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Does time management work? A meta-analysis
Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Software, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing
* E-mail: [email protected]
Affiliation Concordia University, Sir George Williams Campus, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Roles Methodology, Validation
Affiliation FSA Ulaval, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Roles Validation, Writing – review & editing
- Brad Aeon,
- Aïda Faber,
- Alexandra Panaccio
- Published: January 11, 2021
- Reader Comments
Does time management work? We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impact of time management on performance and well-being. Results show that time management is moderately related to job performance, academic achievement, and wellbeing. Time management also shows a moderate, negative relationship with distress. Interestingly, individual differences and contextual factors have a much weaker association with time management, with the notable exception of conscientiousness. The extremely weak correlation with gender was unexpected: women seem to manage time better than men, but the difference is very slight. Further, we found that the link between time management and job performance seems to increase over the years: time management is more likely to get people a positive performance review at work today than in the early 1990s. The link between time management and gender, too, seems to intensify: women’s time management scores have been on the rise for the past few decades. We also note that time management seems to enhance wellbeing—in particular, life satisfaction—to a greater extent than it does performance. This challenges the common perception that time management first and foremost enhances work performance, and that wellbeing is simply a byproduct.
Citation: Aeon B, Faber A, Panaccio A (2021) Does time management work? A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 16(1): e0245066. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245066
Editor: Juan-Carlos Pérez-González, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), SPAIN
Received: October 27, 2020; Accepted: December 21, 2020; Published: January 11, 2021
Copyright: © 2021 Aeon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.
Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist
Stand-up comedian George Carlin once quipped that in the future a “time machine will be built, but no one will have time to use it” [ 1 ]. Portentously, booksellers now carry one-minute bedtime stories for time-starved parents [ 2 ] and people increasingly speed-watch videos and speed-listen to audio books [ 3 – 5 ]. These behaviors are symptomatic of an increasingly harried society suffering from chronic time poverty [ 6 ]. Work is intensifying—in 1965 about 50% of workers took breaks; in 2003, less than 2% [ 7 ]. Leisure, too, is intensifying: people strive to consume music, social media, vacations, and other leisure activities ever more efficiently [ 8 – 11 ].
In this frantic context, time management is often touted as a panacea for time pressure. Media outlets routinely extol the virtues of time management. Employers, educators, parents, and politicians exhort employees, students, children, and citizens to embrace more efficient ways to use time [ 12 – 16 ]. In light of this, it is not surprising that from 1960 to 2008 the frequency of books mentioning time management shot up by more than 2,700% [ 17 ].
Time management is defined as “a form of decision making used by individuals to structure, protect, and adapt their time to changing conditions” [ 18 ]. This means time management, as it is generally portrayed in the literature, comprises three components: structuring, protecting, and adapting time. Well-established time management measures reflect these concepts. Structuring time, for instance, is captured in such items as “Do you have a daily routine which you follow?” and “Do your main activities during the day fit together in a structured way?” [ 19 ]. Protecting time is reflected in items such as “Do you often find yourself doing things which interfere with your schoolwork simply because you hate to say ‘No’ to people?” [ 20 ]. And adapting time to changing conditions is seen in such items as “Uses waiting time” and “Evaluates daily schedule” [ 21 ].
Research has, furthermore, addressed several important aspects of time management, such as its relationship with work-life balance [ 22 ], whether gender differences in time management ability develop in early childhood [ 23 ], and whether organizations that encourage employees to manage their time experience less stress and turnover [ 24 ]. Despite the phenomenal popularity of this topic, however, academic research has yet to address some fundamental questions [ 25 – 27 ].
A critical gap in time management research is the question of whether time management works [ 28 , 29 ]. For instance, studies on the relationship between time management and job performance reveal mixed findings [ 30 , 31 ]. Furthermore, scholars’ attempts to synthesize the literature have so far been qualitative, precluding a quantitative overall assessment [ 18 , 32 , 33 ]. To tackle this gap in our understanding of time management, we conducted a meta-analysis. In addressing the question of whether time management works, we first clarify the criteria for effectiveness. In line with previous reviews, we find that virtually all studies focus on two broad outcomes: performance and wellbeing [ 32 ].
Overall, results suggest that time management enhances job performance, academic achievement, and wellbeing. Interestingly, individual differences (e.g., gender, age) and contextual factors (e.g., job autonomy, workload) were much less related to time management ability, with the notable exception of personality and, in particular, conscientiousness. Furthermore, the link between time management and job performance seems to grow stronger over the years, perhaps reflecting the growing need to manage time in increasingly autonomous and flexible jobs [ 34 – 37 ].
Overall, our findings provide academics, policymakers, and the general audience with better information to assess the value of time management. This information is all the more useful amid the growing doubts about the effectiveness of time management [ 38 ]. We elaborate on the contributions and implications of our findings in the discussion section.
What does it mean to say that time management works?
In the din of current debates over productivity, reduced workweeks, and flexible hours, time management comes to the fore as a major talking point. Given its popularity, it would seem rather pointless to question its effectiveness. Indeed, time management’s effectiveness is often taken for granted, presumably because time management offers a seemingly logical solution to a lifestyle that increasingly requires coordination and prioritization skills [ 39 , 40 ].
Yet, popular media outlets increasingly voice concern and frustration over time management, reflecting at least part of the population’s growing disenchantment [ 38 ]. This questioning of time management practices is becoming more common among academics as well [ 41 ]. As some have noted, the issue is not just whether time management works. Rather, the question is whether the techniques championed by time management gurus can be actually counterproductive or even harmful [ 26 , 42 ]. Other scholars have raised concerns that time management may foster an individualistic, quantitative, profit-oriented view of time that perpetuates social inequalities [ 43 , 44 ]. For instance, time management manuals beguile readers with promises of boundless productivity that may not be accessible to women, whose disproportionate share in care work, such as tending to young children, may not fit with typically male-oriented time management advice [ 45 ]. Similarly, bestselling time management books at times offer advice that reinforce global inequities. Some manuals, for instance, recommend delegating trivial tasks to private virtual assistants, who often work out of developing countries for measly wages [ 46 ]. Furthermore, time management manuals often ascribe a financial value to time—the most famous time management adage is that time is money. But recent studies show that thinking of time as money leads to a slew of negative outcomes, including time pressure, stress, impatience, inability to enjoy the moment, unwillingness to help others, and less concern with the environment [ 47 – 51 ]. What’s more, the pressure induced by thinking of time as money may ultimately undermine psychological and physical health [ 52 ].
Concerns over ethics and safety notwithstanding, a more prosaic question researchers have grappled with is whether time management works. Countless general-audience books and training programs have claimed that time management improves people’s lives in many ways, such as boosting performance at work [ 53 – 55 ]. Initial academic forays into addressing this question challenged those claims: time management didn’t seem to improve job performance [ 29 , 30 ]. Studies used a variety of research approaches, running the gamut from lab experiments, field experiments, longitudinal studies, and cross-sectional surveys to experience sampling [ 28 , 56 – 58 ]. Such studies occasionally did find an association between time management and performance, but only in highly motivated workers [ 59 ]; instances establishing a more straightforward link with performance were comparatively rare [ 31 ]. Summarizing these insights, reviews of the literature concluded that the link between time management and job performance is unclear; the link with wellbeing, however, seemed more compelling although not conclusive [ 18 , 32 ].
It is interesting to note that scholars often assess the effectiveness time management by its ability to influence some aspect of performance, wellbeing, or both. In other words, the question of whether time management works comes down to asking whether time management influences performance and wellbeing. The link between time management and performance at work can be traced historically to scientific management [ 60 ]. Nevertheless, even though modern time management can be traced to scientific management in male-dominated work settings, a feminist reading of time management history reveals that our modern idea of time management also descends from female time management thinkers of the same era, such as Lillian Gilbreth, who wrote treatises on efficient household management [ 43 , 61 , 62 ]. As the link between work output and time efficiency became clearer, industrialists went to great lengths to encourage workers to use their time more rationally [ 63 – 65 ]. Over time, people have internalized a duty to be productive and now see time management as a personal responsibility at work [ 43 , 66 , 67 ]. The link between time management and academic performance can be traced to schools’ historical emphasis on punctuality and timeliness. In more recent decades, however, homework expectations have soared [ 68 ] and parents, especially well-educated ones, have been spending more time preparing children for increasingly competitive college admissions [ 69 , 70 ]. In this context, time management is seen as a necessary skill for students to thrive in an increasingly cut-throat academic world. Finally, the link between time management and wellbeing harks back to ancient scholars, who emphasized that organizing one’s time was necessary to a life well-lived [ 71 , 72 ]. More recently, empirical studies in the 1980s examined the effect of time management on depressive symptoms that often plague unemployed people [ 19 , 73 ]. Subsequent studies surmised that the effective use of time might prevent a host of ills, such as work-life conflict and job stress [ 22 , 74 ].
Overall, then, various studies have looked into the effectiveness of time management. Yet, individual studies remain narrow in scope and reviews of the literature offer only a qualitative—and often inconclusive—assessment. To provide a more quantifiable answer to the question of whether time management works, we performed a meta-analysis, the methods of which we outline in what follows.
Literature search and inclusion criteria
We performed a comprehensive search using the keywords “time management” across the EBSCO databases Academic Search Complete , Business Source Complete , Computers & Applied Sciences Complete , Gender Studies Database , MEDLINE , Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection , PsycINFO , SocINDEX , and Education Source . The search had no restrictions regarding country and year of publication and included peer-reviewed articles up to 2019. To enhance comprehensiveness, we also ran a forward search on the three main time management measures: the Time Management Behavior Scale [ 21 ], the Time Structure Questionnaire [ 19 ], and the Time Management Questionnaire [ 20 ]. (A forward search tracks all the papers that have cited a particular work. In our case the forward search located all the papers citing the three time management scales available on Web of Science .)
Time management measures typically capture three aspects of time management: structuring, protecting, and adapting time to changing conditions. Structuring refers to how people map their activities to time using a schedule, a planner, or other devices that represent time in a systematic way [ 75 – 77 ]. Protecting refers to how people set boundaries around their time to repel intruders [ 78 , 79 ]. Examples include people saying no to time-consuming requests from colleagues or friends as well as turning off one’s work phone during family dinners. Finally, adapting one’s time to changing conditions means, simply put, to be responsive and flexible with one’s time structure [ 80 , 81 ]. Furthermore, time management measures typically probe behaviors related to these three dimensions (e.g., using a schedule to structure one’s day, making use of downtime), although they sometimes also capture people’s attitudes (e.g., whether people feel in control of their time).
As shown in Fig 1 , the initial search yielded 10,933 hits, excluding duplicates.
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The search included no terms other than “time management” to afford the broadest possible coverage of time management correlates. Nevertheless, as shown in Table 1 , we focused exclusively on quantitative, empirical studies of time management in non-clinical samples. Successive rounds of screening, first by assessing paper titles and abstracts and then by perusing full-text articles, whittled down the number of eligible studies to 158 (see Fig 1 ).
Data extraction and coding
We extracted eligible effect sizes from the final pool of studies; effect sizes were mostly based on means and correlations. In our initial data extraction, we coded time management correlates using the exact variable names found in each paper. For instance, “work-life imbalance” was initially coded in those exact terms, rather than “work-life conflict.” Virtually all time management correlates we extracted fell under the category of performance and/or wellbeing. This pattern tallies with previous reviews of the literature [ 18 , 32 ]. A sizable number of variables also fell under the category of individual differences and contextual factors, such as age, personality, and job autonomy. After careful assessment of the extracted variables, we developed a coding scheme using a nested structure shown in Table 2 .
Aeon and Aguinis suggested that time management influences performance, although the strength of that relationship may depend on how performance is defined [ 18 ]. Specifically, they proposed that time management may have a stronger impact on behaviors conducive to performance (e.g., motivation, proactiveness) compared to assessments of performance (e.g., supervisor rankings). For this reason, we distinguish between results- and behavior-based performance in our coding scheme, both in professional and academic settings. Furthermore, wellbeing indicators can be positive (e.g., life satisfaction) or negative (e.g., anxiety). We expect time management to influence these variables in opposite ways; it would thus make little sense to analyze them jointly. Accordingly, we differentiate between wellbeing (positive) and distress (negative).
In our second round of coding, we used the scheme shown in Table 2 to cluster together kindred variables. For instance, we grouped “work-life imbalance,” “work-life conflict” and “work-family conflict” under an overarching “work-life conflict” category. The authors reviewed each variable code and resolved rare discrepancies to ultimately agree on all coded variables. Note that certain variables, such as self-actualization, covered only one study (i.e., one effect size). While one or two effect sizes is not enough to conduct a meta-analysis, they can nonetheless be grouped with other effect sizes belonging to the same category (e.g., self-actualization and sense of purpose belong the broader category of overall wellbeing). For this reason, we included variables with one or two effect sizes for comprehensiveness.
We conducted all meta-analyses following the variables and cluster of variables outlined in Table 2 . We opted to run all analyses with a random effects model. The alternative—a fixed effects model—assumes that all studies share a common true effect size (i.e., linking time management and a given outcome) which they approximate. This assumption is unrealistic because it implies that the factors influencing the effect size are the same in all studies [ 83 ]. In other words, a fixed effects model assumes that the factors affecting time management are similar across all studies—the fallacy underlying this assumption was the main theme of Aeon and Aguinis’s review [ 18 ]. To perform our analyses, we used Comprehensive Meta-Analysis v.3 [ 84 ], a program considered highly reliable and valid in various systematic assessments [ 85 , 86 ].
In many cases, studies reported how variables correlated with an overall time management score. In some cases, however, studies reported only correlations with discrete time management subscales (e.g., short-range planning, attitudes toward time, use of time management tools), leaving out the overall effect. In such cases, we averaged out the effect sizes of the subscales to compute a summary effect [ 83 ]. This was necessary not only because meta-analyses admit only one effect size per study, but also because our focus is on time management as a whole rather than on subscales. Similarly, when we analyzed the link between time management and a high-level cluster of variables (e.g., overall wellbeing rather than specific variables such as life satisfaction), there were studies with more than one relevant outcome (e.g., a study that captured both life satisfaction and job satisfaction). Again, because meta-analyses allow for only one effect size (i.e., variable) per study, we used the mean of different variables to compute an overall effect sizes in studies that featured more than one outcome [ 83 ].
Overall description of the literature
We analyzed 158 studies for a total number of 490 effect sizes. 21 studies explored performance in a professional context, 76 performance in an academic context, 30 investigated wellbeing (positive), and 58 distress. Interestingly, studies did not systematically report individual differences, as evidenced by the fact that only 21 studies reported correlations with age, and only between 10 and 15 studies measured personality (depending on the personality trait). Studies that measured contextual factors were fewer still—between 3 and 7 (depending on the contextual factor). These figures fit with Aeon and Aguinis’s observation that the time management literature often overlooks internal and external factors that can influence the way people manage time [ 18 ].
With one exception, we found no papers fitting our inclusion criteria before the mid-1980s. Publication trends also indicate an uptick in time management studies around the turn of the millennium, with an even higher number around the 2010s. This trend is consistent with the one Shipp and Cole identified, revealing a surge in time-related papers in organizational behavior around the end of the 1980s [ 87 ].
It is also interesting to note that the first modern time management books came out in the early 1970s, including the The Time Trap (1972), by Alec MacKenzie and How to Get Control of your Time and your Life (1973), by Alan Lakein. These books inspired early modern time management research [ 21 , 58 , 88 ]. It is thus very likely that the impetus for modern time management research came from popular practitioner manuals.
To assess potential bias in our sample of studies, we computed different estimates of publication bias (see Table 3 ). Overall, publication bias remains relatively low (see funnel plots in S1). Publication bias occurs when there is a bias against nonsignificant or even negative results because such results are seen as unsurprising and not counterintuitive. In this case, however, the fact that time management is generally expected to lead to positive outcomes offers an incentive to publish nonsignificant or negative results, which would be counterintuitive [ 89 ]. By the same token, the fact that some people feel that time management is ineffective [ 38 ] provides an incentive to publish papers that link time management with positive outcomes. In other words, opposite social expectations surrounding time management might reduce publication bias.
Finally, we note that the link between time management and virtually all outcomes studied is highly heterogeneous (as measured, for instance, by Cochran’s Q and Higgins & Thompson’s I 2 ; see tables below). This high level of heterogeneity suggests that future research should pay more attention to moderating factors (e.g., individual differences).
Time management and performance in professional settings
Overall, time management has a moderate impact on performance at work, with correlations hovering around r = .25. We distinguish between results-based and behavior-based performance. The former measures performance as an outcome (e.g., performance appraisals by supervisors) whereas the latter measures performance as behavioral contributions (e.g., motivation, job involvement). Time management seems related to both types of performance. Although the effect size for results-based performance is lower than that of behavior-based performance, moderation analysis reveals the difference is not significant (p > .05), challenging Aeon and Aguinis’s conclusions [ 18 ].
Interestingly, the link between time management and performance displays much less heterogeneity (see Q and I 2 statistics in Table 4 ) than the link between time management and other outcomes (see tables below). The studies we summarize in Table 4 include both experimental and non-experimental designs; they also use different time management measures. As such, we can discount, to a certain extent, the effect of methodological diversity. We can perhaps explain the lower heterogeneity by the fact that when people hold a full-time job, they usually are at a relatively stable stage in life. In school, by contrast, a constellation of factors (e.g., financial stability and marital status, to name a few) conspire to affect time management outcomes. Furthermore, work contexts are a typically more closed system than life in general. For this reason, fewer factors stand to disrupt the link between time management and job performance than that between time management and, say, life satisfaction. Corroborating this, note how, in Table 6 below, the link between time management and job satisfaction ( I 2 = 58.70) is much less heterogeneous than the one between time management and life satisfaction ( I 2 = 95.45).
Moreover, we note that the relationship between time management and job performance (see Fig 2 ) significantly increases over the years ( B = .0106, p < .01, Q model = 8.52(1), Q residual = 15.54(9), I 2 = 42.08, R 2 analog = .75).
Time management and performance in academic settings
Overall, the effect of time management on performance seems to be slightly higher in academic settings compared to work settings, although the magnitude of the effect remains moderate (see Table 5 ). Here again, we distinguish between results- and behavior-based performance. Time management’s impact on behavior-based performance seems much higher than on results-based performance—a much wider difference than the one we observed in professional settings. This suggests than results-based performance in academic settings depends less on time management than results-based performance in professional settings. This means that time management is more likely to get people a good performance review at work than a strong GPA in school.
In particular, time management seems to be much more negatively related to procrastination in school than at work. Although we cannot establish causation in all studies, we note that some of them featured experimental designs that established a causal effect of time management on reducing procrastination [ 90 ].
Interestingly, time management was linked to all types of results-based performance except for standardized tests. This is perhaps due to the fact that standardized tests tap more into fluid intelligence, a measure of intelligence independent of acquired knowledge [ 91 ]. GPA and regular exam scores, in contrast, tap more into crystallized intelligence, which depends mostly on accumulated knowledge. Time management can thus assist students in organizing their time to acquire the knowledge necessary to ace a regular exam; for standardized exams that depend less on knowledge and more on intelligence, however, time management may be less helpful. Evidence from other studies bears this out: middle school students’ IQ predicts standardized achievement tests scores better than self-control while self-control predicts report card grades better than IQ [ 92 ]. (For our purposes, we can use self-control as a very rough proxy for time management.) Relatedly, we found no significant relationship between time management and cognitive ability in our meta-analysis (see Table 8 ).
Time management and wellbeing
On the whole, time management has a slightly stronger impact on wellbeing than on performance. This is unexpected, considering how the dominant discourse points to time management as a skill for professional career development. Of course, the dominant discourse also frames time management as necessary for wellbeing and stress reduction, but to a much lesser extent. Our finding that time management has a stronger influence on wellbeing in no way negates the importance of time management as a work skill. Rather, this finding challenges the intuitive notion that time management is more effective for work than for other life domains. As further evidence, notice how in Table 6 the effect of time management on life satisfaction is 72% stronger than that on job satisfaction.
Time management and distress
Time management seems to allay various forms of distress, although to a lesser extent than it enhances wellbeing. The alleviating effect on psychological distress is particularly strong ( r = -0.358; see Table 7 ).
That time management has a weaker effect on distress should not be surprising. First, wellbeing and distress are not two poles on opposite ends of a spectrum. Although related, wellbeing and distress are distinct [ 93 ]. Thus, there is no reason to expect time management to have a symmetrical effect on wellbeing and distress. Second, and relatedly, the factors that influence wellbeing and distress are also distinct. Specifically, self-efficacy (i.e., seeing oneself as capable) is a distinct predictor of wellbeing while neuroticism and life events in general are distinct predictors of distress [ 94 ]. It stands to reason that time management can enhance self-efficacy. (Or, alternatively, that people high in self-efficacy would be more likely to engage in time management, although experimental evidence suggests that time management training makes people feel more in control of their time [ 89 ]; it is thus plausible that time management may have a causal effect on self-efficacy. Relatedly, note how time management ability is strongly related to internal locus of control in Table 8 ) In contrast, time management can do considerably less in the way of tackling neuroticism and dampening the emotional impact of tragic life events. In other words, the factors that affect wellbeing may be much more within the purview of time management than the factors that affect distress. For this reason, time management may be less effective in alleviating distress than in improving wellbeing.
Time management and individual differences
Time management is, overall, less related to individual differences than to other variables.
Age, for instance, hardly correlates with time management (with a relatively high consistency between studies, I 2 = 55.79, see Table 8 above).
Similarly, gender only tenuously correlates with time management, although in the expected direction: women seem to have stronger time management abilities than men. The very weak association with gender ( r = -0.087) is particularly surprising given women’s well-documented superior self-regulation skills [ 95 ]. That being said, women’s time management abilities seem to grow stronger over the years ( N = 37, B = -.0049, p < .05, Q model = 3.89(1), Q residual = 218.42(35), I 2 = 83.98, R 2 analog = .03; also see Fig 3 below). More realistically, this increase may not be due to women’s time management abilities getting stronger per se but, rather, to the fact that women now have more freedom to manage their time [ 96 ].
Other demographic indicators, such as education and number of children, were nonsignificant. Similarly, the relationships between time management and personal attributes and attitudes were either weak or nonsignificant, save for two notable exceptions. First, the link between time management and internal locus of control (i.e., the extent to which people perceive they’re in control of their lives) is quite substantial. This is not surprising, because time management presupposes that people believe they can change their lives. Alternatively, it may be that time management helps people strengthen their internal locus of control, as experimental evidence suggests [ 89 ]. Second, the link between time management and self-esteem is equally substantial. Here again, one can make the argument either way: people with high self-esteem might be confident enough to manage their time or, conversely, time management may boost self-esteem. The two options are not mutually exclusive: people with internal loci of control and high self-esteem levels can feel even more in control of their lives and better about themselves through time management.
We also note a very weak but statistically significant negative association between time management and multitasking. It has almost become commonsense that multitasking does not lead to performance [ 97 ]. As a result, people with stronger time management skills might deliberately steer clear of this notoriously ineffective strategy.
In addition, time management was mildly related to hours spent studying but not hours spent working. (These variables cover only student samples working part- or full-time and thus do not apply to non-student populations.) This is consistent with time-use studies revealing that teenagers and young adults spend less time working and more time studying [ 98 ]. Students who manage their time likely have well-defined intentions, and trends suggest those intentions will target education over work because, it is hoped, education offers larger payoffs over the long-term [ 99 ].
In terms of contextual factors, time management does not correlate significantly with job autonomy. This is surprising, as we expected autonomy to be a prerequisite for time management (i.e., you can’t manage time if you don’t have the freedom to). Nevertheless, qualitative studies have shown how even in environments that afford little autonomy (e.g., restaurants), workers can carve out pockets of time freedom to momentarily cut loose [ 100 ]. Thus, time management behaviors may flourish even in the most stymying settings. In addition, the fact that time management is associated with less role overload and previous attendance of time management training programs makes sense: time management can mitigate the effect of heavy workloads and time management training, presumably, improves time management skills.
Finally, time management is linked to all personality traits. Moreover, previous reviews of the literature have commented on the link between time management and conscientiousness in particular [ 32 ]. What our study reveals is the substantial magnitude of the effect ( r = 0.451). The relationship is not surprising: conscientiousness entails orderliness and organization, which overlap significantly with time management. That time management correlates so strongly with personality (and so little with other individual differences) lends credence to the dispositional view of time management [ 101 – 103 ]. However, this finding should not be taken to mean that time management is a highly inheritable, fixed ability. Having a “you either have it or you don’t” view of time management is not only counterproductive [ 104 ] but also runs counter to evidence showing that time management training does, in fact, help people manage their time better.
Does time management work? It seems so. Time management has a moderate influence on job performance, academic achievement, and wellbeing. These three outcomes play an important role in people’s lives. Doing a good job at work, getting top grades in school, and nurturing psychological wellbeing contribute to a life well lived. Widespread exhortations to get better at time management are thus not unfounded: the importance of time management is hard to overstate.
Beyond answering the question of whether time management works, this study contributes to the literature in three major ways. First, we quantify the impact of time management on several outcomes. We thus not only address the question of whether time management works, but also, and importantly, gauge to what extent time management works. Indeed, our meta-analysis covers 53,957 participants, which allows for a much more precise, quantified assessment of time management effectiveness compared to qualitative reviews.
Second, this meta-analysis systematically assesses relationships between time management and a host of individual differences and contextual factors. This helps us draw a more accurate portrait of potential antecedents of higher (or lower) scores on time management measures.
Third, our findings challenge intuitive ideas concerning what time management is for. Specifically, we found that time management enhances wellbeing—and in particular life satisfaction—to a greater extent than it does various types of performance. This runs against the popular belief that time management primarily helps people perform better and that wellbeing is simply a byproduct of better performance. Of course, it may be that wellbeing gains, even if higher than performance gains, hinge on performance; that is to say, people may need to perform better as a prerequisite to feeling happier. But this argument doesn’t jibe with experiments showing that even in the absence of performance gains, time management interventions do increase wellbeing [ 89 ]. This argument also founders in the face of evidence linking time management with wellbeing among the unemployed [ 105 ], unemployment being an environment where performance plays a negligible role, if any. As such, this meta-analysis lends support to definitions of time management that are not work- or performance-centric.
Future research and limitations
This meta-analysis questions whether time management should be seen chiefly as a performance device. Our questioning is neither novel nor subversive: historically people have managed time for other reasons than efficiency, such as spiritual devotion and philosophical contemplation [ 72 , 106 , 107 ]. It is only with relatively recent events, such as the Industrial Revolution and waves of corporate downsizing, that time management has become synonymous with productivity [ 43 , 65 ]. We hope future research will widen its scope and look more into outcomes other than performance, such as developing a sense of meaning in life [ 108 ]. One of the earliest time management studies, for instance, explored how time management relates to having a sense of purpose [ 73 ]. However, very few studies followed suit since. Time management thus stands to become a richer, more inclusive research area by investigating a wider array of outcomes.
In addition, despite the encouraging findings of this meta-analysis we must refrain from seeing time management as a panacea. Though time management can make people’s lives better, it is not clear how easy it is for people to learn how to manage their time adequately. More importantly, being “good” at time management is often a function of income, education, and various types of privilege [ 42 , 43 , 46 , 109 ]. The hackneyed maxim that “you have as many hours in a day as Beyoncé,” for instance, blames people for their “poor” time management in pointing out that successful people have just as much time but still manage to get ahead. Yet this ill-conceived maxim glosses over the fact that Beyoncé and her ilk do, in a sense, have more hours in a day than average people who can’t afford a nanny, chauffeur, in-house chefs, and a bevy of personal assistants. Future research should thus look into ways to make time management more accessible.
Furthermore, this meta-analysis rests on the assumption that time management training programs do enhance people’s time management skills. Previous reviews have noted the opacity surrounding time management interventions—studies often don’t explain what, exactly, is taught in time management training seminars [ 18 ]. As a result, comparing the effect of different interventions might come down to comparing apples and oranges. (This might partly account for the high heterogeneity between studies.) We hope that our definition of time management will spur future research into crafting more consistent, valid, and generalizable interventions that will allow for more meaningful comparisons.
Finally, most time management studies are cross-sectional. Yet it is very likely that the effect of time management compounds over time. If time management can help students get better grades, for instance, those grades can lead to better jobs down the line [ 110 ]. Crucially, learning a skill takes time, and if time management helps people make the time to learn a skill, then time management stands to dramatically enrich people’s lives. For this reason, longitudinal studies can track different cohorts to see how time management affects people’s lives over time. We expect that developing time management skills early on in life can create a compound effect whereby people acquire a variety of other skills thanks to their ability to make time.
Overall, this study offers the most comprehensive, precise, and fine-grained assessment of time management to date. We address the longstanding debate over whether time management influences job performance in revealing a positive, albeit moderate effect. Interestingly, we found that time management impacts wellbeing—and in particular life satisfaction—to a greater extent than performance. That means time management may be primarily a wellbeing enhancer, rather than a performance booster. Furthermore, individual and external factors played a minor role in time management, although this does not necessarily mean that time management’s effectiveness is universal. Rather, we need more research that focuses on the internal and external variables that affect time management outcomes. We hope this study will tantalize future research and guide practitioners in their attempt to make better use of their time.
S1 checklist. prisma 2009 checklist..
S1 File. Funnel plots.
S2 File. Dataset.
We would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge our colleagues for their invaluable help: Mengchan Gao, Talha Aziz, Elizabeth Eley, Robert Nason, Andrew Ryder, Tracy Hecht, and Caroline Aubé.
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Time Management for Working Students
Ann Logsdon is a school psychologist specializing in helping parents and teachers support students with a range of educational and developmental disabilities.
Rachel Goldman, PhD FTOS, is a licensed psychologist, clinical assistant professor, speaker, wellness expert specializing in eating behaviors, stress management, and health behavior change.
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Time management can be a challenge when you are juggling work and school. Whether you are working to put yourself through college or you are someone who is going back to school to advance your current career, managing time in your professional and academic life is no easy task, especially when you have additional responsibilities competing for your time, such as raising children. The problem is not a lack of time—it's how people manage that time that matters the most.
Here are some tips to help you make better use of your time while trying to juggle your job and your studies.
Make a Schedule
The suggestion to make a schedule is always near the top of the list when it comes to time management tips, and there is a good reason…it works. If you have been previously ignoring this good advice, I have included it here again in hopes you will reconsider. When we are totally planning our day inside our head without making any concrete plans, it is all too easy to forget things, prioritize poorly or feel overwhelmed and just do nothing. I speak from personal experience when I say do not underestimate the power of planning and writing that plan down.
Creating order is the first step in successfully managing your time, and making a schedule helps create order. Write out your day in 30-minute chunks and start by filling in all the set events that are not flexible, like class times and work. This will help give you a clearer picture of what you have to work with in terms of setting up times to study and tend to the other responsibilities in your life. Again, this obviously simple piece of advice may be dismissed because of its very simplicity, but it is one of the most effective things you can do, provided you actually stick to the schedule you make as best you can.
Learn to Sacrifice
You work hard and you deserve some time to unwind and relax, whether that involves zoning out and watching a couple of your favorite TV shows or a nice long bath. You should always allow yourself that time, it is an important part of succeeding since you want to avoid burnout. With that being said, you have to accept that sometimes you may need to forego this do-nothing time or cut it short.
You may feel stressed and overworked, and you tell yourself that you deserve a break after working hard all day; you may feel justified in watching four hours of television instead of starting that research paper outline you have been putting off the last week. It is important to remember that you don't need to take an "all or nothing" approach. Instead of indulging in something that doesn't really contribute to your progress (like binge-watching your favorite show), instead focus on taking a short break that will allow you to refocus. That way you can feel refreshed and productive when you return to the task at hand.
Again, you are entitled to pleasure in your life, but if you are trying to achieve a larger goal of advancing your career or making a better life for you and your children, this requires discipline. If pursuing your dream job means watching a bit less TV or fewer videos on YouTube, then it can be worth the sacrifice.
Work on Reducing Procrastination
Humans are a funny bunch, and we often procrastinate doing the things that really need to get done sooner than later; usually, the tasks are less than thrilling, such as doing the reading for your most boring class or tackling that research paper that accounts for a large chunk of your grade.
People tend to think of all that they have to do to get from start to finish and then become overwhelmed. Because the problem seems too big to tackle, people end up simply doing nothing. Then the anxiety builds as we think about how we still have to do it and again, instead of starting, we put it off again. To alleviate the guilt about putting it off, they do other stuff, often household tasks like laundry, to make it seem like they are accomplishing something.
Rather than becoming overwhelmed by what seems like an insurmountable project, start somewhere to get something small done. Once you break up a big project into smaller and more manageable steps, it is easy to accomplish and you will feel more motivated to continue.
Procrastination and effective time management do not go well together for most people. However, there are things that you can do to reduce this tendency.
Remind yourself of the consequences of inaction. It always helps to think of all the negative things that will result from you putting off your schoolwork until the last possible minute. It will almost certainly be worse than actually doing what it is you are supposed to be doing, no matter how difficult or boring it may seem.
Putting aside a certain amount of time to work and mixing up tasks within that time helps. It keeps your mind fresh and taking on the paper, reading in smaller chunks may reduce that sense of anxiety that you may feel when thinking about doing the whole assignment at once. Your mind stays a bit fresher, and you will feel good knowing you have made a dent in the various tasks you need to finish for school.
JF A. Time management practices and its effect on business performance . Canadian Social Science . 2013 Feb 28;9(1):165-8. doi:10.3968/j.css.1923669720130901.2419
Ojokuku RM, Obasan Kehinde A. Time Management and Organisational Performance: A Causal Analysis . Pakistan Journal of Business and Economic Review . 2011;2(1).
Humphrey KR. Using a student-led support group to reduce stress and burnout among BSW students . Social Work with Groups . 2013 Jan 1;36(1):73-84. doi:10.1080/01609513.2012.712905
Boniwell I, Osin E, Sircova A. Introducing time perspective coaching: A new approach to improve time management and enhance well-being. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring . 2014 Aug;12(2):24.
Rabin LA, Fogel J, Nutter-Upham KE. Academic procrastination in college students: The role of self-reported executive function . Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology . 2011 Mar 8;33(3):344-57. doi:10.1080/13803395.2010.518597
By Ann Logsdon Ann Logsdon is a school psychologist specializing in helping parents and teachers support students with a range of educational and developmental disabilities.
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Balancing School and Work Amidst a Pandemic: Working Students’ Time Management
- Author(s): Jimbo J. Antipolo
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- Paper ID: UIJRTV3I10009
- Pages: 58-63
- November 2021
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A lot of research on time management was done to uncover a person’s efficacy and influence on their job; nevertheless, we can find very limited literature addressing time management. Every working student should investigate their time management to improve their performance both at work and in academics. The purposive random sampling was applied in finding out their time management. There are forty-three males and fifty-eight females among the respondents in this survey. The descriptive research approach for this study was developed from Wayne State University’s Time Management Questionnaire. The study’s findings revealed that male working students have slightly more stressful time management than female working students, and that organized time management is never declared by any of the male working students, whereas some of their female counterparts have declared that they have organized time management. Finally, it is stated in this study that male and female time management is different.
Modular distance learning as influenced by adaptive performance and innovative work behaviors of public elementary teachers, school initiatives in motivating teachers to conduct action research, numeracy skills performance of grade 6 pupils in modular distance learning, utilization of developed automated sf9 for teachers efficiency in accomplishing students records, a rise from a downfall: a multiple case study on the voices of teenage parents in school, reading comprehension skills and the level of performance of grade 7 students in chemistry, assessing the critical success factors of restructuring a higher education institution using bpr (business process reengineering): a case study of national post graduate college, performance level of grade five pupils in information and communication technology, fostering autonomy in japanese learners, self-efficacy of filipino college students as correlates to demographics.
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The Impact of Time Management on Students' Academic Achievement
S N A M Razali 1 , M S Rusiman 1 , W S Gan 1 and N Arbin 2
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd Journal of Physics: Conference Series , Volume 995 , International Seminar on Mathematics and Physics in Sciences and Technology 2017 (ISMAP 2017) 28–29 October 2017, Hotel Katerina, Malaysia Citation S N A M Razali et al 2018 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 995 012042 DOI 10.1088/1742-6596/995/1/012042
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1 Department of Mathematics and Statistic, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
2 Department of Mathematic, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Perak, Malaysia.
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Time management is very important and it may actually affect individual's overall performance and achievements. Students nowadays always commented that they do not have enough time to complete all the tasks assigned to them. In addition, a university environment's flexibility and freedom can derail students who have not mastered time management skills. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management and academic achievement of the students. The factor analysis result showed three main factors associated with time management which can be classified as time planning, time attitudes and time wasting. The result also indicated that gender and races of students show no significant differences in time management behaviours. While year of study and faculty of students reveal the significant differences in the time management behaviours. Meanwhile, all the time management behaviours are significantly positively related to academic achievement of students although the relationship is weak. Time planning is the most significant correlated predictor.
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The great thing about online study is that it’s incredibly flexible, enabling you to continue working while acquiring new skills or expanding your current skills. Everything you need is available online, so you can access it whenever you’ve got time, wherever you may be.
As a student, the key to success is recognising the importance of time management, so you can keep on top of your studies when work gets busy. Thankfully, there are lots of simple steps you can take to maximise the time you have.
Here are some time management tips for students that will help you be effective during busy periods at work.
As soon as you’ve enrolled, make note of your assessment dates, webinars or online tutorials in a calendar. This will help you to manage competing commitments at work, stay on top of upcoming tasks, so you don’t fall behind. A visual reminder of these key dates is an effective way to complement reminders on your phone or work laptop, so invest in a big desk calendar or hang one up on your wall.
Create a schedule
Schedules and set study times per week will help you feel in control and maximise your preparedness. Create a weekly planner or timetable to outline when you do what activity, but allow for variation leading up to known busy and/or seasonal periods at work. RMIT online student, Paul Flavel says:
I try and be quite organised, so as soon as I get the course outline, I put that straight into my working calendar so that I'm aware of when those assignments are due.
When you know you’ve got additional time up your sleeve or plan’s change, you can focus on other priorities.
Unexpected things can happen at work, so you may miss a deadline due to other commitments. Don’t be hard on yourself, you can contact your tutor and student success advisor to explain your situation. They realise that the majority of online students are also balancing work, so they are understanding and there to support you. To avoid this, allow for extra time in your schedule for the unexpected and try not to commit to things when you know you will be stressed out.
Avoid studying at work
There is always a temptation to squeeze in a bit of study during work hours, or vice versa - working from home when you should be using that time to study. One or both will suffer as a consequence, so make sure that you keep work hours for work, and stick to your scheduled weekly study time commitments. This will ensure that you give each the attention they deserve.
Look after yourself
It’s easy to fall into the trap of cramming at night-time, reducing the number of hours you sleep or increasing the likelihood of eating quick takeaway dinners or skipping a gym class. But your brain works better when your body feels good, so make sure you allow for rest and exercise in your schedule. Take a walk while you listen to a webinar or cook in bulk so you’ve got leftovers for busy days. It’s also important to take breaks during study sessions to rejuvenate yourself.
Talk to people at work
Let the people you work for know that you’re studying, and discuss whether they might be able to provide more flexibility around assessment times or delegate certain tasks to your colleagues during peak study times. Your workplace is bound to benefit from the skills you’re acquiring, so they are likely to be supportive through your journey.
Talk to your friends and family
The people that care about you want you to succeed, so don’t be afraid to ask them for help. To make the most out of your study time at home, ensure your family and friends know when you’re studying, so they don’t disturb you. Ask them to cook for you once in a while, help with cleaning or pick up the kids from school. There are lots of tasks you might do, that others can do instead.
Maximise travel or exercise time
Driving your car to work might be a little quicker, but perhaps if you took public transport you would have an extra half hour to go through your weekly readings or perform some research. Paul Flavel also adds:
I utilise any downtime I have - so if I am on a train or I've got any time at work in a break or at home, I ... get on an iPad and catch up with study.
If you need to walk the dog or hit the treadmill at the gym, you might like to listen to a tutorial. Your coursework is always available online, so reading, watching or listening to the content while commuting or exercising is super easy.
Set yourself realistic and achievable short- and long-term goals. Achieving goals makes you feel positive and in control, so make sure you hit those winning moments and celebrate them. Get the first draft of an assignment done with plenty of time to revise and polish or set a number of research items that you’d like to read through by a certain time.
Now that you have some handy tricks up your sleeve for managing study during busy periods at work, why not get in touch with our Student Enrolment team on 1300 701 171 to discuss which course is best suited to you are your career goals.
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Effective Time Management Tips for Researchers
Efficient time management is essential at every stage of a researcher’s career. A researcher is expected to undertake several tasks such as carrying out experiments, writing reports, publishing papers , administrative tasks, teaching, and applying for funding. This amidst many frustrations including constant interruptions from emails, colleagues, and students as well as experiments that do not always go as planned. Time is a scarcity and hence, needs to be used wisely.
How Effective Time Management Helps
To be a successful researcher, it is important to remain focused on your work. This can be accomplished by effectively managing your time. Effective time management can make you more productive as a researcher and minimize the factors that drain your time such as procrastination and interruptions.
Effectively managing your time will help you experience:
- improved job satisfaction
- reduced stress
- increased productivity
Expert Tips to effectively utilize time
- Plan well: Plan your day according to your most productive times. If you are a morning person, schedule tasks that require more concentration early in the day. Create a to-do list in accordance with your plan.
- Manage interruptions : Assign a fixed time during the day to deal with interruptions such as emails, phone calls, instant messages, and social media rather than allowing them to interrupt you throughout the day. You could waste up to half an hour of your time regaining your focus after you have been disturbed.
- Use spare time effectively: Always keep something to read with you. A reading task can be done while waiting on a bus or in a queue.
- Go Digital: Use a project management software to help you organize and keep control of all your tasks.
- Avoid postponing : Needlessly postponing unpleasant tasks just delays completing them.
- Practice self-discipline : Lack of self-discipline is a serious impediment. Stick to the plan.
- Time buffers : Schedule an extra 50% of the time as a buffer when you schedule time for a task. If you do not use this buffer, you can use the time to tick off a quick task. But at least you won’t eat into the next task’s time slot.
Things to keep in mind
- The only time you should multi-task is while you are waiting for an experiment such as an incubation step. People are much more productive when concentrating on one task at a time.
- Make time for a break. Research has shown that you are less productive when you work long hours . The increase in stress and exhaustion not only slows you down; it leads to errors, accidents, and ill-health. Any of these factors could cost you extra time and decrease your productivity in the long run.
- Avoid aggravation during group meetings and maintain a positive environment at work. This can certainly improve productivity.
- Make time for meals. Deficiency of essential nutrients can have a deleterious effect on memory and cognitive ability.
Hopefully, this article will help you practice effective time management and make you a productive researcher .
Would you like to add any other useful tip? Let us know in the comments section below.
Time management is definitely very important when you want to stay productive and efficient. I am not very good at keeping track of my productivity, that’s why I use time tracking tools to help me out.
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Research Question 1: Which aspects of time management do the students practice, that is, the setting of goals and priorities, the mechanics of time management, preference for organization, perceived control of time? 2. Research Question 2: Do students who self-identify with specific time management behaviors achieve better grades in the program? 3.
Time management measures typically capture three aspects of time management: structuring, protecting, and adapting time to changing conditions. Structuring refers to how people map their activities to time using a schedule, a planner, or other devices that represent time in a systematic way [ 75 - 77 ].
The aim of the current research was to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of the students. Time management is very important and it...
Students should learn how to work smart, and not working too hard, and not retaining anything. Sometimes students need to study for a couple of hours and take a break to clear their minds. ... Time management is RESEARCH PAPERS i-manager's Journal on School Educational Technology, Vol. 10 l No. 3 l December 2014 ...
Putting aside a certain amount of time to work and mixing up tasks within that time helps. It keeps your mind fresh and taking on the paper, reading in smaller chunks may reduce that sense of anxiety that you may feel when thinking about doing the whole assignment at once.
March 2019 Conference: Struggles of a working student Authors: Connie concepcion Ramos candon national high school Abstract Content uploaded by Connie concepcion Ramos Author content Content...
Every working student should investigate their time management to improve their performance both at work and in academics. The purposive random sampling was applied in finding out their time management. There are forty-three males and fifty-eight females among the respondents in this survey.
The proposed study will be beneficial to the following: Students - the research study will benefit the students, especially those working students for this paper will serve as an eye-opener, by helping them to learn more about working while studying, set goals and priorities and enhanced their own skills. Teachers - This study will help the …
To identify strengths and weaknesses in students time management practices. III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA SOURCES The data collected for the study includes both primary data and secondary data. METHODS The research methodology of the proposed research paper comprises the interview, questionnaire and case study
The factor analysis result showed three main factors associated with time management which can be classified as time planning, time attitudes and time wasting. The result also indicated that gender and races of students show no significant differences in time management behaviours.
Full Length Research Paper High school students' time management skills in relation to research anxiety Alpturk Akcoltekin Ardahan University, Turkey. Received 12 June, 2015; Accepted 7 August, 2015 This study aimed to determine the opinions of high school students relating to time management and
Here are some time management tips for students that will help you be effective during busy periods at work. Plan ahead As soon as you've enrolled, make note of your assessment dates, webinars or online tutorials in a calendar. This will help you to manage competing commitments at work, stay on top of upcoming tasks, so you don't fall behind.
honors students, suggesting that, a priori, most engaged students strongly prefer in-person classes. As expected, the COVID-19 outbreak also had large negative e ects on students' current labor market participation and expectations about post-college labor outcomes. Working students su ered a 31% decrease
Efficient time management is essential at every stage of a researcher's career. A researcher is expected to undertake several tasks such as carrying out experiments, writing reports, publishing papers, administrative tasks, teaching, and applying for funding. This amidst many frustrations including constant interruptions from emails, colleagues, and students as well as experiments that do ...