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Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on September 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 29, 2022.

The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:

The introduction looks slightly different depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument by engaging with a variety of sources.

Table of contents

Step 1: introduce your topic, step 2: describe the background, step 3: establish your research problem, step 4: specify your objective(s), step 5: map out your paper, research paper introduction examples, frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook.

The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.

For example, the following could be an effective hook for an argumentative paper about the environmental impact of cattle farming:

A more empirical paper investigating the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues in adolescent girls might use the following hook:

Don’t feel that your hook necessarily has to be deeply impressive or creative. Clarity and relevance are still more important than catchiness. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.

This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is taking.

In a more argumentative paper, you’ll explore some general background here. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in.

Argumentative paper: Background information

After you’ve caught your reader’s attention, specify a bit more, providing context and narrowing down your topic.

Provide only the most relevant background information. The introduction isn’t the place to get too in-depth; if more background is essential to your paper, it can appear in the body .

Empirical paper: Describing previous research

For a paper describing original research, you’ll instead provide an overview of the most relevant research that has already been conducted. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences.

This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.

Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to.

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The next step is to clarify how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses.

Argumentative paper: Emphasize importance

In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument.

Empirical paper: Relate to the literature

In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:

You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

Now you’ll get into the specifics of what you intend to find out or express in your research paper.

The way you frame your research objectives varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question (sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer).

Argumentative paper: Thesis statement

The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.

Empirical paper: Research question and hypothesis

The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper.

Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it.

A research question can be framed either directly or indirectly.

If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

For example, the following hypothesis might respond to the research question above:

The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper.

In a paper structured using the standard scientific “introduction, methods, results, discussion” format, this isn’t always necessary. But if your paper is structured in a less predictable way, it’s important to describe the shape of it for the reader.

If included, the overview should be concise, direct, and written in the present tense.

Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study (RIVM, 2019) shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. The study’s calculations show that agriculture is the main source of nitrogen pollution, accounting for 46% of the country’s total emissions. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6.1% each, the industrial sector for 1%. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.

The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. This correlation has received significant academic attention: Various empirical studies have been conducted into Facebook usage among adolescent girls (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. Despite this, highly visual social media (HVSM) such as Instagram have yet to be robustly researched. This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings.

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

and your problem statement

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

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Writing a Scientific Paper: INTRODUCTION

Citing Sources in the Introduction

It is important to cite sources in the introduction section of your paper as evidence of the claims you are making. There are ways of citing sources in the text so that the reader can find the full reference in the literature cited section at the end of the paper, yet the flow of the reading is not badly interrupted. Below are some example of how this can be done:     "Smith (1983) found that N-fixing plants could be infected by several different species of Rhizobium."     "Walnut trees are known to be allelopathic (Smith 1949,  Bond et al. 1955, Jones and Green 1963)."     "Although the presence of Rhizobium normally increases the growth of legumes (Nguyen 1987), the opposite effect has been observed (Washington 1999)." Note that articles by one or two authors are always cited in the text using their last names. However, if there are more than two authors, the last name of the 1st author is given followed by the abbreviation et al. which is Latin for "and others". 

From:  https://writingcenter.gmu.edu/guides/imrad-reports-introductions

What is a "good" introduction?

This is where you describe briefly and clearly why you are writing the paper. The introduction supplies sufficient background information for the reader to understand and evaluate the experiment you did. It also supplies a rationale for the study.

Goals: • Present the problem and the proposed solution • Presents nature and scope of the problem investigated • Reviews the pertinent literature to orient the reader • States the method of the experiment • State the principle results of the experiment

"Introduction Checklist" from: How to Write a Good Scientific Paper. Chris A. Mack. SPIE. 2018.


 Indicate the field of the work, why this field is important, and what has already been done (with proper citations).

 Indicate a gap, raise a research question, or challenge prior work in this territory.

 Outline the purpose and announce the present research, clearly indicating what is novel and why it is significant.

 Avoid: repeating the abstract; providing unnecessary background information; exaggerating the importance of the work; claiming novelty without a proper literature search. 

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Starting Your Research Paper: Writing an Introductory Paragraph

The Dreaded Introductory Paragraph

Writing the introductory paragraph can be a frustrating and slow process -- but it doesn't have to be.  If you planned your paper out, then most of the introductory paragraph is already written.  Now you just need a beginning and an end.

Here's an introductory paragraph for a paper I wrote.  I started the paper with a factoid, then presented each main point of my paper and then ended with my thesis statement.


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How to Start a Research Paper

how to start an introduction on a research paper

Beginning is always the hardest part of an assignment. The introduction should not be the first thing you begin to write when starting to work on an essay. First, tons of research should be conducted — in order for your paper to be good. Only then you will be able to extract the main points of your work, and introduce them to your readers. A good introduction will also include your personal opinion of the problem, and, therefore, will make the writing easier overall. Let's dive into the details with admission essay writing services .

What Is a Research Paper?

A research paper is a type of writing in which the author does an independent analysis of the topic and describes the findings from that investigation. Furthermore, one will have to identify the weaknesses and strengths of the subject and evaluate them accordingly.

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A good way to write an introduction for a research paper is to introduce your reader to the topic by telling them what you are writing about. Then, make sure you include an interesting fact, or some surprising statistical data, so that your reader will be hooked and will continue to read your research paper. Treat your essay introduction like an advertisement for a product you want to sell—if your advertisement is bad, the sales won’t be great. The same goes for a bad introduction; if it does not intrigue readers, they might lose interest in your paper.

The beginning is always the hardest part of an assignment. Regardless of if you are writing a small resume education section or a full-blown research paper - following the correct steps is very important . The introduction should not be the first thing you begin to write when starting to work on an essay.

how to start an introduction on a research paper

Introduction Paragraph Outline

intro research paper

Present Your Essay Topic

The base of every essay is its topic. What you are writing about should always be a reflection of your topic. Simply start off your introduction by telling your readers, in a simple and accessible language, what it is you are writing your research paper about. Although, we suggest you include a “trigger” when introducing the topic of your paper. A personal reference, or a story that relates to the essay topic, are options for a good way to link plain text to people’s emotions. So, feel free to write sincerely, as if you were talking to a friend.

The best strategy to start your introduction is by writing a broad topic presentation, then gradually narrow it down to what you would like to focus on exactly. It will put your topic into perspective for readers’ general understanding. When writing your research paper, make sure to include your opinion on the issue in your introduction. This will make your topic sound more personal and it will likely become more important to your audience as well.

Provide Background Information and Context

The topic you begin writing about is likely very familiar to you, as it is expected that you have done plenty of research. But what about your readers? For the most part, the amount of context is determined by what your audience already knows—though, let’s focus on a bigger assortment of readers, to make sure everyone’s needs are met. Imagine that you are part of your audience. Read the information you provided in the introduction. Is this sufficient? Does it leave gaps and unanswered questions in your research? Your job as a writer is to provide the perfect background to your topic, which gives readers just enough information to be able to grasp your topic and enjoy your research paper to the fullest. Another extreme you should avoid is giving too much context—consequently making the audience feel bored right from the introduction. Write your essay as something that you would enjoy reading yourself, like a story, but not an academic research paper.

Explain the Importance of Your Research

There is no doubt that after plenty of research you are an expert in your field. But what about your readers? In the introduction you need to showcase the extent of your research and write about the work you have completed. This will also help your readers understand that your ideas are supported by other scholars, and you share their views in your paper.

Make sure to write about all the works you have studied in order to persuade readers of your expertise. For your introduction, simply use the names you are referencing, or their most important works, so that the audience does not feel overwhelmed. It is also necessary to cite all your sources—in order to avoid academic plagiarism.

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Make Your Rationale Work

Rationale is the most important part of the beginning of your paper. Explain to readers the reasoning behind your research paper—the importance of this is a guarantee that they will keep reading and appreciate your topic. In the introduction, you need to write an explanation of how your paper fits into all the research that has already been done in that field; this shows your audience the importance of your essay and the role your research plays in the field overall.

Show the Significance of Your Research

You, and only you, understand how important your research is. The next step of your introduction is to prove to your audience how important it is. Include the basic, and the most important literature, you support your ideas with. This will show the readers your solid analytical skills, your writing capabilities, and your ability to sort out information to deliver the most important points for your paper. And the final part of the introduction is to simply explain why your research is important to the field, to society, to the whole world, and, most importantly, to the readers. When a person can relate to an idea, it is almost always a guarantee that your argument will be persuasive and have a positive outcome.

Make Sure Your Thesis Is Clear

A research paper introduction uses primary sources and data to support its thesis statement. A research paper’s thesis statement has a lot in common with a thesis for an essay, or other non-research assignment. The difference lies in the fact that in a research thesis, you gather evidence from valid sources to prove your perspective on a topic. Despite the fact that you support your thoughts by sources, the idea for your thesis in your introduction should be original and your own, as it reflects the way you think. ‍

how to start an introduction on a research paper

Here is a quick checklist for writing a thesis statement:

Research Paper Title Page

Mla title page.

Here are some tips from our writing team on how to format your research paper MLA title page:


APA Title Page


Read also our research proposal example APA .

Final Thoughts

Congratulations on finishing your research paper! Answer these questions to avoid careless mistakes.

And here are several tips for your help:

tips research paper

If you need, you can hire a coursework, physics helper or other specialist at our service. All you need to do is just leave us a notice like ' write my paper for me ' or something else.

Research Paper Introduction Example

Now that you have a solid idea about the introduction of a research paper, let’s take a look at some examples from our writers. They will help you see how all of the rules we presented above work in practice. ‍

Research Paper Introduction Example: Should Parents Be Held Accountable for the Criminal Acts of Their Children? Recently, youth gang connected attacks have been occurring in an increasing prevalence, with some even causing deaths, such as the killing of a college student at Suburbs East. Such occurrences have made a lot of people to wonder about the origin of those violent actions, with much of the extent of guilt being put on the parents of such adolescents. In any event, one has to question whether the parents should be penalized for the offenses of their kids. Some people believe that parents should be held responsible for the criminal acts of their offspring because parents are mostly accountable for the education and upbringing of their kids, and frequently impact the actions and behavior of their children until they become mature and independent. This is because they are almost always the ones that raise their kids after birth. As such, it is believed that parents start to influence the ethical range of their children from a young age, and one’s ethics are critically impacted by the way parents act and their personalities (Gratz, 169). This logic can make parents responsible for their children if they do wrong later on — because they are understood to not have raised their child in the right way. Furthermore, there is an argument that children are virtually completely controlled by their parents, as they are apt to want to make their parents happy, and they would, therefore, listen to whatever they are told to do or how they are told to behave (Michael, Andrew and Michael, 4). This, in turn, makes many people think that parents should always be the ones to be blamed for the criminal acts of their children, as they believe that they have the power to warn and control them.

Need Some Help with Your Research Paper?

A research paper is a very challenging task to complete. The introduction is a crucial piece of it: it ensures that the reader is interested and will enjoy your paper. We also recommend that you read the article on how to write a precis . If you are still struggling with any part of your paper, remember that you can always buy custom essay from our trusted writing service. We are always here to give you a helping hand to make your life easier.

Video on How to Write a Research Paper Fast

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How To Start A Research Paper

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How to Start a Research Paper - An Easy Guide

Published on: Jun 18, 2021

Last updated on: Jan 3, 2023

how to start a research paper

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Writing a research paper is the most challenging academic assignment type. It is a form of writing that pushes students into writer’s block.

The beginning process is the same, no matter which field or subject you are drafting a research paper. There are some basic steps that every high school or college student takes to begin with this assignment.

Continue reading the blog to learn how to start a research paper following simple steps and tips.

What is a Research Paper?

A research paper is a form of writing that provides an in-depth analysis, interpretation, and evaluation of a particular topic. It can be considered as an extended academic essay that students to present their research and writing skills.

Writing a research paper means that the writer demonstrates high knowledge of the topic using strong evidence.

A research paper is a final assignment that is often required to complete the degree or term. It is based on several parts that together form one complete piece of document.

Scoring well in this task is as important as anything. Conducting research and writing a paper is a daunting task. So to make your efforts fruitful, draft it correctly. Learning  how to write a research paper  is essential to succeed in your academic life.

How to Start a Research Paper?

Taking a start on your research paper can give you a callous time, when dealing with it for the first time. Professionals believe that starting a paper is way more complicated than ending it up.

Even if you are a good essay writer, drafting a research paper can be a challenge. Unlike an academic essay, a research paper involves detailed research and knowledge of the topic’s every aspect.

Expert writers have gathered some steps to help the students start writing their complicated research papers. Follow these steps to make the writing process simpler.

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1. Understand the Assignment

To start your research paper, understand the assignment first. Then, carefully read and understand the guidelines provided to know what you are required to present in the paper.

The research paper’s instructions state which format to produce, the paper’s length, and which paper parts to present separately. For example, a few instructors require a separate abstract for the research paper, while others do not.

It is in the guidelines about choosing MLA, APA, Chicago, or Harvard formatting and citation style.

2. Choose a Topic

Once you have understood the assignment, brainstorm ideas for your research topic. Think of issues or topics that interest you or you are passionately talking about. Make sure that your topic is interesting and worth writing a research paper.

A trick to ensure maximum readership of your document is to know who your audience is and what interests them. Moreover, it is also important to determine whether the available information is enough to study your topic or not.

Avoid choosing paper topics for which there are limited sources of information.

3. Conduct Research

Conduct research and gather information. Note down any important piece of information that you think compliments and focuses on your topic. It is essential to keep in mind only to consult reliable resources for your research paper. For example, go through books, journals, previous papers, and other authentic sources to collect information.

At this moment, come up with a research question to give a direction to your research. Moreover, this assignment is solely based on strong information so conduct depth research.

4. Develop a Thesis Statement

The most important element of a research paper is a thesis statement. A thesis statement is part of the introduction section of the document. It is the writer’s stance on the topic on which he persuades the audience.

Although coming up with a thesis statement is time-consuming, do not rush and select the first idea. However, brainstorm and research before you decide on the main argument. Write a thesis statement and provide a structure for your paper.

5. Draft an Outline

Once you have researched and gathered the information on your topic, it is time to create an outline. Your data needs logical ordering to be readable and understandable for the readers.

A research paper has several parts. All of the information is divided among these sections to give your paper a representable structure. Following are the parts of the research paper:

Arranging the information in these sections will let you organize your research, making it persuasive for the readers.

How to Start an Introduction to a Research Paper?

An introduction is the first section of your paper that hooks the reader or motivates them to read the entire document. In this section, the writer introduces the topic and the primary purpose of his research.

Writing the introduction perfectly is the most crucial yet essential step. If your opening paragraph is impressive, the entire paper will fall into place.

To make the introductory paragraphs on point, take a good start and choose appropriate words and phrases. Open your introduction using a relevant and catchy hook statement. Depending on the topic and the field you are drafting a research paper for, choose an engaging statement.

There are various good ideas for your hook statement, such as:

Basically, anything that you feel will entice the audience can be used as a hook statement to open the introductory paragraphs. Make sure to stay focused and precise while drafting an introduction.

The key points of the introductory paragraphs are then elaborated in the rest of the paper, mainly in the body section. Support your thesis statement by presenting all the researched and analyzed information in this chapter.

Research Paper Introduction Example (PDF)

How to Start a Conclusion of a Research Paper?

A concluding paragraph is as important as an introductory paragraph. The success of a research paper depends on a strong opening and an even stronger conclusion.

The concluding paragraph of a research paper consists of a restated thesis statement and the primary research question. It gives closure to the whole discussion and explains how the writer’s claim is proved right.

When drafting a conclusion, keep in mind not to add any new information. The reason being, new ideas and information will only confuse the readers, making the primary purpose vague and implicit.

The purpose of drafting a conclusion section is to tie all loose ends together. Make sure it is well structured and written.

Research Paper Conclusion Example (PDF)

Writing a research paper can be daunting if you haven’t planned the entire process. From the begging till the last bibliography section, each part has a particular significance that can not be overlooked.

Tips for Writing a Research Paper

The following are the tips that every writer should follow when start writing a research paper.

Professionals suggest getting an expert’s help if you are drafting a research paper for the first time. Whether you need help in structuring the paper, developing the bibliography, or proofreading, visit  CollegeEssay.org .

We are the best essay writing service that provides professional assistance to students for all their academic writing needs.

Be it a straightforward  college essay  or a complicated research paper, expert writers can provide custom writing services.

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As a Digital Content Strategist, Nova Allison has eight years of experience in writing both technical and scientific content. With a focus on developing online content plans that engage audiences, Nova strives to write pieces that are not only informative but captivating as well.

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How to Start an Essay: 7 Tips for a Knockout Essay Introduction

Lindsay Kramer

Sometimes, the most difficult part of writing an essay is getting started. You might have an outline already and know what you want to write, but struggle to find the right words to get it going. Don’t worry; you aren’t the first person to grapple with starting an essay, and you certainly won’t be the last. 

Writing an essay isn’t the same as writing a book. Or writing a poem. Or writing a scientific research paper. Essay writing is a unique process that involves clear sequencing, backing up your positions with quality sources, and engaging language. But it’s also got one important thing in common with every other type of writing: You need to hook your reader’s attention within the first few sentences. 

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Intriguing ways to start an essay

There are many different ways to write an essay introduction. Each has its benefits and potential drawbacks, and each is best suited for certain kinds of essays . Although these essay introductions use different rhetorical devices and prime the reader in different ways, they all achieve the same goal: hooking the reader and enticing them to keep reading.

To “hook” a reader simply means to capture their attention and make them want to continue reading your work. An essay introduction that successfully hooks readers in one essay won’t necessarily hook readers in another essay, which is why it’s so important for you to understand why different types of essay openings are effective. 

Take a look at these common ways to start an essay:

Share a shocking or amusing fact

One way to start your essay is with a shocking, unexpected, or amusing fact about the topic you’re covering. This grabs the reader’s attention and makes them want to read further, expecting explanation, context, and/or elaboration on the fact you presented. 

Check out these essay introduction examples that use relevant, engaging facts to capture the reader’s attention:

“More than half of Iceland’s population believe that elves exist or that they possibly can exist. Although this might sound strange to foreigners, many of us have similar beliefs that would sound just as strange to those outside our cultures.”

“Undergraduate students involved in federal work-study programs earn an average of just $1,794 per year. That’s just slightly more than the average rent for a one-bedroom apartment in our city.”

Relevance is key here. Make sure the fact you choose directly relates to the topic you’re covering in your essay. Otherwise, it will feel random, confusing, or at best, shoehorned into the essay. In any case, it will undermine your essay as a whole by making it seem like you don’t have a full grasp on your topic. 

If you’re writing an expository or persuasive essay , including a shocking or amusing fact in your introduction can be a great way to pique your reader’s curiosity. The fact you present can be one that supports the position you argue in the essay or it can be part of the body of data your expository essay explains. 

Ask a question

By asking a question in your essay opening, you’re directly inviting the reader to interact with your work. They don’t get to be a passive consumer; they’re now part of the conversation. This can be a very engaging way to start an essay. 

Take a look at these examples of essay openings that use questions to hook readers:

“How many times have you been late to class because you couldn’t find parking? You’re not alone—our campus is in desperate need of a new parking deck.”

“How frequently do you shop at fast fashion retailers? These retailers include H&M, Zara, Uniqlo and other brands that specialize in inexpensive clothing meant for short-term use.” 

Asking a question is an effective choice for a persuasive essay because it asks the reader to insert themselves into the topic or even pick a side. While it can also work in other kinds of essays, it really shines in any essay that directly addresses the reader and puts them in a position to reflect on what you’re asking. 

Dramatize a scene

Another effective way to write an essay introduction is to dramatize a scene related to your essay. Generally, this approach is best used with creative essays, like personal statements and literary essays. Here are a few examples of essay introductions that immerse readers in the action through dramatized scenes:

“The rain pounded against the roof, loudly drowning out any conversations we attempted to have. I’d promised them I’d play the latest song I wrote for guitar, but Mother Earth prevented any concert from happening that night.”

“Imagine you’ve just gotten off an airplane. You’re hot, you’re tired, you’re uncomfortable, and suddenly, you’re under arrest.”

Beyond creative essays, this kind of opening can work when you’re using emotional appeal to underscore your position in a persuasive essay. It’s also a great tool for a dramatic essay, and could be just the first of multiple dramatized scenes throughout the piece. 

Kick it off with a quote

When you’re wondering how to write an essay introduction, remember that you can always borrow wisdom from other writers. This is a powerful way to kick off any kind of essay. Take a look at these examples:

“‘The past is never dead. It’s not even past.’ —William Faulkner. In his novel Requiem for a Nun , our changing perspective of the past is a primary theme.”

“‘It always seems impossible until it’s done.’ —Nelson Mandela. Before I joined the military, boot camp seemed impossible. But now, it’s done.”

Just as in choosing a fact or statistic to open your essay, any quote you choose needs to be relevant to your essay’s topic . If your reader has to perform a web search for your quote to figure out how it relates to the rest of your essay, it’s not relevant enough to use. Go with another quote that your text can easily explain. 

State your thesis directly

The most straightforward kind of essay introduction is one where you simply state your thesis. Take a look at these examples:

“Fraternity culture is dangerous and contrary to campus values. Banning it is in the campus community’s best interest.”

“We can’t afford to ignore the evidence any longer; we need climate action now.”

By starting your essay like this, you’re cutting right to the chase. Think of it like diving into the deep end of a pool—instead of wading to that deep end, slowly getting acclimated to the water’s temperature along the way, you’re dropping your whole body right into the cold water. An introduction that directly states your thesis can be a great choice for an analytical essay. 

How to write an essay introduction

Pick the right tone for your essay.

You probably shouldn’t use a funny quote to start a persuasive essay on a serious subject. Similarly, a statistic that can evoke strong emotions in the reader might not be the right choice for an expository essay because it could potentially be construed as your attempt to argue for a certain viewpoint, rather than state facts. 

Read your essay’s first paragraph aloud and listen to your writing’s tone. Does the opening line’s tone match the rest of the paragraph, or is there a noticeable tone shift from the first line or two to the rest? In many cases, you can hear whether your tone is appropriate for your essay. Beyond listening for the right tone, use Grammarly’s tone detector to ensure that your essay introduction—as well as the rest of your essay—maintains the right tone for the subject you’re covering.   

When you’re stuck, work backwards

Starting an essay can be difficult. If you find yourself so caught up on how to write an essay introduction that you’re staring at a blank screen as the clock ticks closer to your deadline, skip the introduction and move onto your essay’s body paragraphs . Once you have some text on the page, it can be easier to go back and write an introduction that leads into that content. 

You may even want to start from the very end of your essay. If you know where your essay is going, but not necessarily how it will get there, write your conclusion first. Then, write the paragraph that comes right before your conclusion. Next, write the paragraph before that, working your way backwards until you’re in your introduction paragraph. By then, writing an effective essay introduction should be easy because you already have the content you need to introduce. 

Polish your essays until they shine

Got a draft of a great essay? Awesome! But don’t hit “submit” just yet—you’re only halfway to the finish line. Make sure you’re always submitting your best work by using Grammarly to catch misspelled words, grammar mistakes, and places where you can swap in different words to improve your writing’s clarity. 

how to start an introduction on a research paper

How to Write a Research Introduction: from Pure Title to Hook Sentence

research paper introduction

It is not a secret that most people judge a book by the cover, so if you want your research paper to be read from A to Z, it is important to write a powerful introduction in research paper.

The first paragraph of your work must be catchy, inspiring and interesting, motivating the audience to go on reading. In this article you will learn everything about writing a research paper introduction and achieving outstanding writing results!

Following tips from AssignmentPay's expert team will help you to understand how a research paper introduction should look like and how to help readers enjoy your paper. In case you don’t have enough time or energy to write a research paper introduction, you can always pay for research paper - just contact and get outstanding assistance within a chosen period of time!

What is introduction in research paper?

A good introduction should lead the reader from a generalized topic to a particular aspect. It helps to establish the main idea, context, research importance and summarizes background data on the topic, providing the main goal of the work. In addition it contains hypothesis, a set of discussed questions and used methodology.

Your introduction should also highlight potential results or explain research structure and organization.

If you want to learn how to write a research paper introduction , you should answer three general questions:

What should be in the introduction of a research paper?

Research paper introduction can be one of the most difficult parts to complete. The size of this section depends on the work type you are asked to complete.

Your introduction should define the topic, consist of a context and rationale, as well as of a hypothesis and research questions. A thoughtful introduction sets a tone for the whole paper, grabs attention of the reader and provides thesis statement and hypothesis.

3 Overarching Goals of a Good Introduction

How to write an Introduction?

The best way to get started if you lack information or ideas on writing an introduction is to learn about it online. Following tips of professional writers and tutors you will be able to create an outstanding work, which won’t leave anyone indifferent.

Below you will find the most relevant tips for writing a great research paper introduction.

Select the Topic

This step may be obvious but it plays a crucial part in writing a great research paper. If you select an irrelevant, boring or too general topic, you risk losing motivation and dropping the assignment somewhere in the middle.

Make a list of the matters you are interested in, conduct a research to see whether chosen variants have much credible data online. Cross out options, which can’t be backed with reliable sources or don’t stir up your interest.

Background Information

As any book or movie, introduction aims to set the background and give your assignment a certain context, allowing the reader to see how your work complements previous researches on the similar topic.

That is why first paragraphs of the introduction should explain historical background, describing the first work in the field and other researches that influenced the modern situation.

However, huge amounts of information can make it difficult to fit into several paragraphs, so be careful and provide only the most important information.

Rationale for your work

Rationale is an explanation why you are using a certain film, book or method in your work. The basic elements of a rationale are:

Hook Sentence

A hook sentence is your chance to catch interest of the reader and make him want to learn more after reading the introduction in research paper. Your hook may include:

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Writing a Thesis Statement

If you want to understand how to write an introduction, you should remember about including a thesis statement to your work. Actually, without it your introduction will be meaningless and your teacher will surely ask you to rewrite the whole section.

You need to write a thesis statement, when you are working on the outline. In such a way, you will be able to understand what arguments and sources to use. These few sentences may predetermine the whole course of your future work.

A good thesis statement includes such qualities, as:

‘Downloading books online without any fee is bad and you need to avoid it’. It is a very weak example of a thesis statement, which is not able to stir interest of the audience and prevents from continuing reading.

‘Every time you download a book online without paying for it, huge work and efforts of authors remain unrecognized and make them lose thousands of dollars. It may eventually harm economy and overall wellbeing of the society’.

This example is much better, because it dives deeper into the problem and explains why the issue is relevant not only to a regular person but to the nation as a whole.

Tips for writing Good introduction

Importance of a good introduction is impossible to overestimate, because you will never have another chance to make a positive first impression.

First paragraphs of your research paper give the audience information on quality of chosen arguments, your personal style, as well as on validity of conclusions. If your introduction is weak and lacks structure, it may make the reader want to put your research paper aside.

On contrary, a concise and properly structured introduction will surely make the readers notice your writing and analytical skills, and make them want to go on reading.

Below you will find a few most important tips on writing a powerful introduction, engaging the reader and arising interest of the audience.

Once your introduction is ready, you can proceed with conclusions and bibliography.

Research Paper Introduction Examples

Some students don’t know how to get started or are scared to fail, so they don’t want to try. One of the most simple and free solutions is getting familiar with examples online.

You can download samples of research paper introductions, choose the one you like and write your own paragraphs with ease!

example of research-paper introduction

Not every student can boast writing skills, so there is absolutely nothing wrong in searching for tips online. If you lack time or don’t want to risk your grades, Assignmentpay.com experts are always there to help. Place an order, providing us with specific guidelines and receive a flawless research paper introduction before the indicated deadline.

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how to start an introduction on a research paper

How to Write a Research Paper Introduction Paragraph

04 Feb 2022

Quick Navigation

❓What Is an Introduction Paragraph for Research Paper?

✒️How to Write a Research Paper Introduction?

🚨Common Mistakes and How not to Slip Up

📑Research Paper Introduction Examples

Just like the alphabet begins with the letter “A,” any essay begins with an introduction. When you’re ready to write a research paper, you should start with an opening section. These are not common sentences but ones that form the entire thesis you will explore in the body paragraphs of a research project. You should guide the reader through the topic and present the importance of your university research and its results.

What Is an Introduction Paragraph for Research Paper?

Writing a research paper is a mandatory task in almost any educational specialty. You will definitely have to face this kind of task at some point. We know how difficult it can be to collect your thoughts and start doing work by arranging an introduction. That is why we are ready to come to your aid and tell you in detail the rules, as well as share some useful tips on writing the opening passage. 

The research paper introductions are pieces of information placed at the beginning of the paper. The size of this section depends on the general requirements for the work and usually is about 350-450 words. Moreover, everything you write in the introduction should attract the reader’s curiosity. This part of your work is designed to help the reader identify whether he or she wants to read the paper.

You can get acquainted with the example of an abstract for a research paper . That is why it is incredibly important to approach the writing of this section responsibly and make sure that you manage to clearly and interestingly position your research topic. A well-written research paper introduction will make you more likely to get a high score.

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How to Write a Research Paper Introduction?

After writing your research paper, you will have a broad picture of your entire research and analysis. Being an expert in the research niche of your scientific paper, you will be able to come to valid conclusions and also highlight the main points of your work. This will help you to create an outline, identify the key notions, and include them in the introduction. To increase interest in reading your project, you should also define a hook that can catch the reader.

However, the problem with writing the first section is the difficulty in determining the importance of information. While investigating, you will probably feel that all the data you provide is essential. But to write a good introduction, you need to be concise. Your general erudition of background information, combined with specific knowledge of the general subject area, will help you write a great introduction. There are a few simple guides that can help to make your research paper introduction shine:

1. State Your Research Theme

The first sentences should be common about the general topic, and then you should add some details about your topic. This is called the inverted triangle, when you start a research paper with a broad theme and then narrow it down. Be concise in your presentation of the research problem to avoid any kind of ambiguity. Your study should be presented as a direct continuation of the introduction. It is crucial to keep the narrative logical.

2. Be Original

If you write a dissertation paper in humanities, you can start the introduction with a quotation or even an anecdote. If your academic area is science or medicine, you can write extremely interesting data or even shocking statistics. Such an approach will help you develop an attractive research paper introduction. However, be careful with fact checking and sources. All the statistics you provide must correspond to reality. According to the methodology, shocking research should be done either by you personally or by reputable institutions.

3. Explain Key Terms

You should provide a list of the notions you used and the definitions that you based on to avoid reader confusion. In science, there is a phenomenon when one term can have different interpretations due to the background. Whenever you find yourself in trouble, ask us to write my research paper , and we’ll come to help. Moreover, the glossary will show your knowledge level in the scientific context and help expand the audience that your article may be useful too.

4. Size Is Important

It would help if you chose your ideal length for the introduction. It should be short enough to be readable and gain the reader's attention and long enough to explain all the main features of your essay. And, of course, remember that the size of the introduction should be directly proportional to the size of your study. You need to briefly describe the main sections that your subject includes to guide your reader.

5. Refer to the Keywords

The keywords should be used in the introduction to give a general overview of the research questions. These could be separate words or word combinations which describe your topic. This trick aims to write a research paper that is easier to find. In addition, they help the reader quickly understand the direction of your research, showing the problem and the subject of investigation.

6. Follow the Rules of Logic

You should be consistent in the writing process. As we mentioned in one of the other sections, your work must be holistic. Each new thought should be a continuation of the previous one. A well-elaborated outline may help in solving this research problem. The first passage should logically introduce the reader to the subject and also give a preview of what will be described next. Logical links between sentences will make your text coherent.

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Common Mistakes and How not to Slip Up

As you can already understand, writing a decent introduction is quite a difficult task. You should always keep in mind the purpose of your university research to stay on the topic. We are going to see the most common research problem to be aware of when writing.

When you conduct scientific research, each word you write carries a large amount of necessary information. However, working out a quality introduction, you find out that the size is very limited, and you need to spend time filtering out unnecessary information.

Good introductions are not limited to just a list of data you have received. It is this paragraph that presents the first impression. Try to make it informative and catchy. If you face some problems elaborating witty hooks for a paper, consult a  writing service that can provide you with professional advice.

The problem of inconsistency in the presentation of information appears when you first write the introduction and then the main body of the study. To avoid the error of lack of previous research, follow our advice. Study the background of the hypothesis you have chosen and then describe the results of your research.

Research Paper Introduction Examples

The theory is good, but the practice is quite different. Read our examples to get good ideas from other researchers about how to write an excellent introduction.

Contemporary literary marketing has become digital because of the demands of the online era. Popular best-selling authors such as J. K. Rowling or Dan Brown profit from the internet and use it as a source for advertising to show the audience their creations. On the other hand, many writers find digital literature harmful and destructive for their livelihood because many users can get their books without paying for them. However, more studies reveal that the business side of the book industry is not far from the negative. This research paper will define whether the culture of digital book consumption has to be changed due to the creations of writers becoming worthless due to online piracy and because people have stopped valuing non-digitized books.

The second sample of introduction paragraph is on the topic: “Behavioral Study of the Phenomenon of Obedience”.

Modern theories tend to associate misbehavior and intentional actions that harm others with personal characteristics. The psychologists and doctors in a survey predicted that only a small portion of people (about 1-3%) would intentionally harm someone after being told to do so. A good example of this phenomenon is a recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, who claimed he was only following orders to carry out Nazi war crimes. Therefore, is it possible that people can harm others by only “following orders?” Are people capable of betraying their moral convictions if ordered to do so? During the experiment, we will see whether someone can continue administering painful electric shocks that harm another person simply because he or she is told to do so. It is expected that very few will continue and that most of the participants will not obey the order.

Writing an engaging introduction is not less important than conducting research papers or providing a high-quality context in your issue. In fact, a great intro is even more important for your success! An opening paragraph that attracts attention and keeps the reader engaged is the key to success with this academic work.

The intro is the first thing that a reader sees. It is exactly what helps him or her gets the first impression of your work, which carries their opinion about the merits of your paper while they finish reading it. That’s why it’s so important to get it done right.

How do you create flawless intros for your research papers? These tips and examples in this article should help you deal with this assignment effortlessly while avoiding common mistakes. However, it also requires practice. We encourage students to practice writing as much as they can to master these skills and never face difficulties with writing academic papers again!

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how to start an introduction on a research paper

How to Start an Introduction? Examples from 98,093 Research Papers

The examples below are from 98,093 full-text PubMed research papers that I analyzed in order to explore common ways to start the Introduction section.

The research papers included in this analysis were selected at random from those uploaded to PubMed Central between the years 2016 and 2021. Note that I used the BioC API to download the data (see the References section below).

Examples of how to start an Introduction section

The Introduction should start by describing the general context of your work. Your aim should be to convince the reader that the topic of your research is interesting. [For more information, see: How to Write & Publish a Research Paper: Step-by-Step Guide ]

The Introduction can:

1. Start with a definition

Here, you define or provide an overview of the problem you are about to study.

For example, here’s the beginning of the Introduction section of a study on the mental health status of students:

“The World Health Organization defines mental health as a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.” Source: Taken from the Introduction of t his PubMed article

2. Start by reviewing the results of other studies

Here, you review what is already known about the subject. For example, you can cite some data about the severity of the problem you are about to study.

Here’s the beginning of the Introduction section of a study on the treatment of testicular cancer:

“ According to a publication by the American Cancer Society, there was an estimated 8590 new cases of testicular cancer in the United States in 2012, accounting for only 360 deaths.” Source: Taken from the Introduction of th i s PubMed article

2. Start with a question

In general, the question at the start of the Introduction section should draw the reader’s attention, provide a preview of the aim of your study, and express the significance of your work.

Note however, that it is somewhat uncommon for an introduction to start with a question: in our sample of 98.093 research papers, only 247 (0.25%) papers started their Introduction with a question.

For example, here’s the beginning of the Introduction section of a study whose aim is to explain the way the brain perceives the world:

“ How does the brain interpret information from the senses? This unresolved question carries fundamental importance for neuroscience.” Source: Taken from the Introduction of this PubMed article

Common words used to start an introduction

Further reading

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How to Write an Essay Introduction: Practical Tips to Improve your Writing

Published 17 Feb 2023

How to write an essay introduction

To create high-quality academic papers, learners should know their structure and have exceptional writing skills to produce a compelling essay introduction, body paragraph, and conclusion. The beginning of an essay is crucial, as it presents the author’s argument and tells the audience what to expect. Discover the basics of creating great essay introductions and writing tips to help you succeed in your assignments.

What is the introduction of an essay?

The first essay paragraph and the first thing readers will see in your paper is an essay introduction. What is the purpose of this section? It performs two functions:

There are five introduction requirements in the  essay structure we will consider in detail below:

How long should an introduction be?

There are no strict rules applied to an introductory paragraph. Skilled writers recommend paying attention to the overall length of the essay before defining the introduction length. Thus, while creating a typical five-paragraph essay, it’s better to complete a brief opening clause that doesn’t exceed one paragraph. Still, for longer papers over 30 pages, the introduction can include numerous paragraphs and take up to several pages. On average, the essay introduction length is usually from 8 to 9% of the paper’s total word count.

The typical three parts of an introduction paragraph

There are three parts of an essay introduction: an essay hook, connections, and a thesis statement. Let’s analyze their meaning and features.

1. Essay hook.

It is the best starter for your introduction, focused on grabbing the audience’s attention. A good hook always consists of a single sentence and may include an impressive fact relevant to the topic, quote, question, anecdote, or summary. While working on this element, you should avoid clichés, generalizations, dictionary definitions, and abstract phrases that contain words like “always”, “everywhere”, etc.

Discover five hook types that are the best for catching the reader’s attention.

Write several brief sentences about your life related to the topic, which will work as a great hook, especially in a narrative essay.

“When I gave birth to my first child, I suddenly realized the importance of having the possibility to work part-time from home. There are many benefits of part-time jobs for young mothers, not only for them.”

Delving into numbers is a great method to attract attention, especially when it comes to a persuasive essay.

“According to a recent study, part-time employees are 70% more satisfied with their work-life balance and 40% more likely to stay in the same position, even if they can get a higher salary working full time.”

A perfect method to interest readers is to tell them something they believe, but that is not true.

“Though many think part-time employees are less motivated and productive, this is not true. Due to work-life benefits, such workers are less tired than their colleagues and can work with increased productivity.”

This method is used in narrative and descriptive essays and makes readers imagine situations you’re telling them about.

“Imagine you could work from home 4 hours a day. You would have more free time to spend with your friends and family or enjoy your hobby.”

It’s also possible to begin your essay directly with the main idea you want to convey to your readers.

“I agree that a person satisfied with life and job will work better.”

After choosing the best hook, you should explain your topic and lead your audience to specific points you will consider in the body of an essay.

2. Connections.

When the first sentences are ready and include a hook, it’s time to give your audience a better understanding of what you will analyze in your essay. In this part, you must list your essential points in the same order you’ll disclose in the body paragraph and move on to your thesis statement. In this part of your introduction, try to answer the following questions:

You'll deliver general information about your subject by answering these questions in several brief sentences. Then, move on to the thesis statement. Use an “upside-down triangle” method when a hook is at the top of your introduction; then, provide a larger explanation of the theme and end with a specific claim. Every following sentence from your introduction has to be narrower than the previous one. It allows you to lead your reader gradually to the central part of your essay. 

3. Thesis statement. 

This part of your essay introduction is the most important, as it provides your readers with a summary of your essay’s main idea that will be discussed in the body paragraph. A good thesis statement should be clear, accurate, and disclosed in one sentence at the end of your introductory section.

Steps to write an essay introduction

Step 1. Engage your reader.

Your essay beginning sets the tone for the whole paper. That’s why it’s necessary to put some effort into creating a good hook. Forget about using long, complicated sentences, common statements, and dry facts. You should also avoid dictionary definitions, especially for obvious terms. Instead, start with a concise, catchy hook that will arouse your reader’s curiosity.

Here is an example of a great hook for an essay about the Internet's impact on people:

“Now, the Internet has a world-changing effect: there is no need to rely on a local community to stay in touch with one another.”

Step 2. Give the background information.

Your audience should know the context to understand your topic and your thoughts better. Let’s see what type of context you may use:

Deliver your background information without too many details. Just mention some points without their interpretation and return to them later in the body of your essay. The volume of this section depends on the topic and the number of pages of the whole essay.

“The Internet facilitates a global dialogue by connecting people from all over the world. It has brought considerable societal changes, from economic development to cultural exchange. It has opened many new ways of communicating and thinking by giving access to endless sources of information.”

Step 3. Expose your thesis statement.

Now, you should narrow your focus and explain what you will say in the next section. The thesis statement is the most important part of your introduction. It has to include one or two sentences summarizing your argument and conveying your viewpoint.

“There are positive and negative effects of the Internet on society.”

Step 4. Draft your essay structure.

Take your time to think about the structure of an essay introduction. If you write an expanded research paper, it’s better to finish the opening paragraph by indicating what will be explained in each section of your work. After reading the introduction, the audience should clearly understand your argument's direction.

“This essay is focused on discussing the influence of the Internet on global society. First, it describes the role of the wide world web for people and the changes it has brought. Then, it explores the positive and negative impacts of the Internet on our lives.”

Step 5. Revise your text carefully.

When you learn new information, your research focus may change. That’s why a great solution is to take your time with your introductory paragraph until the whole work is done. Make some notes about your introduction and return to it when the body and conclusion are ready. In such a way, your first paragraph will best match the content of your essay.

On our website, you may also find practical recommendations on  how to write a conclusion for an essay and the steps to take to produce an outstanding research paper.

Essay introduction samples for different essay types

Opening paragraphs usually have an identical structure, but their content may differ depending on the essay type and purpose. Discover some essay introduction examples for different essay types.

The essential purpose of an author is to tell a story. It comes with an intriguing hook. Every claim from the introduction should be related to the critical moments in the story and have an impact on the story’s outcome. Narrative writing also differs from other essay types by the thesis statement.

“In April 2010, John Bell found himself, at 40, divorced, with no home, no children, and alone in a tiny boat in the Atlantic Ocean. His mobile phone had stopped working, and he’d had no contact with people for weeks. He thought about how it had happened that he’d lost everything and had no idea what to do.”

A personal essay is a creative nonfiction writing that presents the author’s reflections on their personal experience and tells about the lessons this experience taught. A question, relevant quote, or joke will be great hooks. Then, writers should briefly explain the story’s background and tell what they learned from these experiences.

“Can you tell me something about yourself?” It’s the most challenging question for me. Many people consider it an opportunity to share their achievements with others, but not me. Still, I would try to say some words about myself in the best way possible. I’ll begin with my background and student life, then tell you about who I am and how others see me.”

An analytical essay is focused on educating the audience about a particular subject. A great hook for this type is an informative sentence or rhetorical question, which gives the readers hints on the essay’s main point. In the middle of the paper, three pieces of information should confirm the thesis statement.

“What does it mean to be vegetarian? It’s widely accepted that a plant-based diet gives many benefits. Eating animal products carries considerable health risks, whereas a rich plant-based diet prevents and can even treat many modern diseases, including hypertension and cancer. Let’s see what advantages we get when removing animal products from our diet.”

This type of paper is aimed at persuading readers of something. An interesting fact can serve as a perfect hook and the basis for further argumentation. Then, it’s time to deliver three supporting facts that will gradually lead the audience to the main topic. Completing a thesis statement requires summarizing the point of persuasion for the whole text.

“The popularity of online education is constantly growing due to its easy operation and convenience. Still, despite many advantages, the online study system has some disadvantages. In our essay, we’ll investigate the benefits students get from choosing virtual education.” 

Writing tips to create a perfect introduction

Now you know how to write an essay introduction and have some examples to start working with. Discover the key recommendations on what to do and not to do when completing your introduction.


Do you need writing help when creating an introduction? Hopefully, there is a great solution for you. Edubirdie is here to provide expert assistance. Due to our team, you’ll get to know how to write an introduction for an essay and achieve the best results. We’ll give you valuable recommendations, provide a good introduction sample and polish your content to perfection. Do not hesitate to send us your request; qualified writers will instantly cover all your writing needs.

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Guide on How to Write a Research Paper Introduction

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Research Paper Introduction – Definition

The research paper introduction arrests the reader’s attention from a general perspective to one specific area of a study. It outlines a summary of the research being conducted by condensing current understanding and background information about the topic, presenting the importance of the research in the form of a hypothesis, research questions , or research problem. It also outlines the methodological approach touching the likely outcomes that your study can reveal, and describing the remaining structure of the research paper.

Research paper introduction in academic writing is widely used in the presentation of a thesis and academic work. This article highlights the best ways to go about writing a captivating introduction to help you fine-tune your writing skills at the introductory level.

What is the purpose of a research paper introduction?

It establishes the depth, the context, and the importance of the research by summarizing and bringing the reader’s attention to your thesis. The research topic should be clear from the get-go. The introduction needs to draw in the reader whilst summarizing for them what it is that they’re about to read.

How do you start a research paper introduction?

You start the introduction of the research paper by presenting what your research paper is about. You’ll need some great sentence starters and transition words because your introduction needs to be well written in order to envoke the reader’s interest. Don’t forget to create some context and inform the reader about the research you have carried out.

How do you write a research paper introduction?

Draft your introduction on a piece of paper and edit it extensively before you add it to the final copy of your research paper. Be sure to refer to the research paper outline that you created before you started writing. Your sentences should be short and precise. It’s also important that you do not oversell your ideas at this point- remember that you’re still trying to draw the reader in.

What do you include in a research paper introduction?

You should highlight the key aspects of your thesis. It’s important that your thesis statement is placed towards the end of your research paper introduction. You are essentially briefly introducing the reader to concepts that they will come across in your research work.

How do you write a research paper introduction to a scientific research paper?

The information included in a scientific research paper introduction is very similar to what you would include in any other research paper . However, the overall structure of a scientific research paper is a bit different as you’ll need to include sections like ‘materials’ and ‘scientific processes’. Your introduction to a scientific research paper should highlight sufficient background information on the experiment that you did, making it easy for readers to understand and evaluate your research work.

What is the rationale in the research paper introduction?

The rationale for research is the highlight of why your research topic is worthy of the study and experimentation and how it adds value to already existing research works. You will probably need to bury yourself in books, do your research in the library and undertake descriptive research for your specific field. You need to become an expert in your chosen field and you should know exactly what you are contributing to the academic community with your research.

Tip: Read about the different parts of a research paper for a full rundown of which parts go where.

Research Paper Introduction: Structure

The structure of a research paper introduction should contain the main goal and the objective of the research. It should be a concise but enlightening outline of the soon-after context. Here you are required to state your rationale or reasons why you want to major into a particular subject or instead what problems you seek to solve in the subject matter.

Therefore, you need  comprehensible argumentation to emphasize the importance of your research topic to your reader. In addition, you want to excite the readers curiosity for the subject. Below you will find the prime points to create a convincing research paper introduction.

The Do’s and Don’ts

One of the things that should be evident throughout your research paper introduction is honesty to your readers. This will go a long way in establishing a piece of research work that can be relied on by other students and researchers in the future. You will also not find it hard explaining the rest of the research paper to the panellists.

Research paper introduction Do`s

• Your research paper introduction should be short, accurate and precise. Don´t tell stories at the introductory level of your research.

• Pick-point the ideas you want to talk about and the methodologies that you have derived from the course work for you to solve the hindrances that you encountered on the ground.

• Refer to diverse research paper introduction works and make sure to look for up-to-date researches for your thesis.

• Provide tangible shreds of evidence and supporting arguments to blueprint your findings, and at least prove the fact that what you are presenting is well researched as well as authentic.

• Find it worth to include relevant terms, may it be scientific or mathematical or even theological.

• Always remember to proofread your work.

• Scrutinize your research paper introduction before presentation for reliability and present it with utmost logic to show how it supports your research and not a mere throwing in of figures.

Research paper introduction Don`ts

• Do not try explaining ideas that do not answer your research questions . This is a mere waste of time and will not lead to any new conclusion about your research paper introduction work.

• Do not write a lengthy research paper introduction. What will you write in the rest of the paper if you tell it all here?

• Do not state incomplete reasons for carrying out the research. You want to be as convincing as possible in your research paper introduction.

• Do not exceed the stated word limit. It brings about the fact that you do not know what you are talking about, instead, you present yourself as a bluff.

• Do not plagiarize your research paper introduction, just like any other portion of your research work. Check this before any submissions. Make sure all the hypothetical findings are genuine and unique.

Research Paper Introduction: Example

Research Paper Introduction Example

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

The introduction leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular topic of inquiry. It establishes the scope, context, and significance of the research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of the research problem supported by a hypothesis or a set of questions, explaining briefly the methodological approach used to examine the research problem, highlighting the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and outlining the remaining structure and organization of the paper.

Key Elements of the Research Proposal. Prepared under the direction of the Superintendent and by the 2010 Curriculum Design and Writing Team. Baltimore County Public Schools.

Importance of a Good Introduction

Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for the reader these four questions:

According to Reyes, there are three overarching goals of a good introduction: 1) ensure that you summarize prior studies about the topic in a manner that lays a foundation for understanding the research problem; 2) explain how your study specifically addresses gaps in the literature, insufficient consideration of the topic, or other deficiency in the literature; and, 3) note the broader theoretical, empirical, and/or policy contributions and implications of your research.

A well-written introduction is important because, quite simply, you never get a second chance to make a good first impression. The opening paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions. A vague, disorganized, or error-filled introduction will create a negative impression, whereas, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will lead your readers to think highly of your analytical skills, your writing style, and your research approach. All introductions should conclude with a brief paragraph that describes the organization of the rest of the paper.

Hirano, Eliana. “Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian, Portuguese, and English.” English for Specific Purposes 28 (October 2009): 240-250; Samraj, B. “Introductions in Research Articles: Variations Across Disciplines.” English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002): 1–17; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide. Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70; Reyes, Victoria. Demystifying the Journal Article. Inside Higher Education.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  Structure and Approach

The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader:

Think of the structure of the introduction as an inverted triangle of information that lays a foundation for understanding the research problem. Organize the information so as to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow your analysis to more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your research problem and the rationale for studying it [often written as a series of key questions to be addressed or framed as a hypothesis or set of assumptions to be tested] and, whenever possible, a description of the potential outcomes your study can reveal.

These are general phases associated with writing an introduction: 1.  Establish an area to research by:

2.  Identify a research niche by:

3.  Place your research within the research niche by:

NOTE:   It is often useful to review the introduction late in the writing process. This is appropriate because outcomes are unknown until you've completed the study. After you complete writing the body of the paper, go back and review introductory descriptions of the structure of the paper, the method of data gathering, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion. Reviewing and, if necessary, rewriting the introduction ensures that it correctly matches the overall structure of your final paper.

II.  Delimitations of the Study

Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your research . This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions you make about how to investigate the research problem. In other words, not only should you tell the reader what it is you are studying and why, but you must also acknowledge why you rejected alternative approaches that could have been used to examine the topic.

Obviously, the first limiting step was the choice of research problem itself. However, implicit are other, related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected. These should be noted in the conclusion of your introduction. For example, a delimitating statement could read, "Although many factors can be understood to impact the likelihood young people will vote, this study will focus on socioeconomic factors related to the need to work full-time while in school." The point is not to document every possible delimiting factor, but to highlight why previously researched issues related to the topic were not addressed.

Examples of delimitating choices would be:

Review each of these decisions. Not only do you clearly establish what you intend to accomplish in your research, but you should also include a declaration of what the study does not intend to cover. In the latter case, your exclusionary decisions should be based upon criteria understood as, "not interesting"; "not directly relevant"; “too problematic because..."; "not feasible," and the like. Make this reasoning explicit!

NOTE:   Delimitations refer to the initial choices made about the broader, overall design of your study and should not be confused with documenting the limitations of your study discovered after the research has been completed.

ANOTHER NOTE : Do not view delimitating statements as admitting to an inherent failing or shortcoming in your research. They are an accepted element of academic writing intended to keep the reader focused on the research problem by explicitly defining the conceptual boundaries and scope of your study. It addresses any critical questions in the reader's mind of, "Why the hell didn't the author examine this?"

III.  The Narrative Flow

Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction :

IV.  Engaging the Reader

A research problem in the social sciences can come across as dry and uninteresting to anyone unfamiliar with the topic . Therefore, one of the goals of your introduction is to make readers want to read your paper. Here are several strategies you can use to grab the reader's attention:

NOTE:   It is important that you choose only one of the suggested strategies for engaging your readers. This avoids giving an impression that your paper is more flash than substance and does not distract from the substance of your study.

Freedman, Leora  and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Introductions. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide . Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70; Resources for Writers: Introduction Strategies. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick; Samraj, B. “Introductions in Research Articles: Variations Across Disciplines.” English for Specific Purposes 21 (2002): 1–17; Swales, John and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Skills and Tasks . 2nd edition. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004 ; Writing Your Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University.

Writing Tip

Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction

Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific terminology that readers may be unfamiliar with. However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source because it doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term or concept may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, use a subject specific dictionary or encyclopedia [e.g., if you are a sociology student, search for dictionaries of sociology]. A good database for obtaining definitive definitions of concepts or terms is Credo Reference .

Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.

Another Writing Tip

When Do I Begin?

A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "Where should I begin?" An equally important question to ask yourself is, "When do I begin?" Research problems in the social sciences rarely rest in isolation from history. Therefore, it is important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem. However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that illustrates the study's overall importance. For example, a study that investigates coffee cultivation and export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important. You do not need to give a long historical explanation about coffee exports in Africa. If a research problem requires a substantial exploration of the historical context, do this in the literature review section. In your introduction, make note of this as part of the "roadmap" [see below] that you use to describe the organization of your paper.

Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; “Writing Introductions.” In Good Essay Writing: A Social Sciences Guide . Peter Redman. 4th edition. (London: Sage, 2011), pp. 63-70.

Yet Another Writing Tip

Always End with a Roadmap

The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a brief description of the rest of the paper [the "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect. A roadmap is important because it helps the reader place the research problem within the context of their own perspectives about the topic. In addition, concluding your introduction with an explicit roadmap tells the reader that you have a clear understanding of the structural purpose of your paper. In this way, the roadmap acts as a type of promise to yourself and to your readers that you will follow a consistent and coherent approach to addressing the topic of inquiry. Refer to it often to help keep your writing focused and organized.

Cassuto, Leonard. “On the Dissertation: How to Write the Introduction.” The Chronicle of Higher Education , May 28, 2018; Radich, Michael. A Student's Guide to Writing in East Asian Studies . (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Writing n. d.), pp. 35-37.

How to Write an Introduction for a Psychology Paper

Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.

how to start an introduction on a research paper

Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

how to start an introduction on a research paper

The purpose of an introduction in a psychology paper is to justify the reasons for writing about your topic. Your goal in this section is to introduce the topic to the reader, provide an overview of previous research on the topic, and identify your own hypothesis . 

Before you begin:

Start Your Psychology Paper Introduction by Researching Your Topic

Search a journal database, such as PsychInfo or ERIC, to find articles on your subject. Once you have located an article, look at the reference section to locate other studies cited in the article. As you take notes from these articles, be sure to write down where you found the information.

A simple note detailing the author's name, journal, and date of publication can help you keep track of sources and avoid plagiarism.

Create a Detailed Outline

This is often one of the most boring and onerous steps, so students tend to skip outlining and go straight to writing. Creating an outline might seem tedious, but it can be an enormous time-saver down the road and will make the writing process much easier. Start by looking over the notes you made during the research process and consider how you want to present all of your ideas and research.

Introduce the Topic

Once you are ready to write your introduction, your first task is to provide a brief description of the research question. What is the experiment or study attempting to demonstrate? What phenomena are you studying? Provide a brief history of your topic and explain how it relates to your current research.

As you are introducing your topic, consider what makes it important. Why should it matter to your reader? The goal of your introduction is not only to let your reader know what your paper is about, but also to justify why it is important for them to learn more.

If your paper tackles a controversial subject and is focused on resolving the issue, it is important to summarize both sides of the controversy in a fair and impartial way. Consider how your paper fits in with the relevant research on the topic.

Summarize Previous Research

The second task of your introduction is to provide a well-rounded summary of previous research that is relevant to your topic. So, before you begin to write this summary, it is important to research your topic thoroughly.

Finding appropriate sources amid thousands of journal articles can be a daunting task, but there are several steps you can take to simplify your research. If you have completed the initial steps of researching and keeping detailed notes, writing your introduction will come much easier.

It is important to give the reader a good overview of the historical context of the issue you are writing about, but do not feel like you have to provide an exhaustive review of the subject. Focus on hitting the main points, and try to include the most relevant studies. You might describe the findings of previous research and then explain how the current study differs or expands upon earlier research.

Provide Your Hypothesis

Once you have summarized the previous research, explain areas where the research is lacking or potentially flawed. What is missing from previous studies on your topic? What research questions have yet to be answered? Your hypothesis should lead to these questions.

At the end of your introduction, offer your hypothesis and describe what you expected to find in your experiment or study.

Tips for Writing Your Psychology Paper Intro

American Psychological Association. Information Recommended for Inclusion in Manuscripts That Report New Data Collections Regardless of Research Design . Published 2020.

By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.

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Best Nursing Research Topics In 2023

Nursing research topics.

Nursing research covers a vast array of topics, ranging from the study of clinical practices and patient outcomes to the exploration of health policy and the social determinants of health. Some of the most popular nursing research topics include patient safety and quality of care, nursing education and training, chronic disease management, mental health and wellness, and the use of technology in healthcare delivery. Other relevant research areas include ethical issues in nursing practice, cultural competence in healthcare, palliative and end-of-life care, and the impact of healthcare policies and regulations on nursing practice. With the ongoing evolution of healthcare and nursing practices, nursing research remains a vital area of study for advancing patient care and promoting the well-being of individuals and communities.

Nursing Research Paper: Definition

A nursing research paper is a scholarly article that presents the results of a study or investigation on a specific topic related to nursing. Nursing research papers typically follow a standardized format, including an abstract, introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion sections. The purpose of a nursing research paper is to contribute to the body of knowledge in nursing by identifying new evidence-based practices or interventions, addressing gaps in existing research, and informing nursing practice, education, and policy. Nursing research papers may be quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods studies, and may involve the collection and analysis of data from various sources, including patients, healthcare providers, and healthcare organizations.

How to Choose a Good Topic for Nursing Research?

Choosing a good topic for nursing research is a crucial step towards conducting a successful and meaningful study. Here are some tips to help you choose a good topic for nursing research:

By following these tips, you can choose a good topic for nursing research that is relevant, feasible, and aligned with your interests and goals.

50 Popular Nursing Research Topics

Women’s Health Nursing Research Topics

Childhood Nursing Research Topics

Midwifery Nursing Research Topics

Final Words

In conclusion, nursing research topics cover a wide range of issues and areas of healthcare, from promoting preventative care and healthy behaviors, to addressing health disparities, improving patient outcomes, and advancing nursing practice. By exploring these topics through research, nurses can help to advance the field of healthcare and improve the quality of care provided to patients and their families. It is important for nurses to select research topics that align with their interests, expertise, and goals for advancing their nursing practice. Ultimately, the aim of nursing research is to provide evidence-based knowledge and insights that can inform nursing practice, improve patient outcomes, and contribute to the advancement of the nursing profession.

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How to Start a Research Paper

Last Updated: December 23, 2022 References

This article was co-authored by Matthew Snipp, PhD . C. Matthew Snipp is the Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford Professor of Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Stanford University. He is also the Director for the Institute for Research in the Social Science’s Secure Data Center. He has been a Research Fellow at the U.S. Bureau of the Census and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He has published 3 books and over 70 articles and book chapters on demography, economic development, poverty and unemployment. He is also currently serving on the National Institute of Child Health and Development’s Population Science Subcommittee. He holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin—Madison. There are 19 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 310,258 times.

A research paper employs primary sources/data to support a thesis statement. It is a type of persuasive essay used frequently in science, literature, and history curricula. Regardless of your level of education and chosen field, you'll need to follow a few simple steps to get your research paper off the ground. You'll need to decide on a topic, formulate a thesis statement, conduct research, organize your findings, and then set pen to paper or fingers to keyboard.

Sample Research Papers

how to start an introduction on a research paper

Deciding on a Topic

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Constructing a Thesis

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Performing Research

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Starting Your Research Paper

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Drafting Your Research Paper

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About This Article

Matthew Snipp, PhD

To start a research paper, start by crafting a broad, factual statement about your subject to pull readers in before introducing your thesis. For example, if you’re writing about the role of famers in the American Revolution, make a blanket statement about the complex causes of the revolutionary movement. Alternatively, begin with a true story, such as an attack by a family on a British soldier quartered with them for eating all their bread. Then, return to the story periodically throughout your paper to illustrate the key points of your thesis. For more tips from our English co-author, including how to decide on a topic and formulate a thesis, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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APA Style Introduction

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This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Note:  This page reflects the 6th edition of the APA manual, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .

These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

APA Overview and Workshop

This workshop provides an overview of APA (American Psychological Association) style and where to find help with different APA resources. It provides an annotated list of links to all of our APA materials and an APA overview. It is an excellent place to start to learn about APA format.

APA Formatting and Style Guide

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th  edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th  ed., 2 nd  printing).

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).

Writing an Introduction for a Scientific Paper

Dr. michelle harris, dr. janet batzli, biocore.

This section provides guidelines on how to construct a solid introduction to a scientific paper including background information, study question , biological rationale, hypothesis , and general approach . If the Introduction is done well, there should be no question in the reader’s mind why and on what basis you have posed a specific hypothesis.

Broad Question : based on an initial observation (e.g., “I see a lot of guppies close to the shore. Do guppies like living in shallow water?”). This observation of the natural world may inspire you to investigate background literature or your observation could be based on previous research by others or your own pilot study. Broad questions are not always included in your written text, but are essential for establishing the direction of your research.

Background Information : key issues, concepts, terminology, and definitions needed to understand the biological rationale for the experiment. It often includes a summary of findings from previous, relevant studies. Remember to cite references, be concise, and only include relevant information given your audience and your experimental design. Concisely summarized background information leads to the identification of specific scientific knowledge gaps that still exist. (e.g., “No studies to date have examined whether guppies do indeed spend more time in shallow water.”)

Testable Question : these questions are much more focused than the initial broad question, are specific to the knowledge gap identified, and can be addressed with data. (e.g., “Do guppies spend different amounts of time in water <1 meter deep as compared to their time in water that is >1 meter deep?”)

Biological Rationale : describes the purpose of your experiment distilling what is known and what is not known that defines the knowledge gap that you are addressing. The “BR” provides the logic for your hypothesis and experimental approach, describing the biological mechanism and assumptions that explain why your hypothesis should be true.

The biological rationale is based on your interpretation of the scientific literature, your personal observations, and the underlying assumptions you are making about how you think the system works. If you have written your biological rationale, your reader should see your hypothesis in your introduction section and say to themselves, “Of course, this hypothesis seems very logical based on the rationale presented.”

***Special note on avoiding social justifications: You should not overemphasize the relevance of your experiment and the possible connections to large-scale processes. Be realistic and logical —do not overgeneralize or state grand implications that are not sensible given the structure of your experimental system. Not all science is easily applied to improving the human condition. Performing an investigation just for the sake of adding to our scientific knowledge (“pure or basic science”) is just as important as applied science. In fact, basic science often provides the foundation for applied studies.

Hypothesis / Predictions : specific prediction(s) that you will test during your experiment. For manipulative experiments, the hypothesis should include the independent variable (what you manipulate), the dependent variable(s) (what you measure), the organism or system , the direction of your results, and comparison to be made.

If you are doing a systematic observation , your hypothesis presents a variable or set of variables that you predict are important for helping you characterize the system as a whole, or predict differences between components/areas of the system that help you explain how the system functions or changes over time.

Experimental Approach : Briefly gives the reader a general sense of the experiment, the type of data it will yield, and the kind of conclusions you expect to obtain from the data. Do not confuse the experimental approach with the experimental protocol . The experimental protocol consists of the detailed step-by-step procedures and techniques used during the experiment that are to be reported in the Methods and Materials section.

Some Final Tips on Writing an Introduction

Where Do You Discuss Pilot Studies? Many times it is important to do pilot studies to help you get familiar with your experimental system or to improve your experimental design. If your pilot study influences your biological rationale or hypothesis, you need to describe it in your Introduction. If your pilot study simply informs the logistics or techniques, but does not influence your rationale, then the description of your pilot study belongs in the Materials and Methods section.  

How will introductions be evaluated? The following is part of the rubric we will be using to evaluate your papers.

Transferring Scientific Knowledge to Academic Startups: the Moderating Effect of the Dual Identity of Academic Entrepreneurs on Forming Knowledge Depth and Knowledge Breadth

Journal of the Knowledge Economy ( 2023 ) Cite this article

Metrics details

This paper explores the mechanism for knowledge transfer of academic entrepreneurs by using the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE) and identity theory. We classified academic entrepreneurs into two distinct hybrid types, “hybrid scientists” and “hybrid entrepreneurs,” based on different identity centralities and conducted an empirical study on the relationship among academic entrepreneurs’ scientific knowledge, the two dimensions of their firms’ knowledge base (knowledge depth and knowledge breadth), and their various hybrid roles. This study involving 176 academic start-ups from National Equities Exchange and Quotations (NEEQ) in China discovered that academic entrepreneurs’ scientific knowledge positively contributes to the emergence of academic start-ups’ knowledge base. The different dual identities moderately affect the relationship between academic entrepreneurs’ scientific knowledge and their firms’ knowledge depth and breadth. The results suggest that academic entrepreneurs who are also “hybrid scientists” can positively promote the development of the firms’ knowledge breadth, and the “hybrid entrepreneurs” deepen the knowledge depth of academic start-ups.

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Data Availability

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Chen, Y., Liu, W., Sindakis, S. et al. Transferring Scientific Knowledge to Academic Startups: the Moderating Effect of the Dual Identity of Academic Entrepreneurs on Forming Knowledge Depth and Knowledge Breadth. J Knowl Econ (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-023-01110-5

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