes Different Forms in
S. There were 2,794,130 Americans of East Asian decent in the United States in 1990. Not all of these people practice a traditional East Asian religion, and reliable figures for the religious affiliations of East Asians are impossible to obtain because the United States Census does not ask questions about religion. In addition, the religious groups are very disparate and keep different kinds of records, and many East Asians observe traditional religious practices only in a family and not in an institutional context. Still, it is clear that the number is sizeable. In addition, many Americans of occidental background have also become involved in East Asian religions, sometimes through a spiritual quest, sometimes through marriage, and sometimes as a by-product of an interest in meditation or the martial arts. Commitment may range from entering a Zen monastery to taking class or doing practices on a lower level. Figures for this…
Bendure, G. & Friary, N. (1993). Hawaii. Berkeley: Lonely Planet.
Cook, F.H. (1994). Heian, Kamakura, and Tokugawa Periods in Japan in Buddhism: A Modern Perspective, C.S. Prebish (ed.), 223-228. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Ellwood, R.S. (1994). East Asian Religions in Today's America. In World Religions in America, J. Neusner (ed.), 219-242. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox Press.
Hammoind, P. & Machacek, D. (1999). Supply and Demand: The Appeal of Buddhism in America. In American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship, C.S. Queen & D.R. Williams (eds.), 100-114. Surrey, England: Curzon Press.
Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism Is a
Today, the Dalai Lama works tirelessly to bring attention to the Tibetan cause, to illuminate human rights abuses by China and to move forward in creating an autonomous, if not independent Tibet. The quest for Tibetan independence and, subsequently, the quest for Tibetan autonomy, have both been informed by this distinct orientation of the Buddhism. The Tibetan mode of Buddhism has historically been a channel for political resistance and the vocalization of protest against injustice. As the text by Fisher indicates, Buddhists have "often been non-violent social activists, protesting and trying to correct injustice, oppression, famine, cruelty to animals, nuclear testing warfare, and environmental devastation. E.F. Schumacher preached what he called 'Buddhist economics,' to restore willingness to live simply, generously, and humanely with each other." (p. 161) These are the very principles which underlie the global endeavors of the 14th Dalai Lama and which have garnered support from international human…
Fisher, M.P. (2011). Living Religions, Eighth Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson
Buddhism in the Films Little
Similar to how Keanu Reaves's character in Little Buddha is determined to achieve his goal, so are all Buddhists devoted to achieving enlightenment through intense meditation. Buddhists are constantly reminding themselves that life is but a small element in a much longer process, and, that life passes uncontrollably. Both in Little Buddha and in heel of Time, the audiences are presented with the world of Buddhism shown from an outsider's point-of-view. To them, Buddhist monks appear to be mysterious and intriguing in the same time. Furthermore, most people are likely to feel an attraction to Buddhism consequent to viewing both movies. hile the general public considers Buddhist monks to be exceptional people, with an incredible dedication for their religion, Buddhists think of themselves as being nothing more than simple people, with goals that are different than the normal ones in society. hile both movies succeed in promoting Buddhism, they also…
1. Little Buddha. Dir. Bernardo Bertolucci. Miramax Films, 1994.
2. Wheels of Time. Dir. Werner Herzog. 2003.
Buddhism and Human Rights One
3. There is the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha); and 4. There is a path leading to the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha-marga)." (illis) In Buddha's opinion, suffering (duhka) can be represented through any kind of pain and regardless of its form. The best representation of suffering can be presumably felt when a change from a state of happiness to a state of unhappiness occurs. The cause of suffering (duhka-samudaya) states that most of the suffering that humans feel is because of their desires. Most humans are inclined to wish for something that they believe would grant them happiness. However, in most cases, the goal set by some might not have the desired effect on them once it has been achieved. In order for people to leave suffering behind, they would need to understand that the human nature does not necessarily depend on granted wishes. The cessation of suffering (duhka-nirodha) refers directly…
2. Keown, Damien V., Prebish, Charles S., Husted, Wayne R.. 1998. HUMAN RIGHTS and UNIVERSAL RESPONSIBILITY. Curzon Press.
2. Sundaram, P.K. Om Sakthi Spiritual Movement. Available from: http://www.omsakthi.org/essays/buddhism_peace.html
3. Tenzin Gyatso, H.H. The XIVth Dalai Lama. His Hollines, the 14th Dalai Lama. Available from: http://www.dalailama.com/page.233.htm
4. Traer, Robert. Religion and Human Rights. Available from: http://religionhumanrights.com/Religion/Buddhist/buddhist.fhr.htm
Buddhism and Christianity Complementary Worldviews According to
uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus advised the eager young man to keep the commandments and essentially adhere to the Golden Rule to be good. ut when the young man persisted and asked the Savior for more advice, Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and follow Him. Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and seek to be rewarded in heaven, not on earth. ut the young man turned away, saddened that he would give up his great wealth to achieve spiritual perfection. Jesus commented to his disciples that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 19:28). However, in the uddhist…
Boeree, George C. "The Basics of Buddhist Wisdom." Published by Shippensburg University.
1999. 7 Feb 2009. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhawise.html
Boeree, George C. "The Life of Siddhartha Gautama." Published by Shippensburg University.
1999. 7 Feb 2009. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/siddhartha.html
Buddhism Is a Religion and Philosophy Founded
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy founded in India around 525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (Buddhism pp). There are two main schools of Buddhism, Theravada or Hinayana, which is found in Stri Lanka, Southeast Asian, and the Mahayana, which is found in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan (Buddhism pp). A third school, called Vajrayana, is traditional in Tibet and Japan (Buddhism pp). The basic doctrines of Buddhism include the "four noble truths," which state that existence is suffering, called dukhka, the cause of suffering is due to craving and attachment, called trishna, the cessation of suffering is called nirvana, and the path to the cessation of suffering includes the "eightfold path" of right views, "right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration" (Buddhism pp). Buddhism describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity and substance (Buddhism pp).…
Deegalle, Mahinda. "Is violence justified in Theravada Buddhism?"
The Ecumenical Review; 4/1/2003; pp.
Buddhism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; Columbia University: Gale
Group. 2005; pp.
Buddhism and Judaism Conservative and
Early Judaic religion also has a long extensive history. The ancient beginnings of Judaism come from the sands of the Syro-Arabian desert. Ancient ancestors of the later Hebrew people moved from the Mesopotamian desert towards the coast, moving into what is now known as Jerusalem and Palestine. Abraham was born into a family which still practiced early forms of animism. Through a religious epiphany, he began to worship only one deity, which he named El-Shaddi, meaning "the rock of the mountain," (383). He was encouraged by God to move to better grazing grounds, "The Lord had said to Abram [Abraham], leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great and you will be a blessing," (Gen. 12:1-2). After proving his loyalty, God rewarded…
King James Bible. Genesis. Found at http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/KjvGene.html . On October 13, 2007
Powers, John. A Concise Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Oneworld Publications. Oxford.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
Smith, Jean. The Beginner's Guide to Zen Buddism. Bell Tower. New York. 1999.
Buddhism and Nursing the Authors
Hume believed that we couldn't really see what tied one event to the other, and that cause-and-effect does not hold up as an infallible rule, which means that by eliminating cause we can not guarantee that we are eliminating effect (Rich, 169). Perhaps Hume is more flexible on this point than Buddhism. According to your understanding of Kuhn's writings, would an acceptance of an Eastern worldview in nursing constitute a paradigm shift by the profession? Explain. A strict interpretation of Kuhn might lead one to believe that the incorporation of Eastern philosophy would indicate a revolution that would cause a paradigm shift in nursing. But because nursing already has elements of Eastern philosophy, it would be difficult to say a shift will occur, and perhaps more appropriate to say it already has occurred. The empathetic nature of nursing, and the role of nurse as educator, are not new. In fact,…
Naef, Rahel (2006). "Bearing witness: a moral way of engaging in the nurse-person relationship." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.
Rich, Karen (2003). "Critical Response to Rodgers and Yen's Article: Rethinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 4.
Rodgers, Beth L. And Yen, Wen-Jiuan (2002). "Re-thinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.
Buddhism Teaches That the Divisions
Treating others with compassion thinking "what a good person this will make me seem like," is rooted in egoism, one of the causes of the failure to achieve bodhichitta. Being able to give also means being able to receive compassion from others. Giving requires a state of egolessness and acceptance. The second of the six conditions which enable us to achieve bodhichitta lies in a commitment to one's ethical worldview. In Buddhism this means committing acts which generate good karma. This is designed to circumvent the negative effect or failure of generating bad karma through evil actions. The second condition is patience. This is an especially difficult virtue to cultivate today, given that in today's society, we expect instantaneous results. Expecting that bodhichitta will come instantly will hinder us on the path. The fourth condition is determination or perseverance. This is also difficult to achieve today, given the many distractions…
Buddhism vs Quine vs Crowley
Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research. Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self…
Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich the World of Buddhism: Thames & Hudson, 1984.
David Kalupahana, (Ed) Nagarjuna, and Nagarjuna: Albany: State University Press 1986.
Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Donath, Dorothy C. Buddhism for the West: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajray-na; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press, 1971.
Buddhism the Movie Why Bodhidharma
It is small, real elements like this that keep the characters' human consciousness alert and unable to yet make the final step towards enlightenment with a final departing from the real world. Above the two rises the personality and figure of the Master Hyegok. A Zen master, he has devoted his entire life to learning about Zen uddhism and is now ready to pass that knowledge along to his pupils. With his time passing and his death approaching, he becomes more and more determined to leave the appropriate instruments for his pupils to use in order to achieve enlightenment and they use his teachings in order to attempt this after his death. The "Ten ulls" pictures of the Zen tradition reflect the steps in the path to enlightenment and are a good fit on the stages that each of the characters in the movie have achieved. The bull itself is…
1. Reps, Paul; Senzaki, Nyogen. Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. (1957). On the Internet at http://www.iloveulove.com/spirituality/buddhist/tenbulls.htm.Last retrieved on July 31, 2008
Reps, Paul; Senzaki, Nyogen. Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. (1957). On the Internet at http://www.iloveulove.com/spirituality/buddhist/tenbulls.htm.Last retrieved on July 31, 2008
Buddhism Pali Canon Buddhism Entails
If however she had achieved the ideal non-attachment of Buddhism, her grief would still be real, but she would experience it in a different way. Her grief would be part of a process of letting go the son who is no longer there. A degree of non-attachment would then allow her to experience the grief as outside of herself rather than as part of her individuality. This would help her to move on with the life that is her own. In the above way a too great degree of attachment to human relationships may become destructive to the spiritual goal. The same is true of a great degree of attachment to materialistic ideals such as food or money. Great ambition to accumulate money or physical assets may cause a person to lose sight of spiritual goals. This is a very one-sided approach to life, and may lead to destruction when…
Buddhism and Christianity Buddhism Religion
They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to their religion. In the two religions, the people can worship in groups or individually. The religions have a leader of worship that is a monk in Buddhism and a Priest in Christianity. The two principles in the religion used parables to teach, and they are egalitarians. The teachings on respecting others and treating them as oneself are acceptable in both religions. They both emphasize on charity towards the poor and aspire for greater spiritual perfection. Differences The differences are irrefutable, as Buddhism does not talk of a Creator, God while Christianity believes in a divine creator of Universe (allace 26). In Buddhism, the emphasis is on mediation and mindfulness, whereas that of Christianity places stress on prayer. Additionally, Buddhism emphasizes on…
Netland, Harold a, and Keith E. Yandell. Buddhism: A Christian Exploration and Appraisal.
Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2009. Print.
Wallace, BA. Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.
King, Sallie B. Socially Engaged Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai-i Press, 2009. Print.
Buddhism Has Leapt Out of
The buggy piece of software is not embedded in the computer; it is just a program that can be eliminated by recognizing it for what it is. Likewise, the inner critic is a program that can be extricated from the mind by recognizing it as such and then erasing it from the system's hard drive. When the inner critic is no longer part of the person's identity, he or she is liberated from the tyranny of self-criticism and self-hatred. Any self-critical thoughts that arise during the day are dismissed with a simple smile, in the same way a customer service representative deftly dismisses irate customers. Mindfulness brings up not only cognitions but emotions and physical sensations as well. Those emotions and physical sensations can be used as biofeedback tools in the process of healing. If the client becomes aware of feeling tension in the neck when certain critical thoughts arise,…
Carey, B. (2008). Mindfulness meditation: lotus therapy. International Herald Tribune. May 27, 2008. Retrieved Aug 5, 2008 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/27/healthscience/27budd.php
Elliot, J.E. (1993). Using Releasing Statements to Challenge Shoulds. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Volume 7, Number 4, 1993, pp. 291-295(5)
Elliot, K.J. (1999). The Inner Critic as a key element in working with adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. Retrieved Aug 5, 2008 from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1773747
Teasdale, J.D., Williams, J.M.G., Soulsby, J.M., Segal, Z.V., Ridgeway, V.A., & Lau, M.A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence of major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 68(4): 615-623.
Buddhism if the Complexity of
There are many ironies and paradoxes embedded within the Four Noble Truths. For example, it is ironic that one must desire liberation from desire. Such seeming contradictions are resolved easily by discerning the difference between the desire for truth, wisdom, and peace vs. The desire for things that are harmful to the psyche such as pride, revenge, or anger. The Four Noble Truths are essentially psychological in nature rather than spiritual or metaphysical. The Four Noble Truths are like a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Four Noble Truths can be understood as a consistent and coherent whole. In fact, the Four Noble Truths are best understood as a whole rather than being fragmented. When considered as a whole, the Four Noble Truths play themselves out in the person's mind each and every day, possibly each and every moment. The person who becomes more aware of how suffering arises in the…
Buddhism and Hinduism Compare and
) These consist in offerings made at the home shrine or performing puja to the family deities whereas Nainittika occur only at certain times during the year.For instance, the celebration of festivals in temples, offering thanksgiving etc.Kamya are pilgrimages. Although optional they are ocnsidered by the followers of the faith to be highly desirable. It allows a devotee to see and be seen by the deity which is an important part of Hindu Worship. Areas of pilgrimage would be rivers (especially river Ganges, and holy places such as Banares (believed to be the home of Lord Shiva), Allahabad, etc.), temples, mountains, and other sacred sites are popular pilgrimage places Due to the atheistic nature of Buddhism, this faith has no doctrine of a personal god. In order to arise to enlightment buddhist meditate.Meditation involves the body and the mind. For Buddhists this is particularly important as they want to avoid…
Knipe, David M. Hinduism: Experiments in the Sacred. Religious traditions of the world. San Francisco, Calif: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Print
Knott, Kim. Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Very short introductions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print
Buddhism in the United States
Meditation centers became popular during this time, and so did extensive study into eastern religions, such as Buddhism. There is another aspect of Buddhism that has had a remarkable effect on American society in just about every area, and that is yoga. While all Buddhists do not practice yoga (or meditation, for that matter), a large part of them do. Yoga has spread from being a relatively unknown practice to one of the most popular types of no-stress exercise in the country today. Millions of people attend yoga classes each week across the country, and it is touted as an excellent source of exercise for mind and body. Buddhists are often thought to be non-materially oriented and interested more in spiritual enlightenment, but that is another area where the religion has altered in America. Author McCormick continues, "Instead, one's external, material circumstances are viewed as an effect of one's inner,…
Coleman, J.W. (2001). The new Buddhism: The western transformation of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press.
McCormick, R.M. (2002). Buddhism in America. Retrieved 4 May 2009 from the NichirenCoffeeHouse Web Site: http://nichirenscoffeehouse.net/Ryuei/Buddhism-in-America.html.
Seager, R.H. (1999). Buddhism in America. New York: Columbia University Press.
Buddhism and Hinduism Both the
Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the dualities of the ordinary world. In most Buddhist schools of thought we understand the search for Nirvana as the personal search for enlightenment and understanding of existence beyond ordinary duality. This is also reflected in Advaita Hinduism. Another important area of comparison is the rejection of a personal God or the concept of God as part of the realization of Nirvana. This is evident in all forms of Buddhism and in Advaita Hinduism. However, the Dvaita school of thought and other forms of Hinduism tend to place emphasis on God or Gods as essential for enlighten. There are many other similarities and differences between these two faiths, which would take as few books to discuss. In the final analysis we could…
Advaita. February 6, 2010.
Dasa, Shukavak N. A Hindu Primer. February 3, 2010.
Buddhism in the Following Films
He instructs people that everything is possible through belief, and, that their life is nothing as they had previously perceived it. The claim that "the universe is an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere" (Bernard, I Heart Huckabees) is a clear reference to Buddhism, with the religion's followers believing that nothing is as society sees it, and, that everything has shape and color because people want it to. Also, they believe that everything in the universe is connected, even with the fact that people are accustomed to differentiating. Bernard continues to promote Buddhist theories by describing how every person is the same and differences in language, skin color, and backgrounds are not to be considered actual dissimilarities, as they are just the outer shell of the spirit. People are generally limited by themselves, with them being unable to attain a higher state of mind because…
1. I Heart Huckabees. Dir. David O. Russell. Fox Searchlight, 2004.
2. Rashomon. Dir. Akira Kurosawa. Daiei/Rko Radio Pictures, 1950/1951.
Buddhism Jean Smith Radiant Mind
Wisdom in Buddhism Some twenty-five hundred years ago, Buddha Shakyamuni devoted the last forty-nine of seventy-nine-years of life teaching his practices to people in the area today of Northern India about enlightenment and how to achieve that state of being, as he had. The term Buddha as translated today from the Sanskrit word means wisdom or enlightenment, though the two terms are not interchangeable. It is the goal for all sentient beings to achieve enlightenment, or Buddhahood, where all pain and suffering in one's life are extinguished and removed from their very being. Nevertheless, wisdom is an essential concept within Buddhism; in fact, it is the third essential elemental practice within the Noble Eightfold Path. Wisdom is innate in all of us, as is enlightenment. Some two thousand years ago, some forty Mahayana sutras were composed on the perfection of wisdom, which is also known as prajnaparamita. There are three…
Buddhism Buddhist Practices
Buddha the founder of the Buddhist faith lived in India, Bihar, from 563-483 BCE. As the Buddha or enlightened one he preached his doctrine of the four great truths. Sorrow is inherent in life, it arises from desire, and only by eliminating desire can man be released from sorrow. This may be achieved by following the noble eight-fold path of right conduct in vision, thought, speech, action, giving, striving, vigilance and meditation. He preached that this middle path would lead to nirvana. There are now 4 distinctive types of Buddhism. Theravada - or "way of the elders" - is the sole remaining form of conservative Buddhism, of which there were once at least 18 schools, or nikaya. It originated in India during the centuries after the final nirvana of the Buddha and was probably the dominant form of Buddhism in India. Theravada is now the dominant form of Buddhism in…
Buddhism Jean Smith
Buddha-Nature and Enlightenment Buddhism is a unique religion: it doesn't worship any deity nor does it require any individual to live their lives through divine will. Approximately 2,500 years ago, when Buddha achieved enlightenment he spent the next forty-five years teaching others that personal growth and awakening is possible through finding the truth within themselves. This concept is very alien in comparison to Western religions. There are many aspects of Buddhism, but what is essential is that personal awakening is possible personal experience and that suffering can be ceased through changing behavior, meditation, and transcendent wisdom. We are grateful to Siddartha Gautama for institutionalizing the practices we call Buddhism today so that we may better understand what Buddha experienced, and what he taught to the people along the Ganges River. Two essential understandings in the teachings of Buddhism are Buddha-nature and Enlightenment. To understand Buddha-nature we must first to come…
Enlightenment: Karma, Bodhisattvas, and Nirvana For some twenty-four hundred years, Buddhism has been a pre-dominantly Eastern religion. But in the last one-hundred-and-fifty years - ever since the first Asian immigrants arrived on these American shores as workers - the unique teachings and practices of Buddha have incorporated itself into Western society. And throughout the migration of this religion through the centuries, one goal has never changed: to achieve enlightenment as Buddha had under the bodhi tree. And what Buddha did next is the fundamental foundation of Buddhism: he taught others how to achieve it, too: he didn't keep the secret to himself. But there is no secret in achieving enlightenment. It only requires commitment, aspiration, following certain practices and vows, and understanding many concepts within Buddhism can an individual become enlightened. Three of the concepts an individual must come to understand are the laws of karma, identifying Nirvana, and knowledge…
Compare and Contrast Christianity and Buddhism
uddhism and Christianity As a system of belief, Zen uddhism arrived in Japan in the 14th century as the result of liberalization of trade relationships between Japan and China after finding it entry into the far eastern cultures through India. (Kitagawa, 1966) uddhism is a system of belief with many sects that follow individual masters who are said to have achieved a new revelation on how to apply the Four Noble Laws. uddhism was meant to give the practitioners influence and control over suffering in the world by teaching then to have greater control over themselves. The combined effect was to help the uddhist to respond differently to the suffering around him. Thereby the uddhist would be less entangled in the suffering in the surrounding world, and indirectly be able to affect change by lessening the corporate experience in suffering. In Medieval Japan, which was ruled by militaristic lords who…
The Four Noble Laws. 2004. Asunam -- Reiki Master 9 Feb 2004.
Tsunoda, R., de Bary W.T., and Keene, D. Sources of Japanese tradition. New York: Columbia University Press. 1958
Kitagawa, J. Religion in Japanese History. New York: Columbia University Press. 1966
The Thompson Chain Reference Bible, King James Version. 1964. Indiana: B.B. Kirkbride Bible Company.
How Buddhism and Hinduism Are Alike and Are Also Different
Buddhism hen Buddha discusses suffering or pain (dukkha), the First Noble Truth, he is referring not only to pain as though someone had burned a hand on a stove, or had stumbled and bruised knee. Dukkha-dukkha is in reference to negative things, painful emotional moments, mental agony and the suffering that goes along with mental disturbances. According to sources used for this paper, some scholars suggest that dukkha alludes to something closer to "dissatisfaction" or "stress" (about.com). And viparinama-dukkha also refers to change or a lack of permanence. For example, when a person is very happy but the success that produced that happiness fades away, that is dukkha (about.com). The cause of suffering (samkhara-dukkha) (the Second Noble Truth) can be attributed to a "craving," and to "desire" and "ignorance"; desire means craving for material things and pleasure, along with immortality (pbs.org). Buddha believed these wants and desires could never be…
About.com. (2010). What is Self? / Life Is Suffering? What Does That Mean? Retrieved
July 20, 2015, from http://buddhism.about.com .
BBC. (2009). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from http://www.bbc.co.uk .
Bliss of Hinduism. (2012). The Self in Hinduism. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from https://blissofhinduism.wordpress.com.
islam christianity and buddhism are universal
Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are a few of the "universal" or "universalizing" religions. Strayer frames the universalizing religions in terms of the spread of different cultures and ideas throughout the world. Religions are integral to social and political power and control, and thus have a transformative effect on society as well as on the individuals within that society. The nature of universalizing religion is such that they can be all-pervasive, permeating almost every dimension of life including political, economic, and social institutions. However, universalizing religions are distinct in that they actively seek new followers; they believe their message is indeed universal and contains universal truths embedded within it. Although universalizing religions use different methods of spreading their faiths, they share in common the desire to influence human thought and even public discourse. Of the universalizing religions, Christianity and Islam have historically revealed the most aggressive evangelical tendencies but Hinduism and…
Kong, Lily. Christian evangelizing across national boundaries. Religion and Place, 2012, pp. 21-38.
Premawardhana, S. Religious Conversion. John Wiley, 2015.
"Religions of the World." Retrieved online: http://lindblomeagles.org/ourpages/auto/2015/2/18/44701116/L6_ReligionsReading.pdf
Strayer, R.W. Ways of the World. [Kindle Edition]. 2012.
Religions of Buddhism and Christianity
Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless. The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…
Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
Bowker, John Westerdale. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Easwaran, Eknath. The Dhammapada. Petaluma, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1986.
Meeks, Wayne a. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
Mythology - Religion
Thus to some, Chinese acceptance of Buddhism was surprising given that "China was already a very old civilization, with a written language, a well-organized government system and educational system,…
An examination of the many issues like the left-right divisions in the monastic order, Buddhist social activism, the rise of organized lay movements as well as the Buddhist founded…
Buddhism and Shamanism Within Mongolian Culture What origins relationships Buddhism Shamanism Mongolian culture? Show origins, evolved time, affected 50-year Socialist period, role plays modern day Mongolia. This applies country…
Buddhism vs. Islam hat is the purpose of life? Life holds different meaning for people across the world; such different perceptions on life are framed by religious beliefs. Such…
Buddhism Human beings, perhaps above all else, are storytellers. Humans value their stories highly and have extensive traditions of passing down the most captivating and popular stories through the…
uddhism is a worldwide religion started over 2,500 years ago by Siddhartha Gautama, called "The uddha," in India (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004). Since then it has grown and spread across…
Charity, it may be said, therefore, is the initial step in establishing any relationship with a person of another faith. The barriers that one may face when attempting, however,…
It is through the process of death and rebirth that the knowledge is gained which will finally liberate the individual being from the central cause of all suffering itself…
In an English concept of second nature performance of an action, no thought only the action is performed. The similar concept of u in Daoism, which is being or…
The "collective harming and killing committed by governments...and harming or killing being of the natural world through soil depletion, clear-cutting, lab testing and poisons," Rothberg writes (274), is a…
This also means that it is the Sovereign God and not just Lady Luck that is the Lord of Israel. Since God is sovereign by nature, it means that…
12. The life of Buddha is generally illustrated in three stages. In order to attain a spiritual condition similar to Buddha, one would have to refrain from everything that…
Major Doctrines There are three major recognized doctrines in uddhism: Theravada ("The Speech of the Elders"), Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"), and Vajrayana ("The Diamond Vehicle"). Theravada was the initial…
Buddhism directly evolved from the Vedic Aryan religions. The Gautama Buddha was born into a Brahmin caste family that practiced Vedic ritual and tradition. Siddhartha Gautama's teachings strongly reflect…
Buddhism I have admittedly led a pretty sheltered life in terms of interactions with people from other cultures. I am not a Buddhist and so I do not have…
Black Studies - Philosophy
Buddhism and Kant The Philosophies of Buddhism and Immanuel Kant: An Examination and Comparison of Similar Beliefs Major world religions and the philosophies that accompany them are quite numerous.…
Buddhism - Buddhism in Chinese History (Arthur F. Wright) What were the political, social and cultural conditions that permitted the spread of Buddhism in the Chinese World? On page…
V. Conclusion Both Islam and Buddhism are great traditions that have contributed much to both history and religious development. In terms of morality, both religions make significant contributions. Buddhism…
Then, the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, realizing the impermanence of human existence, and the falseness of a notion of fixed selfhood. Harrer achieved a kind of Enlightenment after experiencing the…
History - Asian
On top of the Chinese Buddha's head is a formation that, though it appears like a bowl, is really a rendition of the usnisa: the crown chakra. The usnisa…
Religion - Buddhism
Buddhism: Background, Origins, and Pillars The life of Buddha is directly connected to the teachings of Buddha and reflect some of the main pillars of Buddhism. “Siddhartha Gautama, who…
Interview about ReligionBuddhism is a way of life that spread from the East into the West and gained popularity in the US in the latter half of the 20th…
Introduction This is a review of Freedom in Exile, the fourteenth autobiography known as The Autobiography of Dalai Lama. The account of The Dalai Lama was published in 1991.…
Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners…
Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it…
BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can…
Columbus reveled in making distinctions between his own culture and 'the other,' in a way that prioritized his own culture, even though ironically he went in search of a…
(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696) The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on…
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Shakyamuni Buddha, grew up a prince in India. As the Brahmin teachings of his family and homeland failed to provide Siddhartha with spiritual…
Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much…
Buddhism emerged in India around 2500 B.C. At a time when conditions were critical in the area as a result of significant social and religious conflicts. Even with the…
D.). Rather than standing alone and interacting with the gazer, this Buddha holds back and is flanked by attendants, creating his own scene in the context of the relief.…
uddhism Compare and contrast Siddhartha Gautama's (uddha's) "going forth" into the monastic life with that of Maechi Wabi, based on the reading of "Journey of One uddhist Nun." In…
S. There were 2,794,130 Americans of East Asian decent in the United States in 1990. Not all of these people practice a traditional East Asian religion, and reliable figures…
Today, the Dalai Lama works tirelessly to bring attention to the Tibetan cause, to illuminate human rights abuses by China and to move forward in creating an autonomous, if…
Similar to how Keanu Reaves's character in Little Buddha is determined to achieve his goal, so are all Buddhists devoted to achieving enlightenment through intense meditation. Buddhists are constantly…
3. There is the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha); and 4. There is a path leading to the cessation of suffering (duhkha-nirodha-marga)." (illis) In Buddha's opinion, suffering (duhka) can be…
uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus…
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy founded in India around 525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (Buddhism pp). There are two main schools of Buddhism, Theravada or…
Early Judaic religion also has a long extensive history. The ancient beginnings of Judaism come from the sands of the Syro-Arabian desert. Ancient ancestors of the later Hebrew people…
Health - Nursing
Hume believed that we couldn't really see what tied one event to the other, and that cause-and-effect does not hold up as an infallible rule, which means that by…
Treating others with compassion thinking "what a good person this will make me seem like," is rooted in egoism, one of the causes of the failure to achieve bodhichitta.…
Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other…
It is small, real elements like this that keep the characters' human consciousness alert and unable to yet make the final step towards enlightenment with a final departing from…
If however she had achieved the ideal non-attachment of Buddhism, her grief would still be real, but she would experience it in a different way. Her grief would be…
They both emphasize on the teaching of doing good and following rules to live right and happily. They both have vigorous missionary programs, in which they convert people to…
The buggy piece of software is not embedded in the computer; it is just a program that can be eliminated by recognizing it for what it is. Likewise, the…
There are many ironies and paradoxes embedded within the Four Noble Truths. For example, it is ironic that one must desire liberation from desire. Such seeming contradictions are resolved…
) These consist in offerings made at the home shrine or performing puja to the family deities whereas Nainittika occur only at certain times during the year.For instance, the…
Meditation centers became popular during this time, and so did extensive study into eastern religions, such as Buddhism. There is another aspect of Buddhism that has had a remarkable…
Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the…
He instructs people that everything is possible through belief, and, that their life is nothing as they had previously perceived it. The claim that "the universe is an infinite…
Wisdom in Buddhism Some twenty-five hundred years ago, Buddha Shakyamuni devoted the last forty-nine of seventy-nine-years of life teaching his practices to people in the area today of Northern…
Buddha the founder of the Buddhist faith lived in India, Bihar, from 563-483 BCE. As the Buddha or enlightened one he preached his doctrine of the four great truths.…
Buddha-Nature and Enlightenment Buddhism is a unique religion: it doesn't worship any deity nor does it require any individual to live their lives through divine will. Approximately 2,500 years…
Enlightenment: Karma, Bodhisattvas, and Nirvana For some twenty-four hundred years, Buddhism has been a pre-dominantly Eastern religion. But in the last one-hundred-and-fifty years - ever since the first Asian…
uddhism and Christianity As a system of belief, Zen uddhism arrived in Japan in the 14th century as the result of liberalization of trade relationships between Japan and China…
Buddhism hen Buddha discusses suffering or pain (dukkha), the First Noble Truth, he is referring not only to pain as though someone had burned a hand on a stove,…
Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are a few of the "universal" or "universalizing" religions. Strayer frames the universalizing religions in terms of the spread of different cultures and ideas throughout…
Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The…
Religious perspectives on euthanasia.
Death is one of the most important things that religions deal with. All faiths offer meaning and explanations for death and dying; all faiths try to find a place for death and dying within human experience. Most religions disapprove of euthanasia. Some of them absolutely forbid it. Virtually all religions state that those who become vulnerable through illness or disability deserve special care and protection and that proper end of life care is a much better thing than euthanasia. Religions […]
The Four Noble Truths
The Four noble truths are one of the stories covered in the book “World views: Classic and contemporary readings” by Elizabeth Hair, Mike Krist, Richard Harnett and Roger West. The four noble truths are the teaching of the Buddhist path and is a summary of the awakening path. They are the key components that helps one understand Buddhism and the teachings of Buddha. It is often defined in four interdependent and logical steps. The truths have been defined differently by […]
History of Meditation
The Axial Age: the earliest written records of meditation come from the Hindu tradition of Vedantism around 1500 B.C.E. The Vedas discussed the ancient traditions of meditation which came from India. In the fifth and sixth century, B.C.E. meditation seems to develop other forms in Taoist China and Buddhist India. Dyhana in early Buddhism takes effect in Vedanta somewhere around century B.C.E. Buddhist meditation exact organs are still under debate by most scholars. Multilevel of meditation are seen in Buddhism’s […]
“Three Legged Buddha”
The “Three Legged Buddha” is a structure influenced by the Buddhist philosophy and ideas. The creator Zhang Huan was greatly inspired by the catastrophe of ruins and destroyed monasteries from the time of the Cultural Revolution in Tibet. Zhang collected copper and steel from the leftover fragments of Buddhist sculptures in Tibet to construct the “Three Legged Buddha”. The sculpture was created in 2007 and stands at the height of twenty-eight feet tall and forty-eight feet wide. The sculpture, given […]
Buddha’s Lost Children
This paper is devoted to one remarkable documentary made by director Mark Verkerk in 2006 called Buddha’s Lost Children (Buddha Elveszett Gyermekei). Buddha’s Lost Children is about one remarkable Buddhist monk called Abbot Khru Bah Neua Chai Kositto, who has devoted himself to the orphaned and abandoned children came from poor and problematic families of remote villages in Northern Thailand. Khru Bah used to be a Thai boxer, later he became a Buddhist monk. I would like to talk about […]
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Representation of Religion in Asian Buddha Statues
Artistic concepts are broad. Art may be interpreted either literally or symbolically depending on a person’s insights. It goes a long way in the depiction of reality or imaginary insinuation, be it a person or a place. However, the study of artistic features gives more profound meaning and relates each work of art to the subjects under study for example religion. Eliade Mircea once said that the Buddha’s iconography had been changed to spiritual existence from human nature. Considering the […]
This semester I took History of far Eastern Art, as a project assignment we had to visit a museum, I chose the freer gallery of art in Washington D,C. I visited the section ” Encountering the buddha, Art and practice across Asia.” In this section you found “collections of Buddhist art from Afghanistan, India, Southeast Asia, China and Japan(web).” My experience at freer gallery of art was great, I was able to learn a lot more from the Asian art […]
The Religion of Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama was numerous things. He was a ruler, an educator, the Buddha and later a divine being. He showed the religion of Buddhism. Moreover, he even affected Indian history until the end of time. Buddhism has spread to numerous nations including Thailand and Mongolia. The Buddha was conceived in sixth Century BCE. He was fundamentally secured up a castle for a large portion of his initial life in light of the fact that a prescience told that his family […]
Buddha Come Gone
The Buddha had a variety of names that he and others used for himself. One of the names is “Tath?gata” which means “one who has come thus” (tath? + ?gata) and “one who has gone thus” (tath?+ gata). This dichotomy of this name explains much of who Buddha was. First, “Tath?gata” will be examined through his reincarnation into the Buddha. Secondly, the Buddha will be observed through his renunciation of the material world. Thirdly, Buddha Gautama’s dichotomy of character will […]
Existence in the Buddhist Religion
Existence consists of three characteristics: suffering, impermanence, and the concept of no-self. Ideas of these three characteristics make up much of the Buddhist religion. The three characteristics of existence constitute much of the Buddhist world view, from views toward pain to ideas about rebirth. Suffering, or dukkha, is a central focus in the Dhammapada. Suffering can be caused by physical pain, from pleasure changing to pain, or from the perpetual state of change that all things exist in. The Buddha […]
Buddhist in Northern Afghanistan
Siddhartha Gautama was born in the 6th century in Northern India. Better known as “Buddha”, he was a great spiritual leader and ancient philosopher. Siddhartha Gautama is a man whom, “found the meaning of life” or a man whom, “Has achieved his goals (Cunningham, et al. Chapter 5, “Preview”).” In 1922 a German novelist, Hermann Hesse establish his story of Gautama, during the 5 century BCE during a time when his life overlapped this ear Cunningham, et al. Chapter 5, […]
About Siddhartha Gautama
Buddha is not a name but a title which is a Sanskrit word for “Enlightened one.” Siddhartha Gautama was born in 567 B.C.E. in the Himalayan region of Kapilavastu, Shakya which is now a modern Lumbini, Nepal. He born to the King Sudhodhana, who rule Kapilavastu in ancient Bharata Khanda, And Queen Maya. When he was born a Brahmin guru prophesize that young Gautama would either become an Emperor of Bharata Khanda or a very holy man, which worried his […]
Buddhism in Society
With approximately 400 million people practicing Buddhism, it is one of the largest religions in the world. Buddhism encompasses a variety of beliefs, traditions and spiritual practices that are attributed to the teachings of the Buddha. These teachings focus on spiritual personal development. The teachings and scriptures of Buddhism reiterate that violence is not a good thing and that being peaceful will lead to a better life on earth and a chance to reach nirvana. Even though Buddhism has a […]
Two Faces of the Early Buddha
Buddhism began roughly around the 5th century BCE in eastern India, and is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, or the Buddha Shakyamuni (Dehejia, 1). As one of the largest religions in the world to date, there is a plethora of Buddhist and Buddha images. However, like most ancient religious icons, there are a few mysteries behind the first known depictions of the Buddha. Before the 1st century AD portrait images of the Buddha seem to have been forbidden […]
Buddhism in my Life
The foundations of Buddhism are built upon the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. The Four Noble Truths are a summary of the things that the Buddha witnessed and examined in his life, such as Dukkha or suffering, Dukkha is the result of tanha or selfish desire, the cure is get rid of tanha and to get rid of tanha you must follow the Eightfold Path. The Eightfold Path involves eight steps to reach nirvana, including right knowledge, right […]
The Standing Buddha statue, held in the MET museum as a gift from Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Foundation in 1993, is one of many renditions of the Buddha (MET). The Buddha is a human man who experienced enlightenment and spread the message through sermons and travel for years (Richie). This figure is the originator of the Buddhist religion, and his sculptures have a long history and significance to spiritual practice that continues into today. The statue is bronze with […]
Buddha Stautes and Beliefs
I have always seen the buddha statue in places all across the world while travelling and I never had an understanding of what it really means. What’s the culture and story behind it? The reason I picked this for my cultural artifact is because I’ve always seen the Himalayas in documentaries and have associated the Buddhist religion with that part of Asia, but without any real knowledge on the teachings. I want to have an understanding of the buddhism culture […]
Comparative Religion Life of Buddha
Buddha which means enlightened one or the awakened is the titled conferred to Siddhartha Gautama. It is believed that he lived in Nepal between the sixth and fourth centuries. During that time, he tried different teachings but could not find any that was acceptable to him. One night while in meditation, he found the answers he was seeking thereby achieving awareness. This is what made him become Buddha. His life serves as the foundation of the Buddhist religion. Enlightenment, personal […]
The Fictional Character Siddhartha and Buddha
Siddhartha is a fictional character created by Herman Hesse, but that name is also the name of Buddha before he became enlightened. Siddhartha was known as a rich, intelligent and good-looking man in town he lived in. Despite being seen as someone with intellectual prowess he left home because he was not content with what he was being taught. He believed the knowledge he was learning with his father was true and wise, yet he believed there was more for […]
Buddhism helps to understand the concept of change and its consistency. In life there are no certainties, which explains the temporariness of our emotions and experiences. Good nor bad things last forever and eventually everything decays. As humans we are constantly undergoing changes, physically and mentally, for example: birth, death, breakups, sudden weather changes, moving to a new city, failing a test, sudden accidents, climate change, a growing plant, etc. Change can occur suddenly without warning or can come expectedly. […]
Influence of Buddhism
“The secret of health, both mind, and body, is not to mourn for the past, nor worry about the future, but to live the present moment both wisely and earnestly.” This idea, and others similar concepts like it, are those given by Siddhartha Gautama, eventually known as Buddha, and are the basis for the religion known as Buddhism. Buddhism, a religion founded in Nepal, a country in Asia, is now practiced and observed all over the world. Buddhism was founded […]
Rituals in Buddhism
In Buddhism, rites and rituals expressed by human condition, including our relationships to others and to our spiritual life. As ways of being mindful, rites and rituals can bring a heightened awareness of the interpretation of life and humanity. Through both mental and physical trainings, rites and rituals set followers onto the passage toward their personal goals. Spreading world-wide in all directions and into numerous languages since around 2,500 years ago, Buddhism teachings have developed into many brunches. Among all […]
What is Buddhism?
Buddhism is one of the most privilege religions, spread throughout Vietnam, China, Japan and most parts of Asia. Buddhism has opened a door for many people to practice mindfulness especially the right way to meditate to relieve the stress and help them forgive that past or things that shouldn’t be on their mind. Buddha has taught people many things that people can apply to daily life, and also bring a good environment to other people surrounding them. “There is no […]
Buddhism in Myanmar
Buddhism in Myanmar was very early spread into Myanmar. Buddhist missionaries from Gangetic India who reached Upper Burma through Bengal and Manipur. Others, amongst whom is Rhys Davids, supposed that Buddhism was introduced from China. It is not unlikely, however, that the Burmese obtained both their religion and their alphabet through the Talaings. The Burmese alphabet is almost the same as the Talaing, and the circular form of both strongly indicates the influence of the Singalese, or the Tamulic type […]
Christianity Vs Buddhism
Because I was brought up in an extremely strict Pentecostal church does not imply that I will be conceded everlasting life in the Kingdom of Paradise. In fact, it means that my curiosity for other religions has always been peaked. I have always been interested as to fundamental standards, actualities, and demonstrated sciences behind every one of them. I was instructed to place confidence in that which can’t be seen, to never scrutinize the Lord or his reasonings, and to […]
An Analysis of Buddhism on the Hermann Hesse’s Siddh?rtha
Siddhartha is a novel written by Herman Hesse. It is about a young man named Siddhartha who is the son of Brahmin. Everyone thinks that Siddhartha should follow in his father’s footsteps, but Siddhartha thinks otherwise. Siddhartha practices all of the religion rituals, but he is not satisfied. He feels something is missing. He wants to find enlightenment as a munk. So he goes on a journey with his friend named Govinda and does just that. One day a group […]
What are the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism?
According to The Register and InfoPlease, Buddhism has become one of the top five religions of the world while being one of the top three most practiced. Buddhism originated in eastern central Asia and it encompasses the idea of reaching enlightenment by following the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. Buddhism has increased in popularity over the centuries because of its stance as not only a religion, but as a philosophy. Buddhism focuses on compassion and does not preach about reaching the […]
Buddhism – the Four Noble Truths
“Pain is inevitable, suffering is optional” –Buddha. Suffering is something that all human beings in society must endure over the course of their lifetime. It is perceived to be a negative part of life and something that cannot be avoided. However, has one ever dug deeper into the roots of suffering? Why do humans suffer? Is it something that can be further understood and better overcome? Buddhism explores the notion of suffering through its path to enlightenment by practicing such […]
Christianity and Buddhism
Christianity originated during the 1st-century in Israel, starting with the birth of Jesus Christ, while Buddhism originated in the 6th-century India from the birth and life of Siddhartha, Buddha. While Buddhism and Christianity began with a single founder who sacrificed their lives for the suffering of humans, they did not share the same views on God. Christians put their faith in God while Buddhists ignored the widespread religious belief in a controlling higher power other religions adapted to. Built on […]
“4 C’s” in Buddhism
Every religion is different. They all do the things they do for different reasons. Buddhism is no exception to this. Catherine Albanese’s definition of religion is “A system of symbols (creed, code, cults) and by means of which people (community) orient themselves in the world with reference to both ordinary and extra ordinary values, powers, and meanings”. This definition is known as the “4 C’s”. The “creed” are the beliefs within the religion. The “Four Noble Truths” is the core […]
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Here is a lucid, accessible, and inspiring guide to the six perfections--Buddhist teachings about six dimensions of human character that require "perfecting":
The following essay topics will cover the ancient religion of Buddhism. These topics will be independent of information on Chinese and Zen Buddhism
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